Paul D Hynds

Paul D Hynds
Technological University Dublin - City Campus | TU Dublin · Environmental Sustainability and Health Institute

BAppSc, MSc, MEngSc, PhD

About

124
Publications
18,430
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
814
Citations
Introduction
Paul D Hynds currently works at the Environmental Sustainability and Health Institute (ESHI), Technological University Dublin. Paul does research in Epidemiology, Geostatistics, Environmental Infection and Contaminant Hydrogeology. Current projects include CO/SMID, STEP_WISE, BIOSAFE, SMARTIE and CRISIS. He leads the SpatioTemporal Environmental Epidemiology Research (STEER) Group within ESHI
Additional affiliations
April 2013 - March 2014
Public Health Agency of Canada
Position
  • Visiting Postdoctoral Fellow
April 2006 - November 2011
Trinity College Dublin
Position
  • PhD Student
March 2006 - October 2011
Trinity College
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (124)
Article
A spatiotemporally static total coliform (TC) concentration threshold of five colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 mL is used in Ontario to determine whether well water is of acceptable quality for drinking. The current study sought to assess the role of TC and associated thresholds as microbial water quality parameters as the authors hypothesized th...
Article
Approximately 1.6 million individuals in Ontario rely on private water wells. Private well water quality in Ontario remains the responsibility of the well owner, and due to the absence of regulation, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) likely represents the most effective approach to estimating and mitigating waterborne infection risk(s)...
Poster
Full-text available
This study aims to provide estimates of the economic burden of climate change on public health in the ROI for climate-related asthma. The study seeks to quantify current estimates of both direct and indirect costs associated with climate-associated cases of the selected health outcomes and generate forecasts of future costs in function of climate-...
Poster
Full-text available
Climate change and food security represent two of humanity's greatest challenges, with dietary habits contributing to both. The current study aimed to explore the associations between socio-demographics and environmental knowledge in Ireland by answering the following question: Is environmental knowledge associated with socio-demographic and dietar...
Article
Groundwater is a vital drinking water resource and its protection from microbiological contamination is paramount to safeguard public health. The Republic of Ireland (RoI) is characterised by the highest incidence of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) enteritis in the European Union (EU), linked to high reliance on unregulated groundwater so...
Article
Antimicrobial resistance represents a global health problem, with infections due to pathogenic antimicrobial resistant bacteria (ARB) predicted to be the most frequent cause of human mortality by 2050. The phenomenon of antimicrobial resistance has spread to and across all ecological niches, and particularly in livestock used for food production wi...
Article
Approximately 1.5 million individuals in Ontario are supplied by private water wells (private groundwater supplies). Unlike municipal supplies, private well water quality remains unregulated, with owners responsible for testing, treating, and maintaining their own water supplies. The COVID-19 global pandemic and associated non-pharmaceutical interv...
Article
Full-text available
Background Assessment of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) resulting from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) requires specific calculation methods and input data. The aims of this study were to: (i) identify existing NCD burden of disease (BoD) activities in Europe; (ii) collate information on data sources for mortality and morbidity; and (iii)...
Article
Full-text available
Flooding events can inflict major disruption on society and cause significant infrastructural and environmental damage. However, the adverse health impacts of flooding, particularly as they pertain to private groundwater resources used for consumption, are frequently overlooked. Whilst the literature has previously found a lack of well stewardship...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction unCoVer—Unravelling data for rapid evidence-based response to COVID-19—is a Horizon 2020-funded network of 29 partners from 18 countries capable of collecting and using real-world data (RWD) derived from the response and provision of care to patients with COVID-19 by health systems across Europe and elsewhere. unCoVer aims to exploit t...
Presentation
Approximately 16% of the Irish population is served by private wells, with appropriate treatment, periodic testing and structural inspections thus vital to safeguard rural Irish homeowners from supply contamination and consequent adverse health impacts. Recent national research has reported low levels of supply “stewardship” and harmful socio‐ hydr...
