Paul Kapp

Paul Kapp
The University of Arizona | UA · Department of Geosciences

PhD UCLA

About

213
Publications
61,811
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
15,860
Citations
Introduction
My expertise is in continental tectonics, regional geology, and structural-stratigraphic analysis. In the field, I conduct geological mapping and structural-stratigraphic analysis. I study rocks ranging from Precambrian to Quaternary in age and from high-grade gneisses to loess. My analytical research focuses on quantifying timing and rates with geochronology and thermochronology. My research interests include the tectonic evolution of orogenic systems, global tectonic processes, aeolian process
Education
August 1996 - December 2001
University of California, Los Angeles
Field of study
  • Geosciences

Publications

Publications (213)
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge of the thermal history of the Linzizong Group (69-47 Ma) within the Gangdese arc is critical for interpreting the geologic evolution and isotope-based paleoaltimetric results of the southern Lhasa terrane of the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we combine results from geochronologic and thermochronologic studies of this group (divided into Dianzhon...
Article
Full-text available
Mesozoic‐Cenozoic subduction of the Farallon slab beneath North America generated a regionally extensive orogenic plateau in the southwestern US during the latest Cretaceous, similar to the modern Central Andean Plateau. In Nevada and southern Arizona, estimates from whole‐rock geochemistry suggest crustal thicknesses reached ∼60–55 km by the Late...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Modern topography represents the product of the relationships among climate, tectonics, and erosion through time. Central Asia is one of the most topographically diverse regions on Earth. However, the relative role of tectonics versus climate on erosion of continental Asia remains one of the major debates in Earth sciences. O...
Article
Full-text available
Recent empirical calibrations of Sr/Y and La/Yb from intermediate igneous rocks as proxies of crustal thickness yield discrepancies when applied to high ratios from thick crust. We recalibrated Sr/Y and La/Yb as proxies of crustal thickness and applied them to the Gangdese Mountains in southern Tibet. Crustal thickness at 180–170 Ma decreased from...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a comprehensive low‐temperature thermochronometric data set from the Shanxi Rift, Taihangshan, and eastern Ordos block in North China, including new apatite fission track and apatite (U‐Th‐Sm)/He data and published apatite and zircon fission track and (U‐Th‐Sm)/He data. We use these data and new thermal history inversion models...
Article
The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China supp...
Article
Full-text available
Dust plays an important role in climate, and while our current representation of dust production includes shifts in vegetation, soil moisture, and ice cover, it does not account for the role of landscape evolution. Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled to an aerosol chemistry model to quantify the effects of arid landscape...
Article
The Eastern Tian Shan (ETS), which is located in the southern margin of the Central Asian orogenic belt, experienced multiple cooling episodes during the Mesozoic. However, the topography and cooling pattern of the region have been extensively affected by complex structural deformations. Here, we combined a detailed structural analysis with new and...
Article
Full-text available
The Mugagangri Complex in central Tibet provides a record of the subduction accretion history between the Lhasa and Qiangtang terranes and consists of coherent sedimentary sequences, strongly dismembered formations, and siliciclastic-matrix block-in-matrix mélange. We identified three different groups of sandstone within the Mugagangri Complex. Gro...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Ophiolite obduction often occurs when a passive continental margin enters an oceanic subduction zone and thus may mark when an arc‐continent or continent‐continent collision begins. In central Tibet, the Dongqiao ophiolite represents a relict of Meso‐Tethys oceanic lithosphere. Initial research during the 1980s provided rough...
Article
The Chinese Altai Mountains in western China are bound by Cenozoic transpressional strike-slip faults, many of which show Quaternary activity. To better understand how Mesozoic–Cenozoic deformation has affected the history of exhumation and uplift of the Chinese Altai Mountains, we collected Paleozoic granitoid samples for apatite fission track and...
