Paul Mkandawire

Paul Mkandawire
Carleton University · Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies

About

58
Publications
7,700
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654
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
551 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
2016201720182019202020212022020406080100
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (58)
Article
This paper examines strategies used by the poor in urban Malawi in their struggles to ensure sufficient and continuous water supply for domestic and business purposes in a context where even though the state is the major provider of water, exorbitant tariffs mean that most people remain utterly excluded from or tenuously connected to the official g...
Article
Children in developing countries continue to suffer a disproportionate burden of morbidities, including diarrhea and fever, which are major causes of mortality. These morbidities tend to co-occur due to shared or overlapping risk factors. This study examines the determinants of co-occurrences of diarrhea and fever among children under five years of...
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Full-text available
Objective Canada became a preferred destination for many non-European and American migrants since the introduction of favorable immigration policies the late 1960s. Blacks, including immigrants from African and the Caribbean however are a known vulnerable population to HIV in Canada. Even though first-generation immigrants might differ from subsequ...
Article
Background African, Caribbean, and Black men constitute the second-highest category of males living with HIV in Ontario, which increased from 15.4% to 17% between 2011 and 2016. Previous studies have attributed this disproportionately higher rate to multiple concurrent sexual partnerships and low rates of HIV testing. Drawing on theoretical constru...
Article
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Although age at first sex is considered a measure of sexual risk and vulnerability for HIV infection, there is a dearth of literature on age at sexual debut in the Canadian context. This study examined time variations to first sex among heterosexual African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) men in four Ontarian cities. A population-based retrospective su...
Article
While there is a growing body of literature on Black people’s access to HIV services in Canada, the question of how this access varies across Canada’s urban jurisdictions has hitherto never arisen in research and policy. This paper assesses HIV healthcare needs among heterosexual Black men in four Ontario cities of Windsor, London, Toronto and Otta...
Article
Background/aims With coverage of antenatal care in sub-Saharan Africa approaching a universal level, attention is now turning to maximising the life-saving potential of antenatal care. This study assessed the gestational age at which pregnant mothers make their first antenatal visit in the context of high antenatal coverage in Lesotho. Methods For...
Article
We compared factors mediating motherhood experiences among Black nursing mothers living with HIV in two North American cities to one African city. Motherhood was measured with the Being a Mother Scale, and we compared their predictors between the two continents using difference in difference estimation within hierarchical linear modeling. Cultural...
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Using Malawi as a case study, this commentary takes a retrospective view of the HIV/AIDS epidemic to draw lessons about the spread of, and government response to, Covid-19 in Southern Africa. With the legacy of colonial-ism and the distortions wrought in by structural adjustment programs still alive, we argue that the same factors that propelled th...
Article
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This issue of NokokoPod presents a discussion on the historic rerun election in Malawi and the future of governance in the country. The annotated PDF is available on the Nokoko journal website. This conversation took place on July 9th, with Logan Cochrane and Paul Mkandawire both in Canada. This version of the PDF has been reviewed by Logan Cochran...
Article
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Introduction African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) communities are disproportionately infected by HIV in Ontario, Canada. They constitute only 5% of the population of Ontario yet account for 25% of new diagnoses of HIV. The aim of this study is to understand underlying factors that augment the HIV risk in ACB communities and to inform policy and pract...
Article
HIV-related stigma is a negative attitude or behaviour towards persons living with HIV, and is detrimental to effective care, management, and treatment of HIV. Using a revised 10-item stigma scale, we compared levels of HIV-related stigma and its correlates among Black women living with HIV in Ottawa, Canada, and Miami, FL, USA, with those in Port...
Article
Objective: Poor knowledge of sexual partners’ HIV status is a major contributing factor in the heterosexual spread of HIV in Canada. This study examined knowledge of sexual partner’s HIV serostatus and the practice of safer sex among self-identified heterosexual African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) men in London, Ontario. Design: A cross-sectional da...
Article
This paper draws theoretical insights from political ecology to examine the environmental and livelihood impacts of smallholder agricultural mechanization in Ghana in the context of the ongoing pursuit of a new Green Revolution for Africa. Our findings highlight the complex linkages between agricultural development, environmental degradation and ru...
Article
Canadian immigration documents such as the Immigration and Refugee Protection Act 2001 stipulate that it is the responsibility of the government to help immigrants to integrate successfully. In part, this is due to the recognition that immigrants have the capital vital for economic and demographic enhancement of the country. To this end, successful...
