Paul Mulholland

Paul Mulholland
The Open University (UK) · Knowledge Media Institute

About

179
Publications
26,971
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1,566
Citations
Featured research
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The SPICE project builds on the growing trend for museums, rather than providing an authoritative view, to present multiple voices related to their collection and exhibitions. In SPICE, an approach we term citizen curation is proposed as a way of supporting visitors to share their own interpretations of museum objects and reflect on the variety of interpretations contributed by others. In order to capture a wide range of voices, interfaces will be designed specifically to engage minority groups that tend to be under-represented in cultural activities. To achieve this goal, the interface will need to be intuitive, aesthetic and accessible for different audiences. The paper presents the challenges we face and initial proposals for engaging visitors in citizen curation. CCS CONCEPTS • Information systems → Asynchronous editors.
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge representation languages are frequently difficult to understand, particularly for those not trained in formal logic. This is the case for Description Logics, which have been adopted for knowledge representation on the Web and in a number of application areas. This work looks at the difficulties experienced with Description Logics; and in particular with the widely-used Manchester OWL Syntax, which employs natural language keywords. The work comprises three studies. The first two identify a number of difficulties which users experience, e.g. with negated intersection, functional properties, the use of subproperties and restrictions. Insights from cognitive psychology and the study of language are applied to understand these difficulties. Whilst these difficulties are in part inherent in reasoning about logic, and Description Logics in particular, they are made worse by the syntax. In the third study, alternative syntactic constructs are proposed which demonstrate some improvement in accuracy and efficiency of comprehension. In addition to proposing alternative syntactic constructs, the work makes some suggestions regarding training and support systems for Description Logics.
Article
Full-text available
A central challenge for science educators is to enable young people to act as scientists by gathering and assessing evidence, conducting experiments and engaging in informed debate. We report the design of the nQuire toolkit, a system to support scripted personal inquiry learning, and a study of its use with school students aged 11-14. This differs from previous work on inquiry learning by its emphasis on learners investigating topics of personal significance supported by a computer-based toolkit to guide school pupils through an entire inquiry process that connects structured learning in the classroom with discovery and data collection at home or outdoors. Findings from the studies indicate that the toolkit was successfully adopted by teachers and pupils in contexts that include teacher-directed lessons, an after-school club, field trips, and learner-managed homework. It effectively supported the transition between individual, group and whole class activities, and supported learning across formal and non-formal settings. We discuss issues raised by the intervention studies, including how the combination of technology and pedagogic approach provided support for the teacher, despite difficulties in managing the technology and integrating field data into a classroom lesson. We also discuss the difficulty of altering young people’s attitudes to science.
Article
Risk assessment methods are used to map the threat posed by organised crime and assist in the prioritisation of policing resources. Within policing, risk assessment methods are currently in use that either focus on the attributes of organised crime groups or the types of harm posed. Statistical analysis was undertaken of risk assessment data produced using one attribute-focused and one harm-focused method. The study was based on a non-random sample of 113 attribute-focused and 77 harm-focused risk assessments of the same 17 OCGs, and a sub-sample of 36 pairs of risk assessments of 16 of the OCGs. A moderate correlation was found between the two methods, despite differences in their risk assessment processes. Lower levels of agreement tended to be associated OCGs posing high levels of harm, particularly financial and psychological. Using the two risk assessment methods in combination is proposed as a way of building consensus that draws on their alternative perspectives. The techniques applied in this analysis could be used to inform revisions to the methods and their supporting materials, identify outlying risk assessments, and potentially incorporate other information sources such as harm indices.

Publications

Publications (174)
Article
Full-text available
A central challenge for science educators is to enable young people to act as scientists by gathering and assessing evidence, conducting experiments and engaging in informed debate. We report the design of the nQuire toolkit, a system to support scripted personal inquiry learning, and a study of its use with school students aged 11-14. This differs...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge representation languages are frequently difficult to understand, particularly for those not trained in formal logic. This is the case for Description Logics, which have been adopted for knowledge representation on the Web and in a number of application areas. This work looks at the difficulties experienced with Description Logics; and in...
Article
Risk assessment methods are used to map the threat posed by organised crime and assist in the prioritisation of policing resources. Within policing, risk assessment methods are currently in use that either focus on the attributes of organised crime groups or the types of harm posed. Statistical analysis was undertaken of risk assessment data produc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The SPICE project builds on the growing trend for museums, rather than providing an authoritative view, to present multiple voices related to their collection and exhibitions. In SPICE, an approach we term citizen curation is proposed as a way of supporting visitors to share their own interpretations of museum objects and reflect on the variety of...