Article
We present new apatite U-Th-Sm/He (AHe; n = 51), apatite fission track data (AFT; n = 12), and zircon U-Th/He (ZHe; n = 8) data for two elevation transects in the north-central Shanxi Rift, North China. Low-temperature thermochronologic data combined with forward and inverse time-temperature history models reveal a Precambrian to Quaternary thermal...
Article
Over the last several decades a number of studies have attempted to reconstruct the rise of the Himalaya and Tibet since India-Asia collision began in the early Cenozoic, with rather contradictory results. Here, we evaluate the efforts at reconstructing the history of this major mountain-building event as archived in oxygen, carbon, and clumped iso...
Article
Full-text available
The accurate characterization of near-surface winds is critical to our understanding of past and modern climate. Dust lofted by these winds has the potential to modify surface and atmospheric conditions as well as ocean biogeochemistry. Stony deserts, low dust emitting regions today, represent expansive areas where variations in surficial geology t...
Article
Full-text available
Neogene, syn‐collisional extensional exhumation of Asian lower–middle crust produced the Shakhdara–Alichur gneiss‐dome complex in the South Pamir. The <1 km‐thick, mylonitic–brittle, top‐NNE, normal‐sense Alichur shear zone (ASZ) bounds the 125 × 25 km Alichur dome to the north. The Shakhdara dome is bounded by the <4 km‐thick, mylonitic–brittle, t...
Article
Full-text available
The Middle–Late Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous fold belts of the Yanshanian orogen in North China remain enigmatic with respect to their coeval deformation histories and possible relationship to the contemporaneous Cordilleran-style margin of eastern Asia. We present geological mapping, structural data, and a >400-km-long, strike-perpendicular bal...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Models have long predicted the occurrence of Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities in the mantle lithosphere, expressed as local, drip-like delamination events, which have been associated with bobber-type sedimentary basins. If at all preserved, such an episode should also be reflected in the magmatic record: potassic magmatism from the thermal pertur...
Article
Full-text available
The Himalayan-Tibetan orogen culminated during the Cenozoic India – Asia collision, but its geological framework and initial growth were fundamentally the result of multiple, previous ocean closure and intercontinental suturing events. As such, the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen provides an ideal laboratory to investigate geological signatures of the sut...
Article
Full-text available
The history of pre-Cretaceous subduction accretion and erosion along the Yarlung Suture Zone remains poorly constrained. We present new geological mapping along c. 200 km of the suture zone, 4881 detrital zircon U–Pb ages, and sandstone petrography for the subduction complex and Tethyan Himalayan strata. We provide the first documentation of the c....
Article
Full-text available
Integration of new geologic mapping, detrital zircon geochronology, and sedimentary and metamorphic petrography south of the Muskol metamorphic dome in the Central Pamir terrane provides new constraints on the evolution of the Pamir orogen from Triassic to Late Oligocene time. Zircon U-Pb data show that the eastern Central Pamir includes Triassic s...
Article
Located between the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone and the Qiangtang Block in central Tibet, the Najiangco area (~5 km to the north of Nima-Selinco) contains an Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous sedimentary succession deposited during a period of marine regression. The youngest marine sedimentary unit in the Najiangco area is the Upper Jurassic Shamuluo...
Article
Despite Miocene extension and exhumation of middle to lower crust in a series of gneiss domes and interpreted Cenozoic delamination of the lower crust, the crust in the modern Pamir Mountains is among the thickest in the world. Cenozoic shortening, crustal thickening, and prograde metamorphism in the Pamir have been associated with India-Asia colli...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanisms for crustal thickening and exhumation along the Yarlung (India- Asia) suture in southern Tibet are under debate, because the magnitudes, relative timing, and interaction between the two dominant structures-the Great Counter thrust and Gangdese thrust-are largely unconstrained. In this study, we present new geologic mapping results fr...