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This paper draws on a qualitative study (n=52) and applies a political ecology of health framework to examine men's perceptions of women's reproductive health in South Sudan. The findings suggest that political practices of place making configure men's views of women's reproductive roles in this new nation state. In particular, masculinity intertwi...
Article
The role played by the transport sector in the regional spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is well known, yet attention has remained confined to entertainment hotspots and stopping places along long-distance highways and cross-border transport corridors. This paper draws attention to informal modes of transit prevalent in sub-Saharan African citie...
Article
Despite the declining HIV/AIDS prevalence globally, nearly half of all new HIV infections still occur among youth, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. While determinants of risky sexual behaviour have received copious attention in the literature, we still lack multi-country studies that track regional changes in sexual risk among youth in sub-Saharan...
Article
This study examined the role of health facilities on testing for Hepatitis B virus in a policy context where screening is only available at a cost. We fitted multivariate multinomial logistic regression models to cross-sectional data (n = 1374) collected from Upper West Region of Ghana. The analysis showed that approximately 28% of respondents repo...
Article
Background With antenatal care (ANC) coverage now widely seen as a success story in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), attention has begun to shift towards exploring the full life-saving potential that ANC holds. Objectives This study examines association between pregnancy intention and gestational age at first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Rwanda, where AN...
Article
Despite playing an important role in the economies of low-income countries, there is a perception that informal markets are haphazard and disorganized. Using in-depth interviews conducted in Accra, Ghana, this study examines the strategic choices that market women pursue to gain access to and thrive in informal working spaces and ensure long-term s...
Article
Referred to as the ‘forgotten causalities’ of climate change (Cutter 1995), very few studies have examined the precise nature and magnitude of climate change impacts on children, let alone on the growing number of orphans and vulnerable children in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), where climate change is already expected to exact its worst humanitarian tol...
Article
Objectives: Breast cancer contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality in Namibia as is the case in most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, there is a dearth of nationally representative studies that examine the odds of screening for breast cancer in Namibia and SSA at large. This paper aims to fill this gap by examining the d...
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Background The prevalence of HIV in Malawi is one of the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, and misconceptions about its mode of transmission are considered a major contributor to the continued spread of the virus. Methods Using the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, the current study explored factors associated with misconceptions about HIV t...
Article
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Objectives. Although a growing body of evidence demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer in SSA, relatively little is known about the underlying factors surrounding the low levels of testing for the disease in the context of this region. Using Namibia Demographic Health Survey dataset (NDHS, 2013), we examined the factors that influ...
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This paper reports findings of a qualitative study and draws on the political ecology of health framework to examine the links between housing and health among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) in Northern Malawi in a wider context in which the epidemic has overburdened the country’s hospitals, thereby transferring the responsibility for care fro...
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This paper examines the relationship between circumcision status and timing of sexual debut among unmarried youth in Sub-Saharan Africa using Demographic and Health Surveys. Results from survival analysis indicate that the association between circumcision and timing of first sex is place and context specific. Compared to uncircumcised, circumcised...
Article
This paper examines the gestational age at first antenatal care (ANC) visit and factors associated with timely initiation of ANC in Malawi in a context where maternal and child health services are generally provided for free. Lognormal survival models are applied to Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of women...
Article
Migration remains an important strategy for livelihood security in sub-Saharan Africa. Like other parts of the region, migrant flows within Ghana have historically been directed towards urban, mineral, and plantation economies. This study, however, examines a new pattern of migration related to rural livelihood that has intensified in recent decade...
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Aim To examine how pregnancy intention may be related to insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use among pregnant women in Rwanda. Subject and methods This cross-sectional study applied random effects models to a nationally representative sample of pregnant women (n = 837) from the 2010 Rwanda demographic and health survey (RDHS) who reported owning...
Article
. We examined the influence of knowledge and information, health care access and different socio-economic variables on women's decision to screen for cervical cancer using a nationally representative dataset. We use hierarchical binary logit regression models to explore the determinants of screening for cervical cancer among women who reported hear...
Article
This paper draws on the advocacy coalition framework and uses content analysis to examine policy arguments and counterarguments over new legislation governing production, distribution and sale of alcohol in Malawi amidst growing concerns about alcohol-related public health problems and moral decay. We analyzed contents and claims reported in major...
Article
The emerging challenge of managing increasing volumes of urban sewage has resulted in municipalities pursuing sustainable ways to manage urban biosolids and their by-products. Using content analysis of public debates, and situating the debate within science, policy and facility siting literature, this study examines claims and counterclaims relatin...
Article
Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was designed as a pro-poor strategy to create wider access to health care. While recent studies have shown that wealth is an important factor in enrolment in the scheme, there is little understanding of its interlinkages with the geographical divisions and deep-seated deprivation in the northern regio...
