Paul D Hastings

Paul D Hastings
University of California, Davis | UCD · UC Davis Psychology, Center for Mind and Brain

Ph.D.

About

208
Publications
111,334
Reads
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9,293
Citations
Citations since 2017
87 Research Items
4447 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Additional affiliations
July 2009 - November 2015
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Professor
January 2009 - November 2015
University of California, Davis
Position
  • Chair

Publications

Publications (208)
Article
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Suicide is the second leading cause of death for youths in the United States. More Latino adolescents report suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors (STBs) than youths of most other ethnic communities. Yet few studies have examined multiple psychosocial predictors of STBs in Latino youths using multiyear longitudinal designs. In this study, we evaluated...
Chapter
Research conducted over the past century has confirmed that severe and chronic stressful experiences undermine physical and mental health across the lifespan. In recent decades, McEwen's model of allostatic load has become one of the leading explanatory frameworks for understanding the mechanisms by which stressors affect health. Allostatic load re...
Article
This 2‐year longitudinal study examined Mexican‐origin adolescents’ need to belong and cognitive reappraisal as predictors of multiple forms of prosocial behavior (i.e., general, emotional, and public prosocial behaviors). Prosocial behaviors, which are actions intended to benefit others, are hallmarks of social proficiency in adolescence and are i...
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There is now strong evidence documenting an association between maternal depression and psychopathology in children and adolescents, but an increased understanding of the explanatory mechanisms is needed. This longitudinal study tested a model to determine if parenting processes that may promote parentification of adolescents (coded from narratives...
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The motivation to socially connect with peers increases during adolescence in parallel with changes in neurodevelopment. These changes in social motivation create opportunities for experiences that can impact risk for psychopathology, but the specific motivational presentations that confer greater psychopathology risk are not fully understood. To a...
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Although the COVID-19 pandemic has raised deserved concern regarding adverse impacts on parents’ and children’s mental health, regulations like “sheltering-in-place” may have afforded parents novel opportunities to foster positive family connections, thereby bolstering well-being. Using latent profile analysis (LPA), we (a) distinguished family thr...
Article
The experience of poverty embodies complex, multidimensional stressors that may adversely affect physiological and psychological domains of functioning. Compounded by racial/ethnic discrimination, the financial aspect of family poverty typically coincides with additional social and physical environmental risks such as pollution exposure, housing bu...
Article
Prior research has struggled to differentiate cortisol stress response patterns reflective of well-regulated versus dysregulated hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function among adolescents. Here, we show how exploring profiles of joint HPA– inflammatory stress responsivity, and linking those profiles to pubertal development and peer stress...
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This study examined adrenocortical responses in the days following the Pulse nightclub massacre on June 12, 2016, among emerging adults in Northern California (N = 202; M = 17.48 years, SD = 1.00; 25% LGBQ-Latinx, 25% LGBQ-White, 25% Straight-Latinx, and 25% Straight-White) between June 13—August 12, 2016. As predicted, participants tested more pro...
Preprint
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There has been significant interest and progress in understanding the role of caregiver-child unpredictability on brain maturation, cognitive and socioemotional development, and psychopathology. Theoretical consensus has emerged about its unique influence in shaping children’s experience, distinct from other adverse exposures or features of stress...
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Reappraisal (reconstruing emotional experiences to alter their impact) and suppression (inhibiting emotionally expressive behavior) are emotion-regulation strategies with important implications for depression. While reappraisal generally predicts lower depressive symptoms, suppression generally predicts higher depressive symptoms. Because cultural...
Article
This chapter summarizes developmental theories and research on the intersection of culture, biology, and moral emotions. It proposes that cultural canalizations might be evident for the neurobiology of moral emotions, such as empathy and sympathy, in distinct U.S. ethnic/racial minority groups, focusing particularly on work with U.S. Latino/a child...
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There has been resistance to COVID-19 public health restrictions partly due to changes and reductions in work, resulting in financial stress. Psychological reactance theory posits that such restrictions to personal freedoms result in anger, defiance, and motivation to restore freedom. In an online study (N = 301), we manipulated the target of COVID...
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Neurobiological and social-contextual influences shape children’s adjustment, yet limited biopsychosocial studies have integrated temporal features when modeling physiological regulation of emotion. This study explored whether a common underlying pattern of non-linear change in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) across emotional scenarios character...
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Methods In a 2-year longitudinal study of 220 families, we examined how youth gender and adrenocortical and parasympathetic activity moderated reciprocal, bidirectional relations between parent and youth anxiety and depression problems. Results Maternal anxiety predicted subsequent youth anxiety and depression. Maternal depression predicted youth...
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Parasympathetic nervous system activity can downregulate inflammation, but it remains unclear how parasympathetic nervous system activity relates to antiviral activity. The present study examined associations between parasympathetic nervous system activity and cellular antiviral gene regulation in 90 adolescents (M_(age) = 16.28, SD = 0.73; 51.1% f...
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Introduction For adolescent girls, close friendships may facilitate stress management and mitigate risk for internalizing psychopathology. However, little is known about how friendship processes may buffer (or potentially exacerbate) acute psychobiological responses to interpersonal stressors in ways that affect risk. Methods In a sample of 220 gi...
Article
Biopsychosocial models of children's socioemotional development highlight the joint influences of physiological regulation and parenting practices. Both high and low levels of children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) have been associated with children's maladjustment, indicative of nonlinear associations. Negative or unsupportive pare...
Article
Full-text available
Parasympathetic nervous system activity can downregulate inflammation, but it remains unclear how parasympathetic nervous system activity relates to antiviral activity. The present study examined associations between parasympathetic nervous system activity and cellular antiviral gene regulation in 90 adolescents (Mage = 16.3, SD = 0.7; 51.1% female...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biopsychosocial models of children’s socioemotional development highlight the joint influences of physiological regulation and parenting practices. Both high and low levels of children’s baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) have been associated with children’s maladjustment, indicative of nonlinear associations. Negative or unsupportive pare...
Article
Background Well-orchestrated cortisol and DHEA stress responsivity is thought to support efficacious stressor management (i.e., coping) and reduce risk for psychopathology during adolescence. Evidence of these relations, however, is lacking empirically. This longitudinal investigation had three aims: 1) to identify within-adolescent profiles of joi...
Article
This study of 52 predominantly lower-income Jordanian and Syrian families with young children (31 girls; M age = 53.37mo, SD = 3.53) in Jordan began in 2019, before the pandemic. Families were followed to explore stress physiology, family functioning and mental health over the first 9 months of the pandemic. Mothers reported less adaptive coping an...
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Background Substance use (SU) typically increases from middle to late adolescence. Anxiety is one factor associated with greater SU, although variability in who uses substances remains. Some models suggest that brain-based susceptibility markers could reveal which adolescents are at higher risk for psychopathology, but it is unknown whether these i...
Article
Poverty is a chronic stressor associated with disruptions in psychophysiological development during adolescence. This study examined associations of chronic poverty and income changes experienced from pre- to mid-adolescence with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses in late adolescence. Participants (N = 229) were adolescents...
Article
Diverting attention away from negative emotional stimuli has been associated with calmer physiological states in the moment, but little is known about the potential long-term effects of this emotion regulation strategy on physiology. Similarly, how physiological states, in turn, may contribute to the development of regulatory behaviors has seldom b...
Article
Young adults are acutely sensitive to peer influences. Differences have been found in neural sensitivity to explicit peer influences, such as seeing peer ratings on social media. The present study aimed to identify patterns of neural sensitivity to implicit peer influences, which involve more subtle cues that shape preferences and behaviors. Partic...
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Previous work from our lab has shown that basal cortisol levels are different between healthy young adults who spontaneously use caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies compared to young adults who use hippocampus-dependent spatial navigation strategies. Young adults who use caudate nucleus dependent strategies display lower basal cortisol le...
Article
Adolescent risk for self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (STBs) involves disturbance across multiple systems (e.g., affective valence, arousal regulatory, cognitive and social processes). However, research integrating information across these systems is lacking. Utilizing a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach (Cicchetti & Dawson, 2002), this pers...
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Altruistic behavior after stress exposure may have important health and psychological benefits, in addition to broader societal consequences. However, so far experimental research on altruism following acute stress has been limited to adult populations. The current study utilized an experimental design to investigate how altruistic donation behavio...
Article
An estimated 12 million girls aged 15–19 years, and 777,000 girls younger than 15 give birth globally each year. Contexts of war and displacement increase the likelihood of early marriage and childbearing. Given the developmentally sensitive periods of early childhood and adolescence, adolescent motherhood in conflict-affected contexts may put a fa...
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Overweight and obesity constitute the fifth leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. One pathway through which excess weight contributes to poor health outcomes is via inflammatory activity and changes in cognitive processes. Prior theory has proposed a vicious cycle whereby obesity potentiates inflammatory activity, which alters cognitive pr...
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Individual differences in children's prosocial behaviors, including their willingness to give up something of value for the benefit of others, are rooted in physiological and environmental processes. In a sample of 4-year-old children, we previously found evidence that flexible changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) were linked to donation b...
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Introduction While peer delinquency is a known mediator between early pubertal timing and externalizing behaviors, little is known about factors that could protect against the adverse influence of peer delinquency. This study assesses the possible moderating role of cognitive flexibility, which is one index of executive functioning that facilitates...
