Paul R Jepson

Paul R Jepson
University of Oxford | OX · School of Geography and the Environment

DPhil Geography
Head of Innovation at Ecosulis developing ecosystem analytics for nature postive investment

About

143
Publications
57,161
Reads
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5,106
Citations
Citations since 2016
45 Research Items
3110 Citations
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Introduction
Following a successful career in conservation management I held research & teaching positions at Oxford University (2001 -2019. I cofounded the fields of conservation biogeography and conservation culturomics. I have made significant contributions to theories of avoided extinction, flagship species agency, and conservation actors and published key papers on rewilding science, policy and practice. I currently lead a team developing innovation ecosystem analytics linked to ESG investments.
Additional affiliations
March 2021 - present
Ecosulis Ltd
Position
  • Head of Innovation
January 2019 - February 2021
Ecosulis Ltd
Position
  • Nature Recovery Lead
February 2013 - December 2018
University of Oxford
Position
  • Course Director, MSc Biodiversity, Conservation & Management
Education
October 1999 - May 2001
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Geography, Conservation Governance

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Full-text available
As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors—traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives—have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the defi nition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in...
Article
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The flagship species approach is an enduring strategy in conservation. Academic discussion on flagship species has focussed on two dimensions: on what basis should they be selected and how have they been put to use. Here we consider a third dimension, namely the manner in which flagship species act and have the capacity to galvanise and influence c...
Article
Full-text available
Culturomics is an emerging field of study that seeks to understand human culture through the quantitative analysis of changes in word frequencies in large bodies of digital texts. Culturomics research can help nature conservation respond to cultural trends, building and reinvigorating its societal relevance. We identify five areas where culturomics...
Article
Protected areas (PAs) are the main strategy to conserve natural values and reduce biodiversity loss. However, with increasing global food requirements, using land for protecting landscapes and species is becoming increasingly difficult to justify. Here, we argue that framing PAs as spatial assets provides an ideal platform for generating investment...
Article
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Rewilding may signify the emergence of a new environmental narrative. Discussion of underlying policy narratives is important because they shape understandings of the state of world and how society should act. I summarise the origins of twentieth century environmental narratives and argue that their influence derives from components telling of the...
Article
Cultural ecosystem services (CES) are benefits that people receive from ecosystems, for example, through spiritual enrichment, cognitive development, recreation, and aesthetic experiences. These are important contributors to human well-being, but are challenging to measure due to their intangible nature and because they may vary spatially depending...
Article
Protected areas (PAs) are the main spatial policy instrument for conserving biodiversity and have expanded dramatically in the last 30 years. This expansion has not been matched by a corresponding increase in financial investment, leaving many parks without sufficient resources for essential management actions. Moreover, in some parts of the world...
Article
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Interactions with nature promote key human health benefits and help inform sound conservation actions. During the COVID-19 lockdowns such interactions were reduced and, in many cases, limited to urban nature. Nevertheless, home-confinement regulations may have provided the impetus for people to reconnect with urban wildlife –through their windows,...
Article
Protected Areas (PAs) are the cornerstone of global conservation action and the most effective strategy for conserving the Earth’s biodiversity. Nevertheless, there is evidence that PAs are increasingly viewed by politicians and policy-makers as opportunity costs that constrain economic development. In the absence of societal resistance (‘push-back...
Article
Protected areas (PAs) are the cornerstone of global conservation policy and have expanded dramatically over the last century. Though unequivocally beneficial for biodiversity, gazetting land for protecting nature can also be seen as an 'opportunity cost' that some politicians are unwilling to pay. One of the most effective strategies to increase th...
Article
Full-text available
As áreas protegidas (APs) são as principais ferramentas capazes de assegurar a preservaçãodos sistemas naturais e sua respectiva biodiversidade, principalmente no caso de áreas com prioridade para conservação, como ocorre com as áreas úmidas. A implementação de APs tem potencial para gerar benefícios fundamentais para proteger paisagens icônicas, e...
Article
Full-text available
Digital data are accumulating at unprecedented rates. These contain a lot of information about the natural world, some of which can be used to answer key ecological questions. Here, we introduce iEcology (i.e., internet ecology), an emerging research approach that uses diverse online data sources and methods to generate insights about species distr...
Article
Scientific knowledge of species and the ecosystems they inhabit is the cornerstone of modern conservation. However, research effort is not spread evenly among taxa (taxonomic bias), which may constrain capacity to identify conservation risk and to implement effective responses. Addressing such biases requires an understanding of factors that promot...
Article
Natural climate solutions (NCS) in the Arctic hold the potential to be implemented at a scale able to substantially affect the global climate. The strong feedbacks between carbon-rich permafrost, climate and herbivory suggest an NCS consisting of reverting the current wet/moist moss and shrub-dominated tundra and the sparse forest–tundra ecotone to...
Article
Full-text available
Assets em Áreas Protegidas: Estudo de Caso em Áreas Úmidas RESUMO-As áreas protegidas (APs) são as principais ferramentas capazes de assegurar a preservação dos sistemas naturais e sua respectiva biodiversidade, principalmente no caso de áreas com prioridade para conservação, como ocorre com as áreas úmidas. A implementação de APs tem potencial par...
Article
Full-text available
1. Conservation will only be successful over the long term if people support conservation goals. While many factors may influence the level of such support, it is clear that people are more willing to conserve species and places that they are familiar with and which provide them with something they value. 2. Until now this dimension has been largel...
Article
When effectively managed, Protected Areas (PAs) are capable of generating multiple forms of value, both tangible and intangible, for individuals and institutions. However, the value-generating potential of many PAs may be going unrecognized and underutilized due to a limited view of management objectives as codified within the parks' Management Pla...
Article
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In Brazil most forms of hunting and keeping of wild animals are illegal, although they remain widely practiced and are deeply culturally embedded in many regions. The drivers of such widespread non-compliance are poorly understood and evidence to support future policy decisions is generally lacking. In this paper, we seek to stimulate a critical de...
Article
Protected areas are frequently used loci for ecological and conservation research, with several national/international designations identifying scientific research as a key objective. For example, Ecological Stations (ESs) in Brazil are strictly protected areas with the explicit goals of protecting nature and hosting scientific research. Neverthele...
Article
Academic interest in rewilding is moving from commentary to discussion on future research agendas. The quality of rewilding research design will be enhanced if it is informed by knowledge of the rewilding practice. Here, we describe the conceptual origins and six case study examples of a mode of rewilding that emerged in the Dutch Delta and is bein...
Article
Culturomics is an emerging area of study that explores human culture through the quantitative analysis of large digital bodies of text. Culturomics shows great potential for the study of public perceptions and engagement with nature and biodiversity, and thus to contribute to the assessment and monitoring of major conservation goals (e.g. Aichi Tar...
Poster
Assessing public interest in nature is one of the key areas where culturomics shows great potential to contribute towards conservation science and practice. For example, internet search volume data has been suggested as a potential tool for measuring progress towards Aichi Target 1, which states that ‘by 2020, at the latest, people are aware of the...
Article
In a time when protected areas are under increasing societal and political pressure, ensuring their public visibility and support will be essential to guarantee their long-term maintenance. The high levels of societal participation and global reach of emerging digital technologies provide exciting new opportunities to assess the public salience of...
Article
Full-text available
Tree diseases are on the increase in many countries and the implications of their appearance can be political, as well as ecological and economic. Preventative policy approaches to tree diseases are difficult to formulate because dispersal pathways for pest and pathogens are numerous, poorly known and likely to be beyond human management control. G...
Article
Public interest in nature is an important driver of the success of conservation actions, such that increasing public awareness of biodiversity has become a major conservation goal (i.e. Aichi Target 1). Macro-scale monitoring of public interest towards nature has thus far been difficult, but the enormous quantity of information generated by the int...
Article
Full-text available
The UK needs to develop effective policy responses to the spread of tree pathogens and pests. This has been given the political urgency following the media and other commentary associated with the arrival of a disease that causes ‘dieback’ of European Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) - a tree species with deep cultural associations. In 2014 the UK governme...
Data
Questionnaire on tree-breeding solutions.
Article
Large carnivore reintroductions have become commonplace in modern conservation. Despite the benefits of such initiatives, conflict with humans can jeopardize their success. Reintroductions of grey wolves (Canis lupus) in the American West are particularly polarizing, and opposing views are often popularized through visual media. We examined public...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates one notable result that the REDD+ (‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation, and enhancing forest carbon stocks and conservation’) initiative effected within Indonesia’s forest institutions. It argues that during its interplay with existing National forest institutions REDD+ produced a significant benefi...
Article
Over a 10-year period, a valley in Crocker Range Park in Sabah (Malaysia) has witnessed a conflict between a community located inside its boundaries – the Ulu Senagang/Mongool Baru – and the state government's parks department – Sabah Parks. Sabah Parks sought to designate the area as a co-managed community use zone (CUZ) in which sustainable pract...
Article
Full-text available
During a time of intensifying competition for land, Protected Areas (PAs) are coming under increasing pressure to justify their status. Positive local attitudes to a PA are a potentially important component of any such justification, especially in the developing world where human pressure on natural resources is often high. However, despite numerou...
Article
Full-text available
Protected areas (PAs) are under increasing pressure to demonstrate their broader value and contribution to society. Scientific research and associated knowledge production comprise one such value, which has received relatively little attention in the academic literature. Here, we use the Amazon region as a case study to quantify scientific knowledg...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Rewilding signifies advances in inter-disciplinary conservation science interacting with wider social and political trends. It is about restoring natural processes in a variety of landscapes and at different scales within the constraints of what is possible. Rewilding is future orientated with the potential to extend and reinvigorate European natur...
Article
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Unfortunately, in the original publication of the article, Footnote 1 appeared incorrectly. The correct version of Footnote 1 is provided in this erratum. Footnote 1: Dataset doi:10.5287/bodleian:st74cq573.
Article
Full-text available
Understanding public perceptions of biodiversity is essential to ensure continuedsupport for conservation efforts. Despite this, insights remain scarce at broaderspatial scales, mostly due to a lack of adequate methods for their assessment. Theemergence of new technologies with global reach and high levels of participationprovide exciting new oppor...
Data
S1 Appendix. Dataset of species level variables used for analysis. Dataset includes Brazilian and international internet salience scores, range size, human population within the range, presence in anthropogenic habitats, body size and endemic or endangered status for each individual species considered for analysis.
Article
Full-text available
Rewilding is being promoted as an ambitious alternative to current approaches to nature conservation. Interest is growing in popular and scientific literatures, and rewilding is the subject of significant comment and debate, outstripping scientific research and conservation practice. Projects and research are found the world over, with concentratio...
Article
Full-text available
Apps are small task-orientated programs with the potential to integrate the computational and sensing capacities of smartphones with the power of cloud computing, social networking, and crowdsourcing. They have the potential to transform how humans interact with nature, cause a step change in the quantity and resolution of biodiversity data, democr...
Article
In the context of aging European conservation institutions rewilding has emerged as a popular and scientific expression of new directions in ecology and conservation management associated with the restoration of ecosystem function through reassembly of tropic level through reintroduction of large mammals. It introduces a radical new natural archety...
Article
Full-text available
Saving species from extinction is a central tenet of conservation, yet success in this endeavour remains unpredictable and elusive, especially where wildlife trade is involved. Influential conservation policy actors operating internationally advocate strong regulatory and enforcement approaches to governance of wildlife trade. However, a broad body...
Article
Full-text available
Technology has played an important role in biological recording for hundreds of years, from the invention of the microscope to the microprocessor. We review current and emerging technologies that are changing the way we study and record the natural world. From websites to smartphones, data capture is becoming easier, faster and more accessible. Inc...
Data
Full-text available
Mari Mulyani and Paul Jepson School of Geography & the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK. Email: mari.mulyani@ouce.ox.ac.uk (M. Mulyani); paul.jepson@ouce.ox.ac.uk (P. Jepson) Abstract: This paper examines the process for establishing a ‘village agreement’ using the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership (K...
Article
This paper examines the process for establishing a ‘village agreement’ using the Kalimantan Forests and Climate Partnership (KFCP) as a case study. REDD+ is designed as a ‘performance‐based’ mechanism and requires a contractual agreement between the parties involved. Since its implementation will affect the life of forest‐dependent communities, it...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In order to assure the future of PAs in increasingly risky and volatile contexts three things need to happen simultaneously: i) we need demonstrate the value generate by PAs in ways that are meaningful for citizens, politicians, and markets in a rapidly changing world; ii) we need to better understand the forms of value generated by PAs to enable e...
Article
Full-text available
Bamboo is emerging as an important substitute for wood and wood fiber. Although bamboo can be assimilated within existing forest certification mechanisms, there is growing controversy among experts regarding the applicability and efficacy of adopting such instruments. Through an accumulation of fieldwork, interviews, and discussions among experts b...
Article
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This paper traces a controversial development in India called Lavasa. Lavasa is a new hill station being created in Maharashtra, which aims to tap into a new eco-city trend of urban development. In order to ascertain “world-class” status, the city requires globally recognized standards. This study follows the Forest Stewardship Council certificatio...
Article
Full-text available
Private protected areas (PPAs) are important designations with the potential to complement and improve public protected area (PA) networks in many countries. PPAs come in many forms and offer a wide variety of incentives, rights, responsibilities, and protections. One popular model, now being considered for adoption in Chile, is the conservation ea...
Technical Report
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Managing the hybrid identity of freshwater – as both a medium for all life and a resource for humanity - is an interdisciplinary and cross-sectoral challenge linking ecological and cultural systems.  Freshwater ecosystems are essential to providing for all levels of human needs, but contemporary policy only focuses on the delivery of basic human n...
Article
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Forest certification is conceptualized as non-state market-driven (NSMD) governance, whereby forces within the market are used to drive sustainable practices at the forest management level and throughout supply chains. Whilst recent scholarship has considered the cross fertilization and hybrid nature of the state and non-state in creating sustainab...
Article
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) represents the strategic linkage between a climate change regime and international forest policy. But the future success of REDD+ will depend, in part, on how policy makers perceive the challenges and opportunities it offers stakeholders. This study investigated perceptions toward...
Article
Full-text available
China's practice of gifting and loaning giant pandas has been given new impetus as a result of damage to panda-conservation facilities caused by the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and China's rise as an economic power. We suggest that a new, third phase of panda diplomacy is under way that is distinct from the previous two. Phase 1 during the Mao era (in...
Article
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Private protected areas (PPAs) are a board category that includes reserves established and managed by non-government entities, including civil society organizations, businesses and private individuals. It was recently suggested that the creation of a system of PPAs in Brazil may act as a useful model for extending protected area systems internation...
Article
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Multi-taxon surveys were conducted in species-rich, lowland palaeotropical and neotropical forested landscapes in Sumatra, Indonesia and Mato Grosso, Brazil. Gradient-directed transects (gradsects) were sampled across a range of forested land use mosaics, using a uniform protocol to simultaneously record vegetation (vascular plant species, plant fu...
Article
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A meeting on Biodiversity Technologies was held by the Biodiversity Institute, Oxford on the 27-28 of September 2012 at the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford. The symposium brought together 36 speakers from North America, Australia and across Europe, presenting the latest research on emerging technologies in biodiversity science and conse...
Chapter
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