Paul J. Feltovich

Paul J. Feltovich
Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition | IHMC · Scientist

PhD

About

130
Publications
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15,984
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Publications

Publications (130)
Article
Full-text available
The growth of sophistication in machine capabilities must go hand in hand with growth of sophistication in human–machine interaction capabilities. To continue advancement as we build today’s intelligent machines, designers need formative tools for creating sociotechnical systems. In this article, we will briefly assess the appropriateness of “level...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe a reconfigurable testbed for experiementation on joint activity in mixed human-agent-robot teamwork (HART). The testbed was originally inspired by the classic AI planning problem of Blocks World (BW) extended into what we call Blocks World for Teams (BW4T) [1] and now with more generality and power into RT4T, a Reconfigur...
Article
Full-text available
This article plays counterpoint to our previous discussions of the “seven deadly myths” of autonomous systems. The seven deadly myths are common design misconceptions to be acknowledged and avoided for the ills they breed. Here, we present seven design principles to be understood and embraced for the virtues they engender. The cardinal virtues of c...
Patent
Full-text available
A method for visually depicting complex events. Software agents are preferably employed to assist the human operator by collecting, enriching, selecting, aggregating, and analyzing data so that patterns of interest can be visually flagged or otherwise emphasized in the visual display. Events are depicted as an "event flow" from a source surface to...
Patent
Full-text available
A method for visually depicting complex events. Software agents are preferably employed to assist the human operator by collecting, enriching, selecting, aggregating, and analyzing data so that patterns of interest can be visually flagged or otherwise emphasized in the visual display. Events are depicted as an “event flow” from a source surface to...
Article
Full-text available
Coactive Design is a new approach to address the increasingly sophisticated roles that people and robots play as the use of robots expands into new, complex domains. The approach is motivated by the desire for robots to perform less like teleoperated tools or independent automatons and more like interdependent teammates. In this article, we describ...
Book
Speed in acquiring the knowledge and skills to perform tasks is crucial. Yet, it still ordinarily takes many years to achieve high proficiency in countless jobs and professions, in government, business, industry, and throughout the private sector. There would be great advantages if regimens of training could be established that could accelerate the...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we discuss the need for a new command and control (C2) approach for the practical deployment of Moving Target Defenses (MTDs) enterprise networks. We describe some of the requirements and constraints associated with the combined use of multiple moving target defenses, and introduce a human-agent teamwork approach for the command and c...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss the need for a command and control (C2) capability for moving target (MT) defenses. We describe some of the requirements and constraints associated with such a capability, and propose a human-agent teamwork approach for MTC2. We further discuss some specific concepts and technologies that could play an important role in the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this article, we explain our rationale for the development of Luna, a software agent framework. In particular, we focus on how we use capabilities for comprehensive policy-based governance to ensure that key requirements for security, declarative specification of taskwork, and built-in support for joint activity within mixed teams of humans and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this article, we outline the general concept of coactive emergence, an iterative process whereby joint sensemaking and decision-making activities are undertaken by analysts and software agents. Then we explain our rationale for the development of the Luna software agent framework. In particular, we focus on how we use capabilities for comprehens...
Article
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In this article, we describe how we augment human perception and cognition through Sol, an agent-based framework for distributed sensemaking. We describe how our visualization approach, based on IHMC’s OZ flight display, has been leveraged and extended in our development of the Flow Capacitor, an analyst display for maintaining cyber situation awar...
Article
Full-text available
The macrocognitive workplace is constantly changing, and a work system can never match its environment completely; there are always gaps in fitness because the work is itself a moving target. This article looks at a domain where the workplace is a moving target in three ways: cyberdefense. New technology and work methods are continually being intro...
Article
Full-text available
There is a common belief that making systems more autonomous will improve the system and is therefore a desirable goal. Though small scale simple tasks can often benefit from automation, this does not necessarily generalize to more complex joint activity. When designing today’s more sophisticated systems to work closely with humans, it is important...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we describe how we apply the concept of coactive emergence as a phenomenon of complexity that has implications for the design of sensemaking support tools involving a combination of human analysts and software agents. We apply this concept in the design of work methods for distributed sensemaking in cyber operations. Sensemaking is...
Chapter
Full-text available
There are several applications in which humans and agents jointly perform a task. If the task involves interdependence among the team members, coordination is required to achieve good team performance. This paper discusses the role of explanation in coordination in human-agent teams. Explanations about agent behavior for humans can improve coordina...
Article
Full-text available
This article harks back to the origins of this periodical as IEEE Expert Systems. Even while expert systems as a field or paradigm was morphing into intelligent systems, it was recognized that cognitive task analysis was critical in the design of new technologies. Furthermore, as a part of cognitive task analysis, it is crucial to conduct some form...
Article
Full-text available
