Paul Hartogh

Paul Hartogh
Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research | MPS · Division of Physics of Planets and Comets

About

492
Publications
47,699
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
9,058
Citations
Citations since 2017
65 Research Items
4647 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800

Publications

Publications (492)
Article
Full-text available
Observations of vibrationally excited hydroxyl (OH*) emissions are widely used to obtain information on atmospheric dynamics and composition. In this paper, several analytical approximations are presented for characteristics of the hydroxyl layer in the Martian atmosphere, such as OH* concentrations at the maximum and the height of the maximum. Rel...
Article
Full-text available
Enceladus, an icy moon of Saturn, possesses an internal water ocean and jets expelling ocean material into space. Cassini investigations indicated that the subsurface ocean could be a habitable environment having a complex interaction with the rocky core. Further investigation of the composition of the plume formed by the jets is necessary to fully...
Preprint
Full-text available
The localized delivery of new long-lived species to Jupiter’s stratosphere by comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 in 1994 opened a window to constrain jovian chemistry and dynamics by monitoring the evolution of their vertical and horizontal distributions. ALMA observations of HCN and CO in March 2017 show that CO was meridionally uniform and restricted to pres...
Article
Full-text available
The overarching theme of the Orbiting Astronomical Satellite for Investigating Stellar Systems (OASIS) , an Astrophysics MIDEX-class mission concept, is Following water from galaxies, through protostellar systems, to Earth’s oceans . The OASIS science objectives address fundamental questions raised in “Pathways to Discovery in Astronomy and Astroph...
Article
Full-text available
Chemistry along the star- and planet-formation sequence regulates how prebiotic building blocks -- carriers of the elements CHNOPS -- are incorporated into nascent planetesimals and planets. Spectral line observations across the electromagnetic spectrum are needed to fully characterize interstellar CHNOPS chemistry, yet to date there are only limit...
Article
Full-text available
Simulations with the Max Planck Institute Martian general circulation model for Martian years 28 and 34 reveal details of the water “pump” mechanism and the role of gravity wave (GW) forcing. Water is advected to the upper atmosphere mainly by upward branches of the meridional circulation: in low latitudes during equinoxes and over the south pole d...
Preprint
Full-text available
Simulations with the Max Planck Institute Martian general circulation model for Martian years 28 and 34 reveal details of the water "pump" mechanism and the role of gravity wave (GW) forcing. Water is advected to the upper atmosphere mainly by upward branches of the meridional circulation: in low latitudes during equinoxes and over the south pole d...
Preprint
Chemistry along the star- and planet-formation sequence regulates how prebiotic building blocks -- carriers of the elements CHNOPS -- are incorporated into nascent planetesimals and planets. Spectral line observations across the electromagnetic spectrum are needed to fully characterize interstellar CHNOPS chemistry, yet to date there are only limit...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric gravity (buoyancy) waves (GWs) are of great importance for the energy and momentum budget of all planetary atmospheres. Propagating upward waves carry energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere to thermospheric altitudes and redistribute them there. On Mars, GWs dominate the variability of the thermosphere and ionosphere. We provide...
Conference Paper
Orbiting Astronomical Satellite for Investigating Stellar Systems (OASIS) is a space-based, MIDEX-class mission concept that employs a 17-meter diameter inflatable aperture with cryogenic heterodyne receivers, enabling high sensitivity and high spectral resolution (resolving power ≥106) observations at terahertz frequencies. OASIS science is target...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents observations of gravity wave-induced temperature disturbances in the Martian atmosphere obtained with the mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometer, a channel of the Atmospheric Chemistry Suite instrument on board the Trace Gas Orbiter (ACS/TGO). Solar occultation measurements of a CO2 absorption band at 2.7 m were used for retrieving den...
Article
Full-text available
Remote sensing observations suffer significant limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our Solar System. This impacts our knowledge of the formation of these planets and the physics of their atmospheres. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements was illustrated by the explo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Atmospheric gravity (buoyancy) waves (GWs) are of great importance for the energy and momentum budget of all planetary atmospheres. Propagating upward waves carry energy and momentum from the lower atmosphere to thermospheric altitudes and re-distribute them there. On Mars, GWs dominate the variability of the thermosphere and ionosphere. We provide...
Article
Full-text available
Of all the myriad environments in our Solar System, the least explored are the distant Ice Giants Uranus and Neptune, and their diverse satellite and ring systems. These ‘intermediate-sized’ worlds are the last remaining class of Solar System planet to be characterised by a dedicated robotic mission, and may shape the paradigm for the most common o...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ariel, the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey, was adopted as the fourth medium-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision programme to be launched in 2029. During its 4-year mission, Ariel will study what exoplanets are made of, how they formed and how they evolve, by surveying a diverse sample of about 1000 extrasolar planets, s...
Article
Europa is the closest and probably the most promising target to search for extant life in the Solar System, based on complementary evidence that it may fulfil the key criteria for habitability: the Galileo discovery of a sub-surface ocean; the many indications that the ice shell is active and may be partly permeable to transfer of chemical species,...
Article
Executive Summary In this White Paper we propose that NASA works with ESA and other potentially interested international partners to design and fly jointly an ambitious and exciting planetary mission to characterize Europa’s habitability and search for bio-signatures in the environment of Europa (surface, subsurface and exosphere). By choosing the...
Preprint
The detection of phosphine (PH3) has been recently reported in the atmosphere of Venus employing mm-wave radio observations (Greaves et at. 2020). We here demonstrate that the observed PH3 feature with JCMT can be fully explained employing plausible mesospheric SO2 abundances (~100 ppbv as per the SO2 profile given in their figure 9), while the ide...
Article
Europa is the closest and probably the most promising target to search for extant life in the Solar System, based on complementary evidence that it may fulfil the key criteria for habitability: the Galileo discovery of a sub-surface ocean; the many indications that the ice shell is active and may be partly permeable to transfer of chemical species,...
Article
Full-text available
Uranus and Neptune, and their diverse satellite and ring systems, represent the least explored environments of our Solar System, and yet may provide the archetype for the most common outcome of planetary formation throughout our galaxy. Ice Giants will be the last remaining class of Solar System planet to have a dedicated orbital explorer, and inte...
Preprint
We seek to compile a uniform set of basic capabilities and needs to maximize the yield of Solar System science with future Astrophysics assets while allowing those assets to achieve their Astrophysics priorities. Within considerations of cost and complexity, inclusion of capabilities that make a particular platform useable to planetary science prov...
Article
Full-text available
The upper atmosphere of Mars is constantly perturbed by small-scale gravity waves propagