Paul Luff

Paul Luff
King's College London | KCL · King's Business School

About

152
Publications
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Introduction
Paul Luff currently works at the King's Business School, King's College London. Paul does research in video-based, qualitative research.

Publications

Publications (152)
Article
Full-text available
A concern with “embodied action” has informed both the analysis of everyday action through technologies and also suggested ways of designing innovative systems. In this article, we consider how these two programs, the analysis of everyday embodied interaction on the one hand, and the analysis of technically-mediated embodied interaction on the othe...
Article
Full-text available
It is increasingly recognized that social interaction and collaboration rely on the participants' abilities to accessand use a range of resources including objects and artifacts from within the immediate environment. In recent years, system support for remote collaboration has begun to address this issue, and we have witnessed the emergence of a nu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Surprise is commonly understood as a response to the unexpected, even untoward, arising within the immediate environment, our reaction foreshadowing an associated emotion such as pleasure or fear. This chapter considers how our discovery of, and response to, the unexpected is constituted in and through our interaction with others, both those we are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we analyse an apparently simple collaborative activity, that of passing an implement from one person to another. The particular case we consider is surgical operations where nurses and surgeons routinely pass instruments to one an- other. Through fine-grained analysis of specific instances we address,- the preparatory work engaged in...
Article
The division of labour, in its turn, implies interaction; for it consists not in the sheer difference of one man's kind of work from that another, but in the fact that the different tasks and accomplishments are parts of a whole to whose product all, in some degree, contribute. And wholes, in the human social realm as in the rest of the biological...
Article
There has been a long-standing interest in projection and the resources on which participants rely to produce and recognize the import and organization of turns at talk. Less attention has been paid to the character of the activity in which utterances form part and the ways in which embodied action enables the intelligibility, coordination, and in...
Article
Artificial intelligence (ai) is bringing radical change to our lives. Fostering trust in this technology requires the technology to be transparent, and one route to transparency is to make the decisions that are reached by ais explainable to the humans that interact with them. This paper lays out an exploratory approach to developing explainability...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We are working on components that can compute explanations for a model-based ai, in particular a system for ai planning. This short paper sketches the components of the system and discusses some issues that arise when considering how to compute explanations. ACM Reference Format:
Article
In recent years, the development and deployment of autonomous systems such as mobile robots have been increasingly common. Investigating and implementing ethical considerations such as fairness in autonomous systems is an important problem that is receiving increased attention, both because of recent findings of their potential undesired impacts an...
Article
Over the past few decades, we have witnessed the widespread deployment of technologies that enable real-time interaction between co-located and remote participants. These technologies and their accompanying organisational arrangements have created new forms of cooperation and collaboration. They also present challenges for ethnographers seeking to...
Chapter
A new method is proposed to decrease the transmission delay of visual and non-visual medical records by using edge computing and Dynamic Vision Sensing technologies. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can decrease the transmission delay by 89.15% to 93.23%. The maximum number of patients who can be served by edge devices is analys...
Chapter
Full-text available
Surgical procedures rely upon an array of commonplace tools, implements and materials that mediate practice and disciplinary collaboration within the operating theatre. Substantial time is dedicated to the issue and provision of these artefacts and their timely exchange is critical to the successful accomplishment of surgical procedures. In this ar...
Article
In this paper, we discuss ways in which quasi-naturalistic experiments can contribute to the analysis of social interaction in organizations and our understanding of practice, materiality, and technology. We focus on the contributions of two different types of naturalistic experiments that draw on audiovisual recordings. We discuss how these forms...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of large-scale centers of command and control that bring together a range of personnel from various services responsible for the management of day-to-day incidents and events. These multicenter control rooms stand in marked contrast to what Suchman termed ‘centers of coordination’ (Suchman 1997), whi...
Article
Surgical procedures rely upon an array of commonplace tools, implements and materials that mediate practice and disciplinary collaboration within the operating theatre. Substantial time is dedicated to the issue and provision of these artefacts and their timely exchange is critical to the successful accomplishment of surgical procedures. In this ar...
Conference Paper
A new system is proposed to reduce the transmission delay of visual and non-visual medical records by using edge caching and Dynamic Vision Sensing (DVS) technologies. The results of simulation show that the proposed scheme can decrease the transmission delay by 36.35% to 86.88% compared to a system with edge caching only.
Conference Paper
In this paper we report on a pervasive practice in video-mediated communication: where participants show one another one or more objects. This is a distinct activity from others considered by researchers of video-mediated technologies that focus on a face-to-face orientation, or just on the support necessary to help people to refer to objects. We f...