Chapter
We discuss the potential of a mobile app for news tips to local newspapers to be augmented with artificial intelligence. It can be designed to encourage deliberative, consensus-oriented contributions from citizens. We presume that such an app will generate news stories from multi-modal data in the form of photos, videos, text elements, location inf...
Preprint
Full-text available
This study compares participant acceptance of the property graph and edge-labelled graph paradigms, as represented by Cypher and the proposed extensions to the W3C standards, RDF* and SPARQL*. In general, modelling preferences are consistent across the two paradigms. When presented with location information, participants preferred to create nodes t...
Article
Digital archives of memory institutions are typically concerned with the cataloguing of artefacts of artistic, historical, and cultural value. Recently, new forms of citizen participation in cultural heritage have emerged, producing a wealth of material spanning from visitors’ experiential feedback on exhibitions and cultural artefacts to digitally...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Semantic Web research community understood since its beginning how crucial it is to equip practitioners with methods to transform non-RDF resources into RDF. Proposals focus on either engineering content transformations or accessing non-RDF resources with SPARQL. Existing solutions require users to learn specific mapping languages (e.g. RML), t...
Conference Paper
Contemporary theories of social cohesion emphasize the importance of people accepting and appreciating differences across social groups. The SPICE project aims to promote social cohesion by researching and developing tools and methods to support citizen curation for groups at risk of exclusion. We define citizen curation as a process in which citiz...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Semantic Web research community understood since its beginning how crucial it is to equip practitioners with methods to transform non-RDF resources into RDF. Proposals focus on either engineering content transformations or accessing non-RDF resources with SPARQL. Existing solutions require users to learn specific mapping languages (e.g. RML), t...
Article
Full-text available
Shedding is a term used to describe a musical conversation between drummers with the aim to improve their drumming vocabulary, gain confidence in real-time trading of musical ideas, develop an understanding for their original voice on the drum kit and enjoy the process of exploring creativity with a fellow drummer. However, in practice drummers hav...
Chapter
This study investigated difficulties in the comprehension of SPARQL. In particular, it compared the declarative and navigational styles present in the language, and various operators used in SPARQL property paths. The study involved participants selecting possible answers given a SPARQL query and knowledgebase. In general, no significant difference...
Article
Nonlinear dynamic processes are fundamental to the behavior of acoustic musical instruments, as is well explored in the case of sound production. Such processes may have profound and under-explored implications for how musicians interact with instruments, however. Although nonlinear dynamic processes are ubiquitous in acoustic instruments, they are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigated difficulties in the comprehension of SPARQL. In particular, it compared the declarative and navigational styles present in the language, and various operators used in SPARQL property paths. The study involved participants selecting possible answers given a SPARQL query and knowledgebase. In general, no significant difference...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder that results in the death of brain cells. HD symptoms generally start with subtle changes in mood and mental abilities; they then degenerate progressively, ensuing a general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait, ultimately resulting in death. There is currently no cure for H...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Movement analysis in a clinical setting is frequently restricted to observational methods to inform clinical decision making, which has limited accuracy. Fixed-site, optical, expensive movement analysis laboratories provide gold standard kinematic measurements; however, they are rarely accessed for routine clinical use. Wearable inertia...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Huntington’s Disease (HD) is an inherited genetic disorder that results in the death of brain cells. HD symptoms generally start with subtle changes in mood and mental abilities and degenerate progressively, ensuing a general lack of coordination and an unsteady gait, ultimately resulting in death. There is currently no cure for HD. Walk...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Movement analysis in the clinical setting is frequently restricted to observational methods to inform clinical decision making, which has limited accuracy. Fixed-site optical expensive movement analysis laboratories provide ‘gold-standard’ kinematic measurements, however they are rarely accessed for routine clinical use. Wearable inertia...
Article
Full-text available
Open Educational Resources (OERs), now available in large numbers, have a considerable potential to improve many aspects of society, yet one of the factors limiting this positive impact is the difficulty to discover them. This study investigates and proposes strategies to better support educators in discovering OERs, mainly focusing on secondary ed...
