Paul I. Heidekrüger

Paul I. Heidekrüger
University Hospital Regensburg | Uni Regensburg · Zentrum für Plastische Chirurgie

Priv.-Doz. Dr. med.

About

85
Publications
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591
Citations
Introduction
Paul I. Heidekrueger currently works at the Zentrum für Plastische Chirurgie, University Hospital Regensburg. Paul does research in Plastic Reconstructive Microsurgery and in Psychometrics. Their current projects are to generate a "Risk Score in Free Flap Transfer" and "Morphometric analyses of body proportions".

Publications

Publications (85)
Article
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Background: Synkinesis of the facial musculature is a detrimental sequalae in post-paralytic facial palsy (PPFP) patients. Detailed knowledge on the technical requirements and device properties in a high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) examination is mandatory for a reliable facial muscle assessment in PPFP patients. We therefore aimed to outline the...
Article
Preclinical/clinical microsurgical training is essential for clinical practice. Therefore, various training models have been established, such as synthetic and cadaveric models. The most common limitation of these models is the lack of circulation, which limits the simulation of real intraoperative circumstances. Thus, the authors aimed to create a...
Article
Microsurgery and supermicrosurgery are surgical subdomains necessary for a large variety of surgical disciplines. So far, there is no training model for lymphatic surgery or perforator flap surgery and the most commonly used microsurgical training models are living animals. However, the ethical principles of replacement, refinement, and reduction (...
Article
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The closure of wounds and subsequent optimal wound healing is essential to any successful surgical intervention. Especially on parts of the body with limited possibilities for local reconstruction, optimal distribution of load is essential. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine three different incision patterns, conventional straigh...
Article
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Postoperative free flap monitoring is considered a key component of care after microsurgical reconstruction. To achieve successful flap salvage after surgical revision, early recognition of vascular compromise is required. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the time-dependent evolution of microcirculation in gracilis muscle (GM) and an...
Article
Background Most plastic surgeons have encountered complications related to venous thromboembolism in their profession. However, considerable deficits in risk assessment and prophylaxis have been described. As outpatient procedures are increasing, so are concerns with regard to patient safety. The presented study investigates the global distribution...
Article
Background Technical aspects are of utmost significance for an efficient execution in designing perforator flaps with high-resolution color-coded Duplex sonography (CCDS). The following study evaluates decisive factors for a successful microvessel examination conducted by the microsurgeon. Methods Technical knowledge presented in this study was bas...
Article
Background and objective: In complex hand traumas nerves and vessels are often destructed without the possibility for primary repair. For bridging defects of nerves, veins and arteries grafts are necessary. Commonly nerve and vein grafts from adjacent donor sites as the wrist, forearm or cubital region are harvested. Methods: This study is a ret...
Article
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Objectives Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) was developed to facilitate easier treatment and better outcomes for cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the parental burden and possible intercultural differences of this treatment modality, which is often argued to burden parents to an extraordinary amount. Materials...
Article
Background Augmentation rhinoplasty with autologous fat grafting is a useful procedure to meet the demand for facial harmonization in the Asian population. We used this procedure during orthognathic surgery to address inadequate dorsum projection. This prospective study was conducted to determine the fat retention rate in patients undergoing simult...
Article
The physiological differences between genders have significant implications for health and disease. With regard to microsurgery, results remain elusive as to whether male or female gender is an independent risk factor for free flap reconstruction. This study evaluated the impact of gender on outcomes of lower-extremity free-flap reconstructions. Wi...
Article
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The superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) flap is a well-documented, thin, free tissue flap with a minimal donor site morbidity, and has the potential to become the new method for resurfacing moderate-size skin defects. The aim of this study is to describe an easy, reliable, systematic, and standardized approach for preoperative SCI...
Article
Objective Over the past decade numbers of bilateral mastectomy have increased steadily. As a result, bilateral breast reconstruction is gaining popularity. The presented study compares complications and outcomes of unilateral and bilateral DIEP free-flap breast reconstructions using the largest database available in Europe. Methods Female breast c...
Article
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Background Secondary breast reduction is complex and poses significant challenges to surgeons. Complication rates exceed those of primary reduction, commonly caused by impaired vascular supply of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC). Literature on the topic is scare and provides contradicting recommendations, especially with regard to pedicle choice in...
Article
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While autologous breast reconstruction has gained momentum over recent years, there is limited data on the structure and quality of care of microsurgical breast reconstruction in Germany. Using the breast reconstruction database established by the German Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons (DGPRÄC), the presented study investi...
Article
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Introduction Several patient-related factors have been identified with regard to the safety and efficacy of breast reconstructions. This study analyzed the largest series of microsurgical breast reconstructions in Germany using deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps, with a focus on the impact of patient body mass index (BMI). Patients a...
Article
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Purpose: Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) at the time of mastectomy is gaining popularity, as studies show no negative impact on recurrence or patient survival, but better aesthetic outcome, less psychological distress and lower treatment costs. Using the largest database available in Europe, the presented study compared outcomes and complica...
Article
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Introduction Venous anastomosis remains to be a challenging step in microsurgical tissue transfer and venous complications constitute to a common reason for free flap failure. While several studies have compared mechanical vs. hand‐sewn venous anastomoses, there is no large‐series study comparing the type of anastomosis exclusively in DIEP flap bre...
Article
Background: The process of angiogenesis is a key element for tumor growth and proliferation and therefore one of the determining factors for aggressiveness and malignancy. A better understanding of the underlying processes of tumor induced angiogenesis is crucial for superior cancer treatment. Furthermore, the PeriCam perfusion speckle imager (PSI...
Article
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Background: Color-coded duplex sonography (CCDS) is useful for perforator flap design showing the highest sensitivity in identifying microvessels. This prospective study evaluates the feasibility of different ultrasound (US) modes applied by the microsurgeon in daily practice suggesting quantifiable reference values. Methods: Twenty-four patient...
Article
Backgrund: The coagulation status of burn patients is generally impaired and is a major factor of the deteriorating burn patients' overall situation. In trauma and other patient groups, the differential diagnosis of coagulation impairment has been largely improved by the use of rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM®). The aim of this prospective ob...
Article
Background Patients requiring microsurgical defect reconstruction are highly susceptible to intraoperative hypothermia, given oftentimes long operative times and exposure of large skin surface areas. While the impact of hypothermia has been extensively studied across various surgical fields, its role in the setting of microsurgical free flap recons...
Article
Background Several patient-related factors have been identified with regard to the safety and efficacy of breast reconstructions. Using the largest database available in Europe, the presented study investigated the impact of cigarette smoking on deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) free-flap breast reconstructions. Methods In total, 3,...
Article
Background Whether to perform an end-to-end (ETE) versus end-to-side (ETS) arterial anastomosis is an integral part of preoperative planning and intraoperative decision making in free flap-based reconstructions. This study evaluated the impact of microsurgical anastomotic technique on outcomes of lower extremity reconstructions, with a focus on pat...
Article
Background Preoperative ultrasound (US)-guided perforator mapping has immensely simplified perforator flap planning. It may be executed by the microsurgeon. Device settings and selection of ultrasound modes are of utmost significance for detection of low-flow microvessels. The following study evaluates different US modes. Methods A prospective comp...
Article
Background The anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap is a popular reconstructive tissue transfer. Consistent with the “hot/cold zone” concept for rapid dissection and thin flap harvest, reliable pre-operative perforator mapping is mandatory. Color coded duplex sonography (CCDS) has been shown to have the highest pooled sensitivity and positive...
Article
Background: A physiological and minimal invasive form of surgery with minimal risk to treat lymphedemas is the so-called supermicrosurgical lymphovenous anastomosis (LVA) where a lymph vessel is connected with a venule. Methods: 30 patients (between 2018 and 2019) with secondary upper extremity lymphedema refractory to conservative therapy (manu...
Article
Background: Purpura fulminans (PF) is a distinct form of rare meningococcal septicaemia mostly in childhood which is characterized by high lethality, extensive necroses and mutilations of extremities. Other ethiologies are idiopathic forms or purpura neonatorum, which is marked by deficiency of Protein-C. PF is caused by micro-embolism of the vasc...
Article
Background: Secondary cleft nose rhinoplasty remains a challenging procedure. Cartilage memory and scar contraction are problematic factors. The need for more detailed procedures for secondary reconstruction in this patient population has arisen. Contemporary refinements demonstrate a highly structured approach. We conducted a retrospective study...
Article
Background: Following Achilles tendon rupture and repair, reruptures or infections are not infrequent. Consequently, several surgical techniques have been described to decrease complication rates. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the free composite fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap including fascia lata for reconstruction of com...
Article
Background When faced with plantar defects, reconstruction of the weight-bearing areas presents unique surgical challenges. Several free flap modalities have been described in this respect, but there remains debate regarding the best-suited flap modality. Aim of this study was to compare free muscle and non-neurotized fasciocutaneous flaps for plan...