Article
Audiovisual technologies can enable informal communication akin to face- to-face interaction. However, they prove less successful when deployed to support work and organizational activities. This is, in part, due to the limited ways such technologies provide access to the materials, objects, documents, and the like that are critical for supporting...
Chapter
Workplace Studies beschäftigen sich mit den Feinheiten der Kooperation und Kollaboration in komplexen Organisationen, und zwar besonders mit der Art und Weise, wie Instrumente und Technologien in sozialen Handlungen und Interaktionen verwendet werden. Die Konzentration auf die praktischen Umstände der Kooperation, den Gebrauch von Dokumenten und di...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing interest within museums and galleries in enabling visitors to contribute thoughts, reflections and materials and to make these available to the wider public both within the museum space and beyond. It is widely recognised that digital technologies and developments provide unprecedented opportunities to facilitate engagement and pro...
Conference Paper
In this paper we report on some experiments with a high fidelity media space, t-Room, an immersive system that presents full scale, real-time images of co-participants. The system has been enhanced to provide more flexibility in the ways participants could organise themselves and the materials they are working on. Drawing on some quasi-naturalistic...
Chapter
Transcription is an important analytic resource for the investigation of naturally occurring social interaction. Whereas for talk there is a broadly accepted orthography, developed by Gail Jefferson, that has proved invaluable for both the analysis and the presentation of data, the transcription of visible conduct has remained a long-standing chall...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 20 years or so, researchers have, in a number of ways, considered how studies of talk and interaction might inform the design of new technologies. In this article, we discuss a “technical intervention” where studies of visual and material conduct informed by conversation analysis shaped the design and development of a prototype commun...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There has been a long-standing commitment within museums, galleries and science centres to deploy complex technologies to enhance engagement and participation amongst visitors. The design of these systems has proved highly challenging and tensions arise in enabling both, individual action as well as cooperation and collaboration. In this paper we d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In collaborative video communication systems, establishing co-orientation around physical objects, virtual objects and people is a critical requirement. This is problematic as the technical limitations of video fractures the display of conduct in the connected environments. We present the results of a study of one collaborative system, CamBlend, wh...
Article
In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of a burgeoning corpus of studies that address institutional interaction and in particular language use and talk at work. The visible and material aspects of organisational conduct and the ways in which sequential organisation, turn transfer and turn design are accomplished in and through the multi-m...
Article
Introduction The Interactional Production of a Turn-at-Talk Turn Transition and Organization The Expression of Troubles Technologies in Action Issues and Implications Future Directions
Article
Full-text available
Unlike the wide-ranging methodological debates surrounding the accomplishment and analysis of interviews, fieldwork and focus groups, the discussions concerning the use of video data tend to focus on a few frequently rehearsed issues. In this article we wish to broaden the consideration of methodological concerns related to video. We address the pr...
Article
Article no: 688686 Enclosures: 1) Query sheet 2) Article proofs Dear Author, 1. Please check these proofs carefully. It is the responsibility of the corresponding author to check these and approve or amend them. A second proof is not normally provided. Taylor & Francis cannot be held responsible for uncorrected errors, even if introduced during the...
Chapter
In this chapter, we consider how social interaction is central to the performance of highly specialised activities that underpin occupational and organisational culture. We examine an occupation where a turn-taking organisation is deployed to systematically specify and allocate the contributions of others. We draw primarily on audio-visual recordin...
Conference Paper
In this paper we report on some experiments with a high fidelity media space, t-Room, an immersive system that presents full scale, real-time images of co-participants who are in similar spaces many miles apart. Although being designed to provide a coherent environment for interaction the system introduces a number of incongruities, both in time an...
Conference Paper
This paper advocates an approach to requirements analysis drawing on social scientific research strategies (Ethnog- raphy) and model based engineering (MBE). Our work is aimed at bridging the gap between applied ethnographic reports and the early stages of the software development lifecycle (SDLC). Taking a view on how we think data should be repre...
Article
e-Research and Cyberinfrastructure programmes actively promote the development of new forms of scientific practice and collaboration through the implementation of tools and technologies that support distributed collaborative work across geographically dispersed research institutes and laboratories. Whilst originating in scientific domains, we have...
Article
Full-text available
It is widely recognised that paper remains a pervasive resource for collaboration and yet there has been uncertain progress in developing technologies that aim to enhance paper documents with computational capabilities. In this article, we discuss the design of a technology that interweaves developments in hardware and materials, electronics and so...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are numerous settings where people examine, scrutinize and discuss the details of images in the course of their work. In most medical domains, scans and x-rays are used in the diagnosis of cases; in most areas of science, methods of visualization have been adopted to assist in the analysis of data; and images of different kinds are critical f...