Article
Full-text available
Multiantimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolates are a global human health problem causing increasing morbidity and mortality. Genes encoding antimicrobial resistance are mainly harbored on mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as transposons and plasmids as well as integrons, which enhance their rapid spread. The aim of this study was to chara...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme Weather Events (EWEs) impose a substantial health and socioeconomic burden on exposed populations. Projected impacts on public health, based on increasing EWE frequencies since the 1950s, alongside evidence of human-mediated climatic change represents a growing concern. To date, the impacts of EWEs on mental health remain ambiguous, largely...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding patient progression from symptomatic COVID-19 infection to a severe outcome represents an important tool for improved diagnoses, surveillance, and triage. A series of models have been developed and validated to elucidate hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality in patients from the Republic of Ireland....
Presentation
Unlike consumers receiving water from regulated public systems in Ontario, private well users are responsible for protective behaviours, including source maintenance, treatment and laboratory testing. However, previous studies have reported low participation rates with respect to these actions, thus constituting a public health concern. To improve...
Article
Full-text available
The Republic of Ireland regularly reports the highest annual crude incidence rates of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coil (STEC) enteritis in the European Union, with approximately ten times the European mean CIR. This study investigated spatiotemporal patterns of STEC enteritis in Ireland using multiple statistical tools. Overall, 2,755 cases...
Article
Full-text available
The Republic of Ireland regularly reports the highest annual crude incidence rates of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enteritis in the European Union, ≈10 times the average. We investigated spatiotemporal patterns of STEC enteritis in Ireland using multiple statistical tools. Overall, we georeferenced 2,755 cases of infection during J...
Article
Full-text available
Background Ireland frequently reports the highest annual Crude Incidence Rates (CIRs) of cryptosporidiosis in the EU, with national CIRs up to ten times the EU average. Accordingly, the current study sought to examine the spatiotemporal trends associated with this potentially severe protozoan infection. Methods Overall, 4509 cases of infection fro...
Article
Full-text available
The Republic of Ireland (ROI) currently reports the highest incidence rates of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) enteritis and cryptosporidiosis in Europe, with the spatial distribution of both infections exhibiting a clear urban/rural divide. To date, no investigation of the role of socio-demographic profile on the incidence of either...
Preprint
Full-text available
During the COVID-19 pandemic, many governments have adopted responses revolving around the open-ended use of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including “lockdowns”, “stay-at-home” orders, travel restrictions, mask-wearing, and regulated social distancing. Initially these were introduced with the stated goals of “flattening the curve” of hos...
Article
Full-text available
Background To constrain propagation and mitigate the burden of COVID-19, most countries initiated and continue to implement several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including national and regional lockdowns. In the Republic of Ireland, the first national lockdown was decreed on 23rd of March 2020, followed by a succession of restriction inc...
Article
Full-text available
Risk communication represents the optimal instrument for decreasing the incidence of private groundwater contamination and associated waterborne illnesses. However, despite attempts to promote voluntary well maintenance in high groundwater-reliant regions such as the Republic of Ireland, awareness levels of supply status (e.g. structural integrity)...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Key contaminants of concern, how they can be prevented/managed, and how to successfully communicate with and support supply owners
Article
Full-text available
A significant volume of research over the past two decades has highlighted both direct and indirect links between climate change and groundwater quality. However, to date, few studies have sought to explore the relationship(s) between drought conditions and groundwater quality in i) private (unregulated) groundwater sources, or ii) temperate mariti...
Poster
Full-text available
Dietary patterns were examined based on fixed inclusion/exclusion criteria to answer the research question, “What are the current dietary and food consumption habits of high-income countries, and what are the environmental impacts of these dietary habits?” Emissions and other environmental impact data were analysed to identify associations between...
Article
Groundwater quality monitoring typically employs testing for the presence of E. coli as a fecal indicator of recent ingress of human or animal fecal material. The efficacy of fecal indicator organisms is based on the primary criteria that the organism does not reproduce in the aquatic environment. However, recent studies have reported that E. coli...
Article
Full-text available
During a 6-week period in November and December 2015, a series of Atlantic Storms swept across the Republic of Ireland (ROI) causing widespread pluvial and fluvial flooding. Flooding was particularly severe in the west and midlands, with rainfall up to 200% above normal in many regions, making it the wettest winter ever recorded. While the infrastr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background To constrain propagation and mitigate the burden of COVID-19, most countries initiated and continue to implement several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including national and regional lockdowns. In the Republic of Ireland, the first national lockdown was decreed on 23rd of March 2020, followed by a succession of restriction inc...
Preprint
Background: Understanding patient progression from symptomatic COVID-19 infection to a severe outcome represents an important tool for improved diagnoses, surveillance, and triage. A series of models have been developed and validated to elucidate hospitalization, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) and mortality in patients from the Republic...
Article
Extreme weather events (EWEs) may significantly increase pathogenic contamination of private (unregulated) groundwater supplies. However, due to the paucity of protective guidance, private well users may be ill-equipped to undertake adaptive actions. With rising instances of waterborne illness documented in groundwater-dependent, developed regions...
Preprint
To constrain propagation and mitigate the burden of COVID-19, most countries initiated and continue to implement several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including national and regional lockdowns. In the Republic of Ireland, the first national lockdown was decreed on 23rd of March 2020, followed by a succession of restriction increases and...
Article
Groundwater resources are under increasing threats from contamination and overuse, posing direct threats to human and environmental health. The purpose of this study is to better understand drivers of, and relationships between, well and aquifer characteristics, sampling frequencies, and microbiological contamination indicators (specifically E. col...
Chapter
Over 720,000 people in the Republic of Ireland rely on private groundwater resources (i.e. private wells) for daily consumption, and as these extractions are unregulated, users are solely responsible for managing/mitigating contamination risks to their supplies. However, low levels of exposure to appropriate guidance on well water protection and on...
Article
Full-text available
Background Geocoding (the process of converting a text address into spatial data) quality may affect geospatial epidemiological study findings. No national standards for best geocoding practice exist in Ireland. Irish postcodes (Eircodes) are not routinely recorded for infectious disease notifications and > 35% of dwellings have non-unique addresse...
Article
Understanding the water consumption patterns within a specific population informs development of increasingly accurate, spatially specific exposure and/or risk assessment of waterborne infection. The current study examined the consumption patterns of private well users in Ontario while considering potentially influential underlying sociodemographic...
Article
The frequency and severity of flooding events will increase over the coming decades due to global climate change. While close attention has typically been paid to infrastructural and environmental outcomes of flood events, the potential adverse human health consequences associated with post-event consumption from private groundwater sources have re...
Conference Paper
Global climate change models predict significant increases in the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, including the occurrence of prolonged drought conditions, thus posing a unique set of challenges for regions traditionally unaccustomed to severe climatic phenomena. This is particularly notable regarding the occurrence of drought per...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Groundwater is the primary drinking water source for approximately 2.2 billion people worldwide and over 750,000 in the Republic of Ireland (RoI). Hence, it is critical to ensure that groundwater resources are protected and of acceptable drinking quality. However, poor maintenance, inappropriate well location and a historical lack of regulation has...
Article
Private well users are responsible for managing and maintaining the quality of their drinking water source. Previous studies in Canada have reported low testing rates among well users, a cornerstone of well stewardship behaviours that can prevent the consumption of contaminated groundwater. To improve well stewardship, it is important to understand...
Article
Full-text available
Verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) are important agents of diarrhoeal disease in humans globally. As a noted waterborne disease, emphasis has been given to the study VTEC in surface waters, readily susceptible to microbial contamination. Conversely, the status of VTEC in potable groundwater sources, generally regarded as a “safe” drinking-water...