Article
This special issue celebrates the 50th anniversary of the International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS), which published its first volume in January 1969. The special issue comprises 15 contributions from a number of experts in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and other areas relevant to IJHCS. These contributions are best characterized a...
Article
Full-text available
Nonlinear dynamical processes play a central role in many acoustic instruments, yet they rarely feature in digital instruments, and are little understood from an interaction design perspective. Such processes exhibit behaviours that are complex, time-dependent, and chaotic, yet in the context of acoustic instruments can facilitate interactions that...
Poster
Full-text available
Personalised physiotherapy using wearables.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In a straightforward meta-level shift of focus, we use design patterns as a medium and process for capturing insight about the process of design. We survey mainstream design genres, and draw conclusions about how they can help inform the design of intelligent systems.
Poster
For people with neurological conditions such as stroke and brain injury, gait rehabilitation can lead to a significantly more independent lifestyle. Existing gait rehabilitation studies with stroke survivors using rhythmic haptic cueing via wearable devices have demonstrated improvements in temporal symmetry, increase in stride length and walking s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many people with long-term neurological and neurodegenerative conditions such as stroke, brain injury, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease suffer from an impaired walking gait pattern. Gait improvement can lead to better fluidity in walking, improved health outcomes, greater independence, and enhanced quality of life. Existing lab-based studi...
Research
Full-text available
Stroke is one of the leading causes for long-term adult disabilities. More than half of all stroke survivors depend on others for everyday activities after they are discharged from hospital. One of the conditions a stroke survivor may experience is hemiparetic gait. Typical characteristics of hemiparetic gait are: reduced speed, increased step vari...
Research
Full-text available
Many people with long-term neurological and neurodegenerative conditions such as stroke, brain injury, multiple sclerosis or Parkinson's disease suffer from an impaired walking gait pattern. Gait improvement can lead to better fluidity in walking, improved health outcomes, greater independence, and enhanced quality of life. Existing lab-based studi...
Poster
For people with neurological conditions such as stroke and brain injury, gait rehabilitation can lead to a significantly more independent lifestyle. Existing gait rehabilitation studies with stroke survivors using rhythmic haptic cueing via wearable devices have demonstrated improvements in temporal symmetry, increase in stride length and walking s...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present an algorithmic composition system designed to be accessible to those with minimal programming skills and little musical training, while at the same time allowing the manipulation of detailed musical structures more rapidly and more fluidly than would normally be possible for such a user group. These requirements led us to devise non-stan...
Conference Paper
Inspired by insights from theories of human reasoning and language, we propose additions to the Manchester OWL Syntax to improve comprehensibility. These additions cover: functional and inverse functional properties, negated conjunction, the definition of exceptions, and existential and universal restrictions. By means of an empirical study, we dem...
Poster
Full-text available
Algorithmic composition systems allow for the partial or total automation of music composition by formal, computational means. Typical algorithmic composition systems generate nondeterministic music, meaning that multiple musical outcomes can result from the same algorithm - consequently the output is generally different each time the algorithm run...
Conference Paper
Nowadays, Question Answering (Q&A) websites are popular source of information for finding answers to all kind of questions. Due to this popularity it is critical to help the identification of best answers to existing questions for simplifying the access to relevant information. Although it is possible to identify relatively accurately best answers...
Conference Paper
Social media is a common place for people to post and share digital reflections of their life events, including major events such as getting married, having children, graduating, etc. Although the creation of such posts is straightforward, the identification of events on online media remains a challenge. Much research in recent years focused on ext...
Conference Paper
Description Logics are commonly used for the development of ontologies. Yet they are well-known to present difficulties of comprehension, e.g. when confronted with the justification for a particular entailment during the debugging process. This paper describes a study into the problems experienced in understanding and reasoning with Description Log...
Conference Paper
The work described in this paper focuses on how to reveal culturally-related data to city tourists to help them in navigating both the physical space through which they are moving (the cityscape) and a conceptual space around points of interest which links them through shared stories of time, place, people and theme (the datascape). The research go...
Conference Paper
The value of Question Answering (Q&A) communities is dependent on members of the community finding the questions they are most willing and able to answer. This can be difficult in communities with a high volume of questions. Much previous has work attempted to address this problem by recommending questions similar to those already answered. However...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents a first step in the development of a methodology to compare the ability of different sonifications to convey the fine temporal detail of the Electroencephalography (EEG) brainwave signal in real time. In EEG neurofeedback a person " s EEG activity is monitored and presented back to them, to help them to learn how to modify their...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Museum staff tell stories to assist visitor interpretation of artworks. Visitors also tell their own stories to articulate their understanding and opinion of artworks. Additional knowledge about the concepts mentioned or tagged in these stories can be found from online data sources. These could be used to assist reader interpretation or author deve...
Conference Paper
New social media has led to an explosion in personal digital data that encompasses both those expressions of self chosen by the individual as well as reflections of self provided by other, third parties. The resulting Digital Personhood (DP) data is complex and for many users it is too easy to become lost in the mire of digital data. This paper stu...
Conference Paper
Value of online Question Answering (Q&A) communities is driven by the question-answering behaviour of its members. Finding the questions that members are willing to answer is therefore vital to the efficient operation of such communities. In this paper, we aim to identify the parameters that correlate with such behaviours. We train different models...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Stories are used to provide a context for museum objects, for example linking those objects to what they depict or the historical context in which they were created. Many explicit and implicit relationships exist between the people, places and things mentioned in a story and the museum objects with which they are associated. We describe an interfac...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Drawing on 118 responses to a survey of ontology use, this paper describes the experiences of those who create and use ontologies. Responses to questions about language and tool use illustrate the dominant position of OWL and provide information about the OWL profiles and particular Description Logic features used. The paper suggests that further r...
Article
Full-text available
Museum professionals create exhibitions that tell stories about museum objects. The exhibits are usually arranged to reveal the relationships between them and to highlight the story being told. But sometimes objects are in fixed places and cannot be re-positioned. This paper presents a solution to the problem of how to tell conceptually coherent st...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an analysis of the user interfaces of a range of algorithmic music composition software using the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations as the main analysis tool. Findings include the following: much of the reviewed software exhibits a low viscosity and requires significant user knowledge. The use of metaphor (staff notation, music...
Conference Paper
Description Logics have been extensively studied from the viewpoint of decidability and computational tractability. Less attention has been given to their usability and the cognitive difficulties they present, in particular for those who are not specialists in logic. This paper reports on a study into the difficulties associated with the most commo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Description Logics have been extensively studied from the viewpoint of decidability and computational tractability. Less attention has been given to their usability and the cognitive difficulties they present, in particular for those who are not specialists in logic. This paper reports on a study into the difficulties associated with the most commo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper presents an analysis, using Cognitive Dimensions (Blackwell & Green, 2003), of a representative selection of user interfaces for algorithmic composition software. Cognitive Dimensions are design principles for notations, user interfaces and programming language design, or from another viewpoint 'discussion tools' for designers (Green & B...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the past decade a number of systems have been developed that tell museum stories by constructing digital presentations from cultural objects and their metadata. Our novel approach, informed by museum practice, is built around a formalization of stages of museum storytelling that involve: (i) the collection of events, museum objects and their a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Despite the large number and variety of tools and services available today for exploring scholarly data, current support is still very limited in the context of sensemaking tasks, which go beyond standard search and ranking of authors and publications, and focus instead on i) understanding the dynamics of research areas, ii) relating authors 'seman...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most Knowledge Representation (KR) research follows a topdown approach: i) formalisms are designed on the basis of modelling needs and computational considerations, and ii) tools and applications based on these formalisms are realized and tested on application domains. As a result, there has traditionally been little attention in the KR research co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The media curation craze has spawned a multitude of new sites that help users to collect and share web content. Some market themselves as spaces to explore a common interest through different types of related media. Others are promoted as a means for creating and sharing stories, or producing personalized newspapers. Still others target the educati...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Museum narratives, like other forms of narrative, are developed from an underlying conceptualization of events that can be referred to as the story. Storyscope is a web-based environment for constructing and exploring museum narratives and their underlying concepts. Storyscope aligns with a formal model of story and narrative specialized for a muse...
Article
The paper describes the Eurogene portal for sharing and reusing multilingual multimedia educational resources in human genetics. The content is annotated using concepts of two ontologies and a topic hierarchy. The ontology annotation is used to guide search and for calculating semantically similar content. Educational resources can be aggregated in...
Chapter
We introduce, review and analyse recent research in Music and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), also known as Music Interaction. After a general overview of the discipline, we analyse the themes and issues raised by the other 15 chapters of this book, each of which presents recent research in this field. The bulk of this chapter is organised as an...