Chapter
Introduction Auctions provide an institutional solution to the pricing and exchange of goods and services of uncertain value. In turn, auctions raise a number of social and organisational issues and problems that have to be resolved by participants themselves in and through interaction (Maynard 1988). For example, an auction of fine art and antique...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
If robot systems are being deployed in real world settings with untrained users who happen to accidentally pass by or could leave at any moment in time, then this places specific demands on the robot system: it needs to secure and maintain the user's engagement. In this, a common and critical problem consists of entering into a `focused encounter'....
Article
In this paper we address the ways in which surgeons, in collaboration with other members of the surgical team, create occasions for demonstration and instruction within the highly complex and demanding tasks of a surgical operation. Drawing on video recordings of surgical operations, augmented by field studies, we examine how particular phenomena a...
Article
Full-text available
this report. 3 2. IDENTIFYING NEW DESIGNS AND SOLUTIONS 2.1 Case Study: ATC Project At the CSCW Centre of the University of Lancaster they are developing information systems to support air traffic command and control. Air traffic controllers sit two to a desk, each desk normally covering two contiguous sections of air space, through the division of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Designing technologies that support the explanation of museum exhibits is a challenging domain. In this paper we develop an innovative approach - providing a robot guide with resources to engage visitors in an interaction about an art exhibit. We draw upon ethnographical fieldwork in an art museum, focusing on how tour guides interrelate talk and v...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Auctions, both traditional and electronic, are a pervasive social organisation for the valuation and exchange of goods and services. Despite the long-standing interest in integrating internet contributions into the more traditional auction such initiatives have remained problematic. We consider the organization of interaction of sales of fine art a...
Article
Allgemein betrachtet lassen sich Auktionen als eine institutionalisierte Lösung für das Problem auffassen, Preise für Güter und Dienstleistungen mit unklarem Wert zu definieren und Handel mit ihnen zu betreiben. Dadurch ergibt sich wiederum eine Reihe sozialer und organisationaler Anforderungen und Probleme, die von den Teilnehmern im Zuge der Inte...
Article
In this chapter, we discuss a programme of social and technical research that we have undertaken over the last few years concerned with the design, assessment and development of systems to support real-time, distributed work; work that relies upon a participants' ability to access a range of tangible and digital resources. The programme of work has...
Article
Alongside the emergence of the use of fieldwork studies for design there has been a discussion on how best these studies can inform system development. Concerns have been expressed as to whether their most appropriate contribution is a list of requirements or design recommendations. This article explores a recurrent issue that has emerged from fiel...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we consider the development of a museum guide robot that has both autonomous and remotely controlled features. We focus on the capabilities such a robot could have to help focus the attention of a visitor on an object or artefact. Inspired by studies of social interaction, which investigate whether the robot could deploy "restarts" an...
Article
Full-text available
Museums increasingly deploy new technologies to enhance visitors' experience of their exhibitions. They primarily rely on touch-screen computer systems, PDAs and digital audio-guides. Tate Britain recently employed two innovative systems in one of their major exhibitions of John Constable's work; a gestural interface and a touch-screen panel, both...
Article
Despite the growing body of research concerned with talk and interaction in institutional settings, the ways in which complex forms of organisational activity are accomplished in and through gesture remain relatively neglected. In this paper, we consider auctions of fine art and antiques and examine the ways in which auctioneers deploy an organisat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Museums increasingly deploy new technologies to enhance visitors' experience of their exhibitions. They primarily rely on touch-screen computer systems, PDAs and digital audio- guides. Tate Britain recently employed two innovative systems in one of their major exhibitions of John Constable's work; a gestural interface and a touch-screen panel, both...
Article
Auctions provide an institutional solution to a social problem; they enable the legitimate pricing and exchange of goods where those goods are of uncertain value. In turn, auctions raise a number of social and organizational issues that are resolved within the interaction that arise in sales by auction. In this paper, we examine sales of fine art,...
Article
Video has long been recognised as providing an important resource within medical education, particularly, perhaps, for training in primary health care. As a resource for research, and more specifically within qualitative social science studies of medical practice, video has proved less pervasive, despite its obvious advantages. In this paper, we sk...
Article
Full-text available
Some of the most interesting developments within computer system design in recent years have emerged from an exploration of the ways everyday objects and artefacts can be augmented with computational resources. Often under the rubric of “ubiquitous computing”, research programmes in Europe, North America and Japan have directed substantial funding...