Presentation
Prize winner presentation for the School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Science's bronze Delap prize award to the best peer-reviewed academic paper by a registered/recently graduated postgraduate student.
Article
Approximately 1.5 million individuals in Ontario are supplied by private water wells (private groundwater supplies). Unlike municipal supplies, private well water quality remains unregulated, with owners responsible for testing, treating, and maintaining their own water supplies. The primary goal of this study was to assess the effect of repeat sam...
Conference Paper
Over 720,000 people in the Republic of Ireland rely on private groundwater resources (i.e. private wells) for daily consumption, and as these extractions are unregulated, users are solely responsible for managing/mitigating contamination risks to their supplies. However, low levels of exposure to appropriate guidance on well water protection and on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Environmentally associated infectious diseases, including those driven by extreme weather events, represent a critical challenge for public health as their source and transmission are frequently sporadic and associated mechanisms often not well understood. Over the past decade, the Republic of Ireland (ROI) has persistently reported the highest inc...
Poster
Full-text available
Global climate change models predict an increase in both the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, including prolonged drought conditions, thus posing a unique set of challenges for regions traditionally unaccustomed to severe climate phenomena. This is particularly significant for the occurrence of severe drought events in areas charac...
Poster
Full-text available
Approximately 500 million Europeans use a groundwater source for water consumption on a daily basis. Private (unregulated) groundwater wells are key sources of domestic drinking water in the Republic of Ireland (ROI) with approximately 750,000 users. The distribution of groundwater wells in the ROI is highly concentrated in rural areas in correspon...
Article
The mechanisms of private-well groundwater contamination are uniquely complex, necessitating a multisector communicative approach to risk management, premised on behaviour promotion. In countries such as the Republic of Ireland (ROI), characterised by oftentimes high groundwater contamination risk and concurrently limited user awareness, incorporat...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme weather events including flooding can have severe personal, infrastructural, and economic consequences, with recent evidence pointing to surface flooding as a pathway for the microbial contamination of private groundwater supplies. There is a pressing need for increasingly focused information and awareness campaigns to highlight the risks p...
Article
Full-text available
Cryptosporidiosis is one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal illness and mortality induced by protozoan pathogens worldwide. As a largely waterborne disease, emphasis has been given to the study of Cryptosporidium spp. in surface waters, readily susceptible to pathogenic contamination. Conversely, the status of Cryptosporidium in potable groundwate...
Poster
Full-text available
Despite its importance as one of the most extracted raw materials worldwide, groundwater remains the least understood element of the water cycle. Compounding this, historical lack of regulation has resulted in a large proportion of private groundwater supplies being inappropriately located, designed, constructed and maintained, leaving consumers vu...
Article
Approximately 12% of the Canadian population uses private wells for daily water consumption; however, well water testing rates are on the decline, resulting in an increased risk of waterborne acute gastrointestinal illness. To date, limited research has explored the determinants influencing well testing practices. Accordingly, the current study sou...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Synthesis Report on FloodRisk2WellWater Project. The Irish Research Council and Geological Survey Ireland provided funding for this project under the remit of their Research for Policy and Society Programme 2016.
Article
Antimicrobial resistance represents one of our most significant global health threats, with increasing incidences noted in both clinical and environmental settings. As such, identifying and understanding the sources and pathways for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) is critical. The current study presents the first systematic review and pooled...
Presentation
Antimicrobial resistance is a widely recognised global public health threat, with extensive evidence of its spread in and beyond clinical settings. However, relatively little is known of the role of the natural aquatic environment in its dissemination. Of particular concern is groundwater, the world’s largest reservoir of freshwater. Groundwater aq...
Article
Groundwater contamination constitutes a significant health risk for private well users residing in rural areas. As the responsibility to safeguard rural private domestic groundwater typically rests with non-expert homeowners, interventions promoting risk mitigation and awareness represent the most viable means of preventing supply contamination. Ho...