Paul W. Heisey

Paul W. Heisey
United States Department of Agriculture | USDA · Economic Research Service (ERS)

Ph.D.

About

102
Publications
45,743
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3,022
Citations
Citations since 2017
6 Research Items
918 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Additional affiliations
September 1985 - October 1998

Publications

Publications (102)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Future food production depends on the availability of crop varieties with more resistance to pests and diseases, temperature extremes, irregular moisture, and saltier soils. Plant breeders will need diverse germplasm to create improved varieties, especially in developing countries. The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) supplie...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Investment in research is a primary driver of productivity growth in agriculture. However, in high-income countries, as agriculture’s contribution to national economies declines, many public agricultural research systems face stagnant or falling financial support while research costs continue to rise. Public spending on agricultural research and de...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, public agricultural R&D investment in high-income countries has grown considerably more slowly than public agricultural R&D in developing countries, private R&D for agricultural inputs, or private food R&D. Funding trends in these countries have resulted in part from structural changes in the economy, changes in general agricultura...
Article
Full-text available
The theory of impure public goods is used to demonstrate why farmers may not grow wheat cultivars with the socially desirable level of rust resistance. First, they may grow cultivars that are high yielding though susceptible to rust. Second, many farmers may grow cultivars with a similar genetic basis of resistance. Expected rust losses can be redu...
Chapter
Full-text available
Over the past several decades, the private sector has assumed a larger role in research and development (R&D) for food and agriculture. Private companies fund nearly all food processing R&D and perform a growing share of production-oriented R&D for agriculture. The willingness of private companies to invest in agricultural R&D has been influenced b...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the current debate on whether U.S. agricultural productivity growth is slowing. It also assesses recent research on how productivity is related to long-term investment in research and development (R&D). It describes significant changes taking place in the U.S. agricultural research system, including the growing role of private...
Chapter
Full-text available
The US food and agriculture sector is innovative, competitive and export-oriented. Changes in national and global demand offer further opportunities for US agri-food products, although climate change and other resource constraints could create additional challenges, in particular in some regions. Maintaining high productivity growth, while improvin...
Technical Report
Full-text available
U.S. agricultural output more than doubled between 1948 and 2011, with growth averaging 1.49 percent per year. With little growth in total measured use of agricultural inputs, the extraordinary performance of the U.S. farm sector was driven mainly by increases in total factor productivity (TFP—measured as output per unit of aggregate input). Over t...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Climate change poses significant risks to future crop productivity as temperatures rise, rainfall patterns become more variable, and pest and disease pressures increase. The use of crop genetic resources to develop varieties more tolerant to rapidly changing environ - mental conditions will be an important part of agricultural adaptation to clima...
Article
Full-text available
A study was conducted to find econometric evidence of complementarity between public and private agricultural research investments, with both sectors responsive to what the other sector is doing. A vector autoregression (VAR) model was used which includes disaggregated public and private R&D spending and noncommodity specific general science as wel...
Article
Following the failure of legislative proposals for a multi-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-and-trade policy, the shift in focus to energy sector policies ignores the perhaps substantial potential for GHG mitigation from agriculture/forestry. We review estimates of the current U.S. agriculture sector contribution to GHG mitigation from a portfolio o...
Chapter
Full-text available
Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This study examines global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and describes the changing structure of these indu...
Article
Full-text available
Concentration in several global agricultural input industries has risen significantly; by 2009, the largest four firms in the crop seed, agricultural chemical, animal health, animal genetics/breeding, and farm machinery sectors accounted for more than 50 percent of global market sales in each sector.
Article
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Led by seed biotechnology, private-sector spending in agricultural R&D grew 43% from 1994 to 2010.
Article
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Global climate models predict increases over time in average temperature worldwide, with significant impacts on local patterns of temperature and precipitation. The extent to which such changes present a risk to food supplies, farmer livelihoods, and rural communities depends in part on the direction, magnitude, and rate of such changes, but equall...
Article
Full-text available
Following the failure of legislative proposals for a multi-sector greenhouse gas (GHG) cap-and-trade policy, the shift in focus to energy sector policies ignores the perhaps substantial potential for GHG mitigation from agriculture/forestry. We review estimates of the current U.S. agriculture sector contribution to GHG mitigation from a portfolio o...
Book
Full-text available
Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This report highlights the major findings of a study examining global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and des...
Article
Full-text available
Agriculture is a science-based industry. Nearly all productivity improvements are the result of research and development (R&D), whether they be mechanical (eg farm equipment), biological (eg plant and animal varieties) or management related (eg integrated pest management). Individual agricultural producers are unlikely to reach the scale of product...
Article
Full-text available
Inorganic, synthetic fertilizer is a critical ingredient in the global food economy. In 2008, global consumption of the three main agricultural fertilizer nutrients—nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (KCl, or potassium)— totaled 162 million metric tons (FAO). Nitrogen accounts for about 63 percent of the total tonnage of fertilizers applied...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we relate university licensing revenues to both university research expenditures and characteristics of the university and the university technology transfer office. We apply the Hausman–Taylor estimator for panel data with time-invariant explanatory variables and the Arellano–Bover dynamic panel model to unbalanced panels for the yea...
Article
Full-text available
Meeting growing global demand for food, fiber, and biofuel requires robust investment in agricultural research and development (R&D) from both public and private sectors. This study examines global R&D spending by private industry in seven agricultural input sectors, food manufacturing, and biofuel and describes the changing structure of these indu...
Article
Full-text available
Crop genetic resources are the basis of agricultural production, and significant economic benefits have resulted from their conservation and use. However, crop genetic resources are largely public goods, so private incentives for genetic resource conservation may fall short of achieving public objectives. Within the U.S. germplasm system, certain c...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural biotechnology has been advancing very rapidly, and while it presents many promises, it also poses as many questions. Many dimensions to agricultural biotechnology need to be considered to adequately inform public policy. Policy is made more difficult by the fact that agricultural biotechnology encompasses many policy issues addressed i...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluation of publicly funded research can help provide accountability and prioritize programs. In addition, Federal intramural research planning generally involves an institutional assessment of the appropriate Federal role, if any, and whether the research should be left to others, such as universities or the private sector. Many methods of evalu...
Article
Full-text available
Well-established quantitative approaches find that in the aggregate, public investments in agricultural research yield high returns and spur growth in agricultural productivity. Standard economic approaches may be difficult to apply to evaluations of some research benefits and may not help in gauging important steps necessary to positive research o...
Article
This study measures the amount of agricultural research engaged in maintenance research for commodities and non-commodities. The percentage of commodity based maintenance research has risen from roughly 35% in 1986 to 41% in 2008. The percentage of non-commodity based agricultural research is roughly 29%. Additionally, an empirical model is develop...
Article
Full-text available
Over the years, proposals have recommended shifting the focus of public agricultural research from applied to basic research, and giving higher priority to peer-reviewed, competitively funded grants. The public agricultural research system in the United States is a Federal-State partnership, with most research conducted at State institutions. In re...
Article
Demand for fertilizer in developing countries has expanded at a rapid rate over the past forty years. The relative scarcity of agricultural land has been a major underlying cause of this expansion in demand. More proximate causes include the development of complementary Green Revolution technologies – high yielding, fertilizer responsive seed varie...
Chapter
The demand for knowledge about intellectual property rights (IPRs) and their role in the development of new technology is especially high in agricultural biotechnology. This is due to rapid advances in agricultural biotechnology and a relatively recent emphasis on the use of IPRs. This chapter outlines the case for a public role in creating knowled...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last several decades, the U.S. agricultural sector has sustained impressive productivity growth. The Nation's agricultural research system, including Federal-State public research as well as private-sector research, has been a key driver of this growth. Economic analysis finds strong and consistent evidence that investment in agricultural...
Article
Full-text available
Intellectual property rights such as patents protect new inventions from imitation and competition. Patents' major objective is to provide incentives for invention, sacrificing short-term market efficiency for long-term economic gains. Although patents are primarily granted to private firms, policy changes over the last 25 years have resulted in gr...
Chapter
Full-text available
The agricultural biotechnology industry has experienced consolidation. As a form of sunk costs, increased regulatory costs could contribute to exit by smaller firms and increasing industry concentration. Cost and revenue factors other than regulation, however, are more likely to explain consolidation to date. Regulation may be endogenous, as innova...
Article
Full-text available
In the USA, the public sector historically was the primary supplier of new agricultural technologies. But over the past 20-30 years, public agricultural research funding has been relatively stagnant while private sector research spending has surpassed it. At the same time, as the US policy environment has changed, patenting and licensing have becom...
Article
Full-text available
Crop yields have risen steadily over the last century, due in part to sustained research, improvements to seeds, and access to diverse genetic resources. A recent ERS report describes research that estimates a one-time permanent yield increase from genetic improvements for five major U.S. crops that generated an estimated $8.