Conference Paper
Although the Canada Health Act seeks to facilitate reasonable access to health care services without financial or other barriers for Canadians, studies have shown that some Canadians still do not receive the health care service they require. Studies have examined how individual and structural risk factors affect unmet health care needs, but few hav...
Article
Aim This article examines the association between sense of community belonging and unmet health-care needs among individuals in Ontario, Canada, after adjusting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors associated with health-service use. Subjects and methods This study is based on data from Statistics Canada’s 2012 Canadian Community Health...
Article
This article addresses the implications of the mandatory delay in coverage for individuals residing in the Upper West Region (UWR) of Ghana who have dropped out of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) but later attempt to reenroll. Using data collected in 2011 in Ghana's UWR, we use a negative log-log model (n=1,584) to compare those who rem...
Article
This study reports the spatial variability in household management of diarrhea among under-fives in Malawi. Using data from 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey, we examined oral rehydration and feeding practices of mothers and caregivers of 3105 children with an episode of diarrhea by mapping district effect residual in geo-additive probit mo...
Article
In this article, we draw on critical approaches to risk to examine varied and interlaced perceptions of personal risk for HIV which young men in an area of traditionally low male circumcision have to Malawi government’s new policy of medical male circumcision for HIV prevention, locally known as mdulidwe. In this article, we draw on data from in-de...
Article
Based on a qualitative study conducted in the township of Chibavi in Mzuzu City, Malawi, this paper seeks to contribute to the emerging debate as to why orphans may be more vulnerable to the AIDS epidemic through the lens of an informal labour relation locally known as ganyu. The paper argues that although ganyu has deep roots in the country's hist...
Chapter
This chapter examines social inequalities in health care access in the context of the rapid urban expansion occurring in Accra, Ghana. In the foreseeable future, cities in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) will become the predominant social, political, economic, and cultural contexts for the well-being of the majority of the population. Estimates indicate th...
Article
This study examines the association between circumcision status and the timing of first sexual intercourse among adolescents in Malawi. Results of survival models applied to nationally representative sample of never-married young men aged between 15 and 24 obtained from the Demographic and Health Survey data show that being circumcised is associate...
Article
Policy-makers world-wide are concerned about severe housing problems experienced in cities of the developing world. This paper examines the rental housing situation in Accra, Ghana. It presents findings of a qualitative investigation of the experiences of property owners (n = 21) and tenants (n = 23) in an informal private housing market that cater...
Article
This study examines the effects of orphanhood status on the timing of first sexual intercourse among youth in Malawi. Log-normal models were applied to survey data collected between May and August 2009 from 1,214 adolescents aged 12-18 in Mzuzu, Northern Malawi. Results of this study show that orphanhood is a significant predictor of age at first s...
Article
The paper examines how structural vulnerability to HIV/AIDS in Malawi is produced through a complex interplay of economic, cultural, and political factors operating over relational places within the country as well as in the wider Southern Africa subcontinental landscape. Based on empirical work on an impoverished community in the Chibavi township...
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Although the literature on housing and health is extensive, most research comes from developed countries. Relatively little work on the topic has been done in developing countries such as Ghana where socio-economic and cultural characteristics are generally different. This paper reports on primary research that investigates the relationship between...
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This paper examines the dynamics of condom policymaking in Malawi by analyzing debates, which took place in the Malawi National Assembly between the year 2000 and 2004. Using content analysis and key informant interviews, and situating the overall discussion within policy and science literature, we examine how scientific evidence is being applied i...
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This paper examines how neoliberal development discourse contributes to the production and maintenance of problematic gendered hierarchies and spaces. By interrogating the basic assumptions undergirding this discourse, this paper explores how neoliberalism produces spaces which normalise certain identities—especially those associated with individua...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the persistence of food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa. Although pervasive poverty and low agricultural productivity are important factors in understanding food insecurity in the region, broader global processes are examined. It is argued therefore that, while poverty undermines individual and household access to sufficient...
Chapter
This chapter examines the availability and effectiveness of environmental legislation in sub-Saharan Africa. It is observed that while governments in the region have moved rapidly in putting together policies and legislations to deal with the environmental crisis, practical action on the ground continues to lag behind. Some of the reasons for this...
Chapter
This chapter examines the future of environmental degradation in Africa. While acknowledging the relative role of population growth and unsustainable agriculture practices in environmental degradation in the region, the chapter considers the role played by excess consumption, poverty and HIV/AIDS, corrupt African states and international capital in...

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