Article
New geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data for Mesozoic to Cenozoic igneous rocks and detrital minerals from the Pamir Mountains help to distinguish major regional magmatic episodes and constrain the tectonic evolution of the Pamir orogenic system. After final accretion of the Central and South Pamir terranes during the Late Triassic to Ear...
Article
Here, we present a stratigraphic and geomorphologic study of the northern part of the hyperarid and internally drained Hami Basin, located south of the Tian Mountains in northwestern China. The Hami Basin exposes wind-eroded Neogene sedimentary bedrock and was potentially an important source of atmospheric dust transported by westerly winds and dep...
Article
The hyperarid Qaidam Basin features extensive fields of yardangs (covering an area of ~ 40,000km²) sculpted in tectonically folded sedimentary rocks. We extracted the geometries of 16,749 yardangs, such as length-to-width ratio (L/W), spatial density, and spacing, from multi-source remote sensing data provided by Google Earth™. We classified the ya...
Article
A database containing previously published geochronologic, geochemical, and isotopic data on Mesozoic to Quaternary igneous rocks in the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system are presented. The database is intended to serve as a repository for new and existing igneous rock data and is publicly accessible through a web-based platform that includes an in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The South Tianshan is located to the north of the Tarim block and defines the southern margin of the Paleozoic Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). This study presents new structural data, geochronological and geochemical results for the Wuwamen ophiolite mélange in the Chinese segment of the South Tianshan. In the south, the Wuwamen ophiolite mélan...
Article
Full-text available
The South Tianshan is located north of the Tarim block and defines the southern margin of the Paleozoic Central Asian orogenic belt. This study presents new structural, geochronological, and geochemical data for the Wuwamen ophiolite mélange in the Chinese segment of the South Tianshan. In the south, the Wuwamen ophiolite mélange shows typical bloc...
Article
Yardangs are streamlined hills formed in part by the erosive action of wind and wind‐blown sediments. Here we examine the controls on yardang development and morphology using the Ocotillo Wells State Vehicular Recreation Area (OWSVRA), California as a study site. We measured the compressive strengths, strikes, and dips of bedrock strata, aeolian se...
Article
Full-text available
Tectonophysics, 259(4), 259-284; Yi et al., 2011, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 309(1), 153-165]. They argued that authigenic magnetite pseudomorphic after pyrite, which is the dominant magnetic carrier within these carbonate rocks as indicated by our thorough rock magnetic and petrographic investigations, was formed during early diagenesis...
Article
The amalgamation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in the southwestern Tian Shan in Tajikistan is represented by tectono-magmatic-metamorphic processes that accompanied late Paleozoic ocean closure and collision between the Karakum–Tarim and Kazakh–Kyrgyz terranes. Integrated U-Pb geochronology, thermobarometry, pseudosection modelling, and Hf geo...
Article
An intrinsic feature of Cordillera-style orogenic systems is a spatial trend in the radiogenic isotopic composition of subduction-related magmatism. Magmatism is most isotopically juvenile near the trench and becomes increasingly evolved landward. A compilation of radiogenic isotopic data from the central Andes, U.S. Cordillera, and Tibet (the most...
Article
Full-text available
With the aim of better understanding the history of ocean closure and suturing between India and Asia, we conducted a geologic investigation of a siliciclastic matrix tectonic mélange within the western Yarlung suture zone of southern Tibet (Lopu Range region, ~ 50 km northwest of Saga). The siliciclastic matrix mélange includes abundant blocks of...
Article
Full-text available
The characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) isolated from Paleogene carbonate rocks of the Zongpu Formation in Gamba (28.3°N, 88.5°E) of southern Tibet has previously been interpreted to be primary. These data are pertinent for estimating the width of Greater India and dating the initiation of India-Asia collision. We have reanalyzed the publi...
Article
The Lopu Range, located ~600 km west of Lhasa, exposes a continental high-pressure metamorphic complex beneath India-Asia (Yarlung) suture zone assemblages. Geologic mapping, 14 detrital U-Pb zircon (n = 1895 ages), 11 igneous U-Pb zircon, and nine zircon (U-Th)/He samples reveal the structure, age, provenance, and time-temperature histories of Lop...
Article
The Indus-Yarlung suture zone, within the larger Indo-Asia collision zone in southern Tibet, is characterized by a central depression with two oppositely directed axial rivers: The eastward-flowing Yarlung River and the westward-flowing Indus River. The axial valley is flanked by high-elevation ranges of the southern Lhasa terrane to the north and...
Article
This study documents an early Cenozoic continental high-pressure (HP) metamorphic complex along the Yarlung (India-Asia) suture zone in southern Tibet. The complex is exposed in the Lopu Range, located ~600 km west of the city of Lhasa. HP rocks in the core of the complex have Indian passive-margin (Tethyan Himalaya Sequence) protoliths and are exp...
Article
The onset of modern central Asian atmospheric circulation is traditionally linked to the interplay of surface uplift of the Mongolian and Tibetan-Himalayan orogens, retreat of the Paratethys sea from central Asia and Cenozoic global cooling. Although the role of these players has not yet been unravelled, the vast dust deposits of central China supp...
Data
Sample information and zircon U-Pb ages used in the study.
Data
Supplementary Figures 1-3, Supplementary Tables 1-2 and Supplementary References.
Article
Full-text available
Western South America provides an outstanding laboratory for studies of magmatism and crustal evolution because it contains Archean-Paleoproterozoic cratons that amalgamated during Neoproterozoic supercontinent assembly, as well as a long history of Andean magmatism that records crustal growth and reworking in an accretionary orogen. We have attemp...
Article
The Oligocene-Miocene Kailas Formation is exposed along strike for ~1300 km within the southernmost Lhasa terrane. In this study, we documented the sedimentology, structure, and age of this unit exposed between 87°E and 90°E. Within this region, the Kailas Formation is composed of continental deposits dominated by conglomerate and sandstone, with l...
Article
The Gangdese belt is dominantly composed of igneous rocks that formed during the northward subduction of Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere beneath the Lhasa terrane and has played a crucial role in understanding the pre-collisional evolution of southern Tibet. This paper presents new geochronological and geochemical (whole-rock major and trace elemen...
Article
The loess and paleosol sequences of the Chinese Loess Plateau are composed of Quaternary dust, the origin of which has been the subject of considerable debate. Some recent U-Pb geochronological studies of eolian zircons have proposed the existence of two major wind pathways: from the north and northwest, through the Badan Jaran, Tengger, and Mu Us...
Conference Paper
We propose that an intrinsic feature of Cordillera-style orogenic systems is a spatial trend in the radiogenic isotopic composition of magmatism. Magmatism is the most juvenile near the trench and becomes increasingly evolved towards the foreland. We present new and compiled isotopic data from the Central Andes, the U.S. Cordillera, and Tibet to de...
Conference Paper
An intrinsic feature of Cordillera-style orogenic systems is a spatial trend in the radiogenic isotopic composition of magmatism. Magmatism is the most juvenile near the trench and becomes increasingly evolved towards the foreland. We present new and compiled isotopic data (Hf, Nd, Sr) from the U.S. Cordillera, central Andes, and Tibet to demonstra...
Article
Full-text available
The Ordos Basin of China encompasses the Mu Us Desert in the northwest and the Chinese Loess Plateau to the south and east. The boundary between the mostly internally drained Mu Us Desert and fluvially incised Loess Plateau is an erosional escarpment, up to 400 m in relief, composed of Quaternary loess. Linear ridges, with lengths of ~102–103 m, ar...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative structural analysis is a useful approach for studying geologic structures. It is particularly important in remote and complex fold-thrust belts where outcrop data and high-quality seismic reflection images are challenging to obtain. In this study, we integrated terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR), unmanned aerial vehicle (U...