Article
Background: While complication rates in free tissue transfers have continuously decreased over time due to improved techniques, the intraoperative use of vasopressors and their negative effects on flap microcirculation and patency of the anastomoses remains controversial. To further elucidate this matter, this retrospective study examines the effe...
Article
Wound healing problems following acute and chronic olecranon bursitis can result in problematic tissue defects around the elbow. These defects often require a regional flap or a free flap for durable tissue coverage. The aim of this study was to assess clinical outcome the lateral arm flap (LAF) used to cover tissue defects caused by chronic olecra...
Article
Background and objectives: Plastic surgery includes a broad range of activities; however, there are no studies available in Germany which evaluated the specific role plastic surgeons play in providing patient care. The aim of the project was thus to analyze the public and professional perception of plastic surgery in Germany and to what degree the...
Article
Introduction While periorbital and -ocular surgery ranks amongst the most frequently performed plastic surgical procedures, only scarce information exists regarding the contributing factors of aging and its systematic anatomic assessment. The presented study, based on measuring distinct physical landmarks, aimed to gather data to provide a foundati...
Article
Background Free tissue transfers can successfully address a wide range of reconstructive requirements. While the negative influence of cigarette smoking is well documented, its effects in the setting of microsurgical free flap reconstruction remain debated. This study evaluates the impact of cigarette smoking on microsurgical reconstructions. Metho...
Article
Full-text available
Wide awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) hand surgery is a rapidly growing in popularity. WALANT has been used by hand surgeons when operating on bones, tendons, ligaments, nerve entrapments. We offer a case report of the first case in the literature describing WALANT technique when performing trapeziometacarpal joint arthroplasty with pr...
Article
Background: Post-surgical pyoderma gangrenosum (PSPG) is a rare inflammatory skin disorder of unknown aetiology. Given its similar presentation to wound infection and lack of reliable diagnostic tests as well as pathognomonic clinical features, PSPG is difficult to diagnose. The aim of this review was to identify factors contributing to PSPG to ai...
Article
When treating burn injuries, to date, there still remains significant disagreement whether presence of hypothermia (HT) on burn centers’ intensive care unit (BICU) admission improves or worsens outcomes. The presented single burn center experiences set out to further evaluate the incidence, cause, and potential effects of HT on outcomes in severely...
Article
Objective: Burns represent a special form of severe trauma. Due to long hospitalization, rehabilitation, and extensive scar treatment, severe burn injuries rank among the most expensive traumatic injuries regarding associated health care costs. The presented single-burn-center experiences evaluated the effects of primary versus secondary burn inte...
Article
Background Free tissue transfers have become routine for a variety of reconstructive purposes. During the time of transfer, some period of ischemia time is unavoidable, causing structural and metabolic changes. This study aimed to evaluate whether length of intraoperative ischemia affects the outcomes of microsurgical reconstructions. Methods Withi...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Ear position contributes significantly to facial appearance. However, while objective measurements remain the foundation for esthetic evaluations, little is known about how an ear should ideally be positioned regarding its rotational axis. This study aimed to further evaluate whether there exists a universally applicable ideal ear axis, a...
Article
Background Free tissue transfers have become standard for a wide variety of reconstructive purposes. In an era of increasing economic pressure, it is important to precisely define appropriate candidates and indications for a complex surgery to optimize efficiency and patient outcomes. This study evaluates the feasibility to perform microsurgical pr...
Chapter
The Meek technique involves using a Meek-Wall microdermatome producing widely expanded postage stamp autografts, in which prefolded gauzes are used to gain a regular distribution of the autografts. The gauze pleats are pulled out on all the four sides to provide uniform expansion of the islands of grafts. The authors describe their use of the Parkl...
Article
Background: In lower limb reconstruction, the free gracilis muscle flap is usually chosen for coverage of small- to medium-sized defects. Aim of this study was a re-appraisal regarding the reconstructive indications of the gracilis muscle flap with a focus on postoperative complications in order to evaluate if it can also be routinely used to reco...
Article
Background Free tissue transfers are routinely performed for extremity reconstruction. In an era of increasing economic pressure in many healthcare systems, efficiency needs to be optimized for any kind of operative procedure. This study is examining the possible benefit of a two-attending approach to microsurgical reconstruction of the limbs using...
Article
The chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs in an early phase of breeding presents an approved test situation for the growth and treatment of human cancer cells.These models work due to the inoculation of cells into the membrane that stays within the egg shell during the time of investigation. In this study a modification of this model...
Article
Objective: The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) contributes to tumor survival and progression in multiple cancer entities. IL-1RA polymorphisms influence IL-1RA expression patterns and function. A known polymorphism was correlated with clinical outcomes in melanoma patients with particularly aggressive disease. Methods: DNA of 343 cont...
Article
OBJECTIVE Although rare, frontoethmoidal meningoencephaloceles continue to pose a challenge to neurosurgeons and plastic reconstructive surgeons. Especially when faced with limited infrastructure and resources, establishing reliable and safe surgical techniques is of paramount importance. The authors present a case series in order to evaluate a pre...
Article
Background: Perception of beauty is influenced by geographic, ethnic, cultural, and demographic factors. However, objective measurements remain the foundation for aesthetic evaluations. In the quest to better define the "ideal" female buttock, this study assumes interdependence among variables such as country of residence, sex, age, occupation, an...
Article
Background: Breast augmentation surgery remains the most frequently performed aesthetic surgical procedure worldwide. However, many variations exist regarding preoperative planning, surgical management, and postoperative care. Objectives: The goal was to evaluate current trends and practices in breast augmentation, with a focus on international...
Article
Background Free tissue transfers are routinely performed for reconstruction of the upper limb. Main complication in free flap surgery still stems from vascular compromise and many technical controversies exist regarding the technical details of how to perform the microvascular anastomosis. This study evaluates outcomes regarding the execution of on...
Article
Pilonidal disease can be treated medically; however, surgical excision remains the gold standard. Nonetheless, all current surgical approaches are still associated with potential for tissue loss, wound healing disorders, and high rates of recurrence. Aim of this study is to assess the long-term outcomes of the minimal-invasive pit-picking operation...
Article
Extensive partial- and full-thickness burns, especially of the hands, continue to pose a surgical challenge. With improved knowledge regarding fluid balance, burn pathophysiology, and lately also given the introduction of topical negative pressure wound (TNPW) therapy, treatment regimes have changed in many burn centers. The authors evaluated the r...
Article
Background: The choice of microsurgical anastomotic technique, end-to-end (ETE) or end-to-side (ETS), is a relevant point in free tissue transfer. The decision-making process of choosing ETE or ETS technique depends on several clinical and perioperative factors. This study evaluates the outcomes of microvascular procedures in a large single centre...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Perception of beauty is influenced by the individual's demographic background and characteristics. However, objective measurements and ratios remain the foundation for aesthetic evaluations. This study aimed to elucidate if there exists a universally applicable ideal upper to lower lip ratio. Methods: An interactive online survey was...
Article
Reconstruction of the forehead remains challenging. Especially in cases of large or even complete forehead defects, local flaps and skin grafting may not be an option, necessitating free flap coverage. The aim of this retrospective case series was to develop an algorithmic surgical approach as well as to evaluate surgical and aesthetic outcomes of...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Obtaining quality global statistics about surgical procedures remains an important yet challenging task. The International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ISAPS) reports the total number of surgical and non-surgical procedures performed worldwide on a yearly basis. While providing valuable insight, ISAPS' statistics leave two i...
Article
Background: Demographic change implies that the human population is getting older and the elderly are living longer. Consequently, achieving good functional and aesthetic outcomes in microvascular procedures, especially in very old patients with higher incidence of atherosclerosis and vessel calcifications, constitutes a microsurgical challenge. T...
Article
Background Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since 1980. Given this epidemic change, surgical and medical care has become more complex as obesity is a known risk factor for complications. Consequently, one could expect a higher prevalence of medical and surgical complications in an obese patient collective in the setting of free tissue transf...
Article
Introduction: Free tissue transfers are a highly reliable procedure routinely performed for reconstruction of a wide range of defects. Main complication in free flap surgery is usually venous thrombosis. Many technical controversies exist regarding the technical details of the microvascular anastomosis in order to prevent occurrence of thrombosis...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Perception of beauty is influenced by the individual's geographic, ethnic, cultural, and demographic background. However, objective measurements remain the foundation for aesthetic evaluations. In the quest for to better define "ideal" lip characteristics, this study assumes interdependence between variables such as country of residenc...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Revision surgeries after breast augmentation are associated with an increased risk of complications (eg, nipple areolar complex [NAC]) necrosis. Consequently, maintaining perfusion to the NAC is a critical aspect of secondary breast surgery. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine in vivo changes in perfusion to the NAC...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: Optimizing functional and aesthetic outcomes in postburn head and neck reconstruction remains a surgical challenge.1 Recurrent contractures, impaired range of motion, and disfigurement because of disruption of the aesthetic subunits of the face, can result in poor patient satisfaction and ultimately, contribute to social isolation of th...