How participants to a joint activity come to develop a shared or mutual understanding of what they are perceiving has long been a problematic issue for philosophers, sociologists, and linguists. We examine the abstract model proposed by Clark and Marshall (1981) whereby speakers and hearers construct mutual knowledge and by which discrepancies in d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are several applications in which humans and agents jointly perform a task. If the task involves interdependence among the team members, coordination is required to achieve good team performance. Coordination in human-agent teams can be improved by giving humans insight in the behavior of the agents. When humans are able to understand and pre...
Article
Full-text available
As automation becomes more sophisticated, the nature of its interaction with people will need to change in profound ways. Many approaches to designing more team-like cooperation between humans and machines have been proposed, including function allocation, supervisory control, adaptive automation, dynamic task allocation, adjustable autonomy, mixed...
Conference Paper
This paper introduces the concept of Coactivity as a new focal point for Human-Robot Interaction to address the more sophisticated roles of partner or teammate envisioned for future human-robot systems. We propose that most approaches to date have focused on autonomy and suggest that autonomy is the wrong focal point. The envisioned roles, if prope...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article presents the fundamental principle of Coactive Design, a new approach being developed to address the increasingly sophisticated roles for both people and agents in mixed human-agent systems. The fundamental principle of Coactive Design is that the underlying interdependence of participants in joint activity is a critical factor in the...
Article
As our contribution to this special issue, we examine how understandings of objects are talked and worked into being within concerted action. We will argue that formal procedure can serve as a resource in this regard. Procedures make relevant certain kinds of objects, objects that serve as its materials, tools, end-products, agents, etc. Our analys...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This demonstration will be the presentation of a new testbed for joint activity. The domain for this demonstration will be similar to the classic AI planning problem of Blocks World (BW) extended into what we are calling Blocks World for Teams (BW4T). By teams, we mean at least two, but usually more members. Additionally, we do not restrict the mem...
Article
We wish to pose accelerated learning as a challenge for intelligent systems technology. Research on intelligent tutoring systems has proved that accelerated learning is possible. The Sherlock tutor for electronics troubleshooting, for example, condensed four years of on-the-job training to approximately 25 hours, compressing the duration of the exp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Obligations can apply to individuals, either severally or collectively. When applied severally, each individual or member of a team is independently responsible to fulfill the obligation. When applied collectively, it is the group as a whole that becomes responsible, with individual members sharing the obligation. In this paper, we present several...
Chapter
Human expertise has been studied intensively by cognitive scientists (Ericsson et al., 2006; Feltovich et al., 2006). The cognitive science literature includes many studies demonstrating differences in performances of a variety of skills by experts and novices (Baylor, 2001; Chi et al., 1981; Lesgold et al., 1988; Masunaga and Horn, 2000; Melcher a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several key aspects of coordination such as teamwork, roles, and communication, are enabled and driven by, and even largely defined by, various systems of regulation. One key feature of all these elements in human coordination is their dynamic nature. We have developed a framework to provide a dynamic regulatory system for supporting coordination i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The KAoS policy management framework pioneered the use of semantically-rich ontological representation and reasoning to specify, analyze, deconflict, and enforce policies [9, 10]. The framework has continued to evolve over the last five years, inspired by both technological advances and the practical needs of its varied applications. In this paper,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Coordination is an essential ingredient of a teamwork- centered approach to autonomy. In this paper, we discuss some of the challenges and requirements for successful coordination, and briefly how we have used KAoS HART services framework to support coordination in a multi- team human-robot field exercise.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several key aspects of coordination such as teamwork, roles, and communication, are enabled and driven by, and even largely defined by, various systems of regulation. One key feature of all these elements in human coordination is their dynamic nature. We have developed a framework to provide a dynamic regulatory system for supporting coordination i...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we describe how usability provides the indexical ground upon which design work in a surgery is achieved. Indexical and deictic referential practices are used (1) to constitute participation frameworks and work sites in an instructional surgery and (2) to encode and manage participants’ differential access to the relevancies and backg...
Article
The article proposes that individuals who acquire certain psychological support skills may experience accelerated learning and enhanced performance in many domains. In support of this proposal, we present evidence that these skills enhance learning and performance, that they are domain-general in that they can be applied in a variety of domains, an...
Article
Each clinical encounter represents an amazing series of psychological events: perceiving the features of the situation; quickly accessing relevant hypotheses; checking for signs and symptoms that confirm or rule out competing hypotheses, and using related knowledge to guide appropriate investigations and treatment. Script theory, issued from cognit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Joint activity, as we define it, is a mutually interdependent endeavor that requires a degree of predictability among participating parties so that they can coordinate. Coordination, in turn, sometimes requires the parties to appraise the state of progress of their activities so that, if necessary, they can adjust their actions to meet coordination...
Article
Whereas knowledge management relies on processes of knowledge elicitation, there is also a process in which knowledge is “recovered,” typically from archived documents. We conducted a knowledge recovery (KR) effort, going from documents to a structured set of propositions concerning expert knowledge about terrain analysis, discussing landforms, soi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this chapter we explore the role of regulation in joint activity that is conducted among people and how understanding this better can enhance the efforts of researchers seeking to develop effective means to coordinate the performance of consequential work within mixed teams of humans, agents, and robots. Our analysis reveals challenges to the qu...
Conference Paper
An omni-relevant issue for workplace studies is how participants engaged in joint activity make sense of the objects that constitute their shared material environment. In this study we examine a surgery taped in a teaching hospital to explore how formal procedures make relevant certain sorts of objects and, at the same time, are constituted through...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we describe our approach to enhancing control of robotic systems by providing domain and policy services via KAoS. Recently developed languages such as OWL provide a powerful descriptive logic foundation that can be used to express semantically rich relationships between entities and actions, and thus create complex context sensitive...
Book
This 2006 book was the first handbook where the world's foremost ‘experts on expertise’ reviewed our scientific knowledge on expertise and expert performance and how experts may differ from non-experts in terms of their development, training, reasoning, knowledge, social support, and innate talent. Methods are described for the study of experts' kn...
Chapter
Full-text available
Generalizing the concepts of joint activity developed by Clark (1996), we describe key aspects of team coordination. Joint activity depends on interpredictability of the participants' attitudes and actions. Such interpredictability is based on common ground-pertinent knowledge, beliefs, and assumptions that are shared among the involved parties. Jo...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we describe how embodied action, in the form of pointing and other gestures, and personal and spatial indexicals are used to constitute participation frameworks and work sites in an instructional surgery. As a site for both learning and work, the operating room afforded us the opportunity to examine how usability, which is a critical...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Though adjustable autonomy is hardly a new topic in agent systems, there has been a general lack of consensus on terminology and basic concepts. In this paper, we describe the multi-dimensional nature of adjustable autonomy and give examples of how various dimensions might be adjusted in order to enhance performance of human-agent teams. We then in...
Chapter
Full-text available
Trust is arguably the most crucial aspect of agent acceptability. At its simplest level, it can be characterized in terms of judgments that people make concerning three factors: an agent’s competence, its benevolence, and the degree to which it can be rapidly and reliably brought into compliance when things go wrong. Adjustable autonomy consists of...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we describe how embodied action, in the form of pointing and other gestures, and personal and spatial indexicals are used to constitute participation frameworks and work sites in an instructional surgery. As a site for both learning and work, the operating room afforded us the opportunity to examine how usability, which is a critical...
Article
Full-text available
The challenges associated with making automation a 'team player' in a joint human-agent activity are discussed. Joint activity is defined as an extended set of actions that are carried out by an ensemble of people coordinating with each other. To carry out joint activity, each party effectively enters into a Basic Compact, an agreement to facilitat...
Article
Full-text available
Certain features of tasks make especially difficult for humans. These constitute leverage points for applying intelligent technologies, but there's a flip side. Designing complex cognitive systems is itself a tough task. Cognitive engineers face the same challenges in designing systems that users confront in working the tasks that the systems are i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we outline an approach to policy-based coordination in joint human-agent activity. The approach is grounded in a theory of joint activity originally developed in the context of discourse, and now applied to the broader realm of human-agent interaction. We have been gradually implementing selected aspects of policy-based coordination...
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge recovery is the process of culling meaningful propositions from documents and crafting them in the form of Novakian Concept Maps, thereby making the material more useful and usable. This report discusses our first major effort at knowledge recovery. Expert knowledge about terrain exists in the form of traditional documents discussing land...
Chapter
Full-text available
Because ever more powerful intelligent agents will interact with people in increasingly sophisticated and important ways, greater attention must be given to the technical and social aspects of how to make agents acceptable to people [16.72]. From a technical perspective, we want to help ensure the protection of agent states, the viability of agent...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we discuss some of the ways social order is maintained in animal and human realms, with the goal of enriching our thinking about mechanisms that might be employed in developing similar means of ordering communities of agents. We present examples from our current work in human- agent teamwork, and we speculate about some new directions...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Several research groups have grappled with the problem of char- acterizing and developing practical approaches for implementing adjustable autonomy and mixed-initiative interaction in deployed systems. However, each group takes a little different approach and uses variations of the same terminology in a somewhat different fashion. In this chapter,...
Article
All in all, the evidence is not convincing. Only four of the nine randomized studies used the conventional small-group learning paradigm and qualify as studies of small-group learning, which are relevant to medical education. The results of one of the four are impossible to interpret because of the involvement of the investigator in teaching and te...
Article
Full-text available
We give a preliminary perspective on the basic principles and pitfalls of adjustable autonomy and human-centered teamwork. We then summarize the interim results of our study on the problem of work practice modeling and human-agent collaboration in space applications, the development of a broad model of human-agent teamwork grounded in practice, and...