Article
Latent class analysis and multigroup mediation were used with 8,860 families in Chile to identify risk groups varying in socioeconomic status, family structure, and maternal depression, to determine whether profiles differed in children's development of externalizing problems (EP) from 35 to 61 months, and maternal parenting that predicted EP. Four...
Article
We measured judgments about emotions across time. In Study 1 (N = 254) and Study 2 (N = 162), LGBTQ-Latinx, straight-Latinx, LGBTQ-White, and straight-White emerging adults rated how they would feel if a perpetrator acted positively (P) or negatively (N) toward them in single, isolated events. In Study 2, participants also responded to a new emotio...
Article
This study utilized data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 14,860) to examine whether early‐life family income (age 0–5) predicted long‐term academic achievement (age 16–18) and to investigate the role of executive function (EF) assessed multiple times across age 7–11 in explaining this association. Task‐based EF was a s...
Article
Background: Neurophysiological patterns may distinguish which youth are at risk for the well-documented increase in internalizing symptoms during adolescence. Adolescents with internalizing problems exhibit altered resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) of brain regions involved in socio-affective processing. Whether connectivity-based biotyp...
Article
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Heterosexist and racist discrimination may adversely impact neurobiological processes implicated in the physical and psychosocial well-being of sexually diverse Latinx people. Yet, little is known about how experiences of both heterosexist and racist discrimination are associated with adrenocortical and psychological functioning in groups of people...
Article
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Background: Depression rates increase markedly for girls across the adolescent transition, but the social-environmental and biological processes underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. To address this issue, we tested a key hypothesis from Social Signal Transduction Theory of Depression, which posits that individuals who mount stronger inflamma...
Article
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Functional neuroimaging studies have emphasized distinct networks for social cognition and affective aspects of empathy. However, studies have not considered whether substrates of social cognition, such as the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ), play a role in affective responses to complex empathy-related stimuli. Here, we used repetitive transc...
Article
Previous studies showed that healthy young adults who spontaneously use caudate nucleus-dependent strategies on a virtual navigation task, have significantly lower basal levels of cortisol compared with adults who use hippocampus-dependent spatial navigation strategies. In the current paper, we assessed the relation between basal cortisol levels an...
Article
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Without a doubt, parents play a critical role in socializing moral development in their children. This handbook provides a collection of state-of-the-art theories and research on the important role that parents play in moral development. The contributors take a comprehensive, yet nuanced approach to considering the links between parenting and diffe...
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Functional neuroimaging results need to replicate to inform sound models of human social cognition and its neural correlates. Introspection, the capacity to reflect on one's thoughts and feelings, is one process required for normative social cognition and emotional functioning. Engaging in introspection draws on a network of brain regions including...
Chapter
Children vary considerably in their propensities to orient toward, feel empathy for, and provide help to others in need or distress. This variability is rooted in a complex interplay between parenting factors, child neurobiology, and development. This chapter focuses on the two most common perspectives for studying and theorizing about this interpl...
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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be influenced by attachment insecurities and dysfunctional emotion regulation strategies in children at risk for mental health difficulties, such as children in foster care or in low socioeconomic status (SES) homes. Yet relatively little research exists on attachment and emotion regulation in at-risk adole...
Article
Objective: Altered activity within reward-related neural regions, including the ventral striatum (VS) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is associated with concurrent problematic substance use. The aims of the present study were to (a) identify patterns of reward-related neural activity that prospectively predict changes in alcohol use two years...
Article
Whether neurovisceral integration, reflected by resting high-frequency heart rate variability (HRV), constrains or facilitates neural reactivity to other people’s emotions is unclear. We assessed the relation between resting HRV and neural activation when observing and imitating emotional faces. We focused on brain regions implicated in sensorimoto...
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Exposure to threat increases the risk for internalizing problems in adolescence. Deficits in integrating bodily cues into representations of emotion are thought to contribute to internalizing problems. Given the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in regulating bodily responses and integrating them into representations of emotional states, coordin...
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Research showing that risk for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychosis, and other psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in adulthood is multidetermined has underscored the necessity of studying the additive and interactive factors in childhood that precede and predict future disorders. In this study, risk for the development of psychosis-spectrum dis...
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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Earlier pubertal timing has been associated with risk for depression, particularly in girls (e.g., Keenan etal., 2014). Evidence suggests pubertal timing in girls also relates to alterations in the microstructural properties of brain white matter tracts in late adolescence (Chahal etal., 2018), and structural connectivity...
Article
Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperament trait characterized by fear and wariness in novel situations, has been identified as a risk factor for later social reticence and avoidance of peer interactions. However, the ability to regulate fearful responses to novelty may disrupt the link between BI and socially reticent behavior. The present study ex...
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The current research explored toddlers’ gaze fixation during a scene showing a person expressing sadness after a ball is stolen from her. The relation between the duration of gaze fixation on different parts of the person’s sad face (e.g., eyes, mouth) and theory of mind skills was examined. Eye tracking data indicated that before the actor experie...