Article
Full-text available
The dealing-room study is one of many studies that have used video to support requirements elicitation and the general design process. A growing body of experience with video-based ethnographies supports technology development in various domains, including air traffic and other control rooms, healthcare, public settings such as museums, and more ex...
Conference Paper
Recently a number of researchers have uncovered various ways in which paper documents support everyday work practice and have suggested how these may be reflected in the design of new technologies. In this paper we consider how activities on and around paper documents may be supported when participants are remote from each other. When we consider t...
Chapter
In this chapter, the authors show how detailed understandings of everyday surveillance work and organisational conduct may inform the design and development of image processing systems to enhance the awareness and monitoring of complex physical and behavioural environments. The setting in question is the operations rooms of complex interconnecting...
Conference Paper
Enhancing video-mediated communication has been a continual concern for developers of collaborative technologies ever since the emergence of CSCW. However, despite numerous attempts with a great variety of related technologies it is hard to find sustained examples of video-based technologies providing synchronous and symmetrical resources to suppor...
Article
this paper it is useful to map an individual's visual conduct relative to the other `video partner'. Turning towards the other is indicated by an arc moving towards the dashed line, turning away by an arc moving away and gaze towards the other is indicated by a continuous line along the dashed line
Article
Introduction Despite its relative importance within the field of Human-Computer Interaction, there seems to be growing skepticism of the ability of cognitive science to enrich our understanding of the use of complex technologies. At the practical level, for example, it has been suggested that the designs and evaluation techniques used by actual des...
Article
this report. 3 2. IDENTIFYING NEW DESIGNS AND SOLUTIONS 2.1 Case Study: ATC Project At the CSCW Centre of the University of Lancaster they are developing information systems to support air traffic command and control. Air traffic controllers sit two to a desk, each desk normally covering two contiguous sections of air space, through the division of...
Article
This paper is about some of the things required to establish this genre as a real engineering discipline
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we investigated systems for supporting remote collaboration using mobile robots as communication media. It is argued that the use of a remote-controlled robot as a device to support communication involves two distinct ecologies: an ecology at the remote (instructor's) site and an ecology at the operator's (robot) site. In designing a...
Chapter
Despite the substantial body of literature concerned with the ways in which digital media are transforming contemporary society and institutional life, we have relatively little understanding of the ways in which new technologies feature in day to day organizational conduct and interaction. There is however a growing corpus of empirical research wh...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we wish to briefly consider the ways in which video-based field studies of surveillance in practice might inform the design and development of image processing systems to enhance the awareness and monitoring of complex physical and behavioural environments. The setting in question are operations rooms of complex interconnecting stati...
Article
One of the most significant developments in healthcare over the past 25 years has been the widespread deployment of information and communication technologies. These technologies have had a wide-ranging impact on the organisation of healthcare, on professional practice and on patients' experience of illness and its management. In this paper we disc...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of awareness has become ofincreasing importance to both social andtechnical research in CSCW. The concept remainshowever relatively unexplored, and we stillhave little understanding of the ways in whichpeople produce and sustain `awareness' in andthrough social interaction with others. In thispaper, we focus on a particular aspect ofawa...
Article
uage understanding and generation. The introduction to the collection, by Miller, Sullivan, and Tyler, suggests four requirements of intelligent interfaces: human-computer interactions need to be made clearer; interfaces need to support users' plans and goals; information needs to be presented clearly; and interfaces need to be designed and impleme...
Article
accordance with Gricean rules. These interlocutors like to spend their time seeking information from each other, testing each other's abilities in plan inference. Typical interchanges are the following: Human: The 8:50 train to Montreal? Computer: The railroad station is three blocks west on Main Street. But it's closed on weekends. In any case, th...
Article
Despite the widespread deployment of CCTV through most major cities and towns in great Britain, and the importance of surveillance to contemporary debates within the social sciences, there remains relatively little detailed research concerned with the practical use of these technologies in the workplace. In this paper, we examine how personnel in t...
Article
In this article we examine the use of radio, long-serving communications technology. We consider how personnel who operate a rapid urban transport system use radio to identify and manage problems that inevitably arise in the operation of the service. We examine how participants organize their talk with regard to the idiosyncrasies of the system, an...
Article
Full-text available
There is a growing interest amongst both artists and curators in designing artworks which create new forms of visual communication and enhance interaction in museums and galleries. Despite extraordinary advances in the analysis of talk and discourse, there is relatively little research concerned with conduct and collaboration with and around aesthe...