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 20 years, patenting in agricultural biotechnology has grown even faster than the rapid increase in US utility patents. Private firms, universities, and the federal government all increased patenting in agricultural biotechnology. Universities have increased patenting in agricultural biotechnology particularly rapidly, and they now hol...
Article
Full-text available
Private funding for agricultural research now exceeds that of the public sector. Other changes have included policies to make greater use of technology transfer mechanisms, such as patents and licensing and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs). A review of the United States Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Servi...
Article
Impact assessment studies consistently show that the benefits generated by plant breeding are large, positive and widely distributed. Numerous case studies have concluded that investment in plant breeding research generates attractive rates of return compared to alternative investment opportunities, that welfare gains resulting from the adoption of...
Article
Efforts to improve public agricultural research efficiency include calls to increase use of competitive grants. This paper empirically assesses different instruments the USDA uses to fund state-level research. Compared with other instruments, competitive grants focus more on basic research and are concentrated among fewer states. Model results sugg...
Article
Full-text available
All crops descend from wild and improved genetic resources (also called germplasm) collected around the world. Plant selection and breeding do not end once an improved variety is achieved because the challenges facing crop production—pests, pathogens, and climates—constantly evolve and change. To make crops more resistant to pests and diseases and...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in the economics of plant breeding first emerged during the late 1960s and early 1970s following the well-known green revolutions in wheat and rice. Since that time, few branches of agricultural research have been subjected to as much scrutiny as plant breeding. Impacts assessment studies consistently conclude that the economic benefits ge...
Chapter
This book synthesizes contemporary experiences with changing public and private sector roles in funding and executing agricultural research, with emphasis on developing countries. The book consists of 15 chapters organized into four distinct parts. Part I provides a brief overview of the current status, trends and policy issues in public and privat...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural biotechnology has been advancing very rapidly, and while it presents many promises, it also poses as many questions. Many dimensions to agricultural biotechnology need to be considered to adequately inform public policy. Policy is made more difficult by the fact that agricultural biotechnology encompasses many policy issues addressed i...
Article
Full-text available
Research and Development (R&D) and innovation are crucial features of the seed industry. To support large R&D investments by the private sector, strong intellectual property rights, such as patents, are necessary. The exclusivity granted by patents naturally creates market power positions and raises difficult and unresolved competition issues in an...
Article
Full-text available
To increase the efficiency of the public agricultural R&D system, expanded use of competitive grants to fund state institutions has been advocated. This paper characterizes different funding instruments and empirically assesses the effects of changes in mechanism use. Factors associated with greater levels of competitive grants are modeled.
Article
Full-text available
This paper synthesizes the evidence on cereal crop productivity in developing countries over the past 30 years and looks at future prospects for productivity growth. For more than three decades we have witnessed the phenomenal growth of cereal crop productivity in the developing world. Termed the Green Revolution, the initial phase of this growth r...
Article
Full-text available
This publication, through its focus on maize production in drought stressed areas of developing countries, explores economic, research, and policy issues related to maize agriculture in marginal areas of the developing world generally. Key questions in the debate over agriculture in marginal vs. favorable production areas are reviewed with a focus...
Article
Full-text available
Recent criticisms of the “green revolution” wheats concern the effects of their popularity on crop diversity and the consequences for productivity and conservation. We use a Just-Pope production function to test the relationship of genetic resource and diversity variables to mean and variance of wheat yields in the Punjab of Pakistan. In irrigated...
Chapter
Based on theoretical considerations alone, it may soon be possible to determine the level of crop diversity that could be considered socially optimal for a particular geographical area. A productivity-based definition of the social optimum might be the level of diversity that maximizes expected aggregate productivity across a specified region, subj...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Nitrogen (N) deficiency, and associated poor soil fertility, are common features of smallholder fields cropped to maize in southern Africa. Use of maize genotypes with improved N-use efficiency (NUE) implies an important yield benefit at modest additional recurrent cost to the farmer, making them relatively attractive for adoption by resource-poor...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past twenty years, research progress in maize, the single most important food staple in sub-Saharan Africa, has been comparable to progress in other primarily smallholder maize systems in the developing world. Both the number of varietal releases per million hectares of maize and the adoption of improved maize varieties and hybrids are sim...
Article
Full-text available
The benefits of nature-based tourism to biodiversity conservation are often presumed but rarely quantified. The relative value placed on attributes of nature parks is unknown, as is the contribution of biodiversity to tourists willingness to visit a particular protected area. We surveyed tourists and foreign residents in Uganda to determine how pre...