Article
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are one meaningful risk factor which helps to explain heterogeneity in the emergence of externalizing behavior problems. While the extant literature demonstrates links between early CU traits and later externalizing problems, there is a dearth of research examining for whom early CU traits confer risk. Data from a lo...
Article
Emotion socialization by parents contributes to children’s trajectories of healthy and unhealthy emotional development, but there has been little research into the determinants and development of parental emotion socialization. We examined whether young children’s anxious characteristics, including expressed anxiety with peers and low basal respira...
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Purpose: Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts. Theories of NSSI assert interpersonal stress as a common risk factor for, and perhaps consequence of, NSSI. Prior research has not examined reciprocal associations between chronic interpersonal stress and NSSI. This study used a multi-wave, prospective de...
Article
In recent decades, stress response models of adolescent depression have gained attention, but it remains unclear why only certain adolescents are vulnerable to the depressogenic effects of stress while others are not. Building on evidence that affective and physiological responses to stress moderate the impact of stress exposure on depression, the...
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Prior studies suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response is a relatively stable risk factor for suicidal behavior in adults, and also that fluctuations in developmentally salient social stress (i.e., peer stress) predict acute suicidal ideation and behavior in adolescent females. Here, we test the hypothesis that periods...
Article
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Experiencing maltreatment in early childhood predicts poor parasympathetic regulation, characterized by low baseline parasympathetic activity and strong withdrawal of parasympathetic influence in response to tasks. The Promoting First Relationships® (PFR) program improves parental sensitivity toward young children in families identified as maltreat...
Article
The comprehensive lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals of color remain invisible in neurobiological studies of LGBTQ populations. Models of minority stress posit that LGBTQ and Latinx individuals experience and internalize sexual, ethnic, racial, and gender discrimination, which may adversely impac...
Preprint
The comprehensive lived experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals of color remain invisible in neurobiological studies of LGBTQ populations. Models of minority stress posit that LGBTQ and Latinx individuals experience and internalize sexual, ethnic, racial, and gender discrimination, which may adversely impac...
Article
This study examined associations between multiple types of interpersonal and noninterpersonal stressors and the subsequent occurrence of suicide ideation and attempts among female adolescents. Adolescents ages 12 to 18 years old (n = 160) at elevated risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors were followed for 18 months, divided into two 9-month epoc...
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In 1985, Carolyn Saarni and Michael Lewis published the landmark book, The Socialization of Emotions. In launching the focused study of emotion socialization, then guiding the field with her insights and observations for more than 3 decades, Saarni fostered the current vibrancy of the study of parents’ emotion socialization. In this paper, I begin...
Article
Physiological recovery from negative emotions may be important for effective self‐regulation, but little is known about recovery processes in children. The current study investigated links between autonomic physiology, anger expressions, and emotion regulation in a sample of eighty‐three 3.5‐year‐olds. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and pre‐ejection...
Article
Substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that the extent to which children’s early experiences contribute to the development of aggressive behaviors may depend on the psychophysiological regulatory capacities of the child. This study adds to this literature by examining the relations between mothers’ rejecting child-rearing attitud...
Article
Physiological synchrony within a dyad, or the degree of temporal correspondence between two individuals' physiological systems, has become a focal area of psychological research. Multiple methods have been used for measuring and modeling physiological synchrony. Each method extracts and analyzes different types of physiological synchrony, where ‘ty...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews the historical and empirical forces that have shaped the study of emotional development within the broader field of developmental psychology. Our central argument is that a broader methodological base is needed in order to best capture complex patterns of affect across context and time. In particular, the use of both naturalist...
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The present study examined adolescents’ neural responses to social exclusion as a mediator of past exposure to a hostile school environment (HSE) and later social deviance, and whether family connectedness buffered these associations. Participants (166 Mexican-origin adolescents, 54.4% female) reported on their HSE exposure and family connectedness...
Article
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Experiencing poverty during childhood and adolescence may affect brain function. However, income is dynamic, and studies have not addressed whether income change relates to brain function. In the present study, we investigated whether intrinsic functional connectivity of default mode network (DMN) regions was influenced by mean family income and fa...
Article
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Models of the etiology of adolescent antisocial behavior suggest that externalizing problems may reflect a susceptibility to crime exposure and a diminished capacity for emotion introspection. In this study, adolescents of Mexican origin completed a neuroimaging task that involved rating their subjective feelings of sadness in response to emotional...
Article
Background: During adolescence, peer victimization is a potent type of social stressor that can confer enduring risk for poor mental and physical health. Given recent research implicating inflammation in promoting a variety of serious mental and physical health problems, this study examined the role that peer victimization and cognitive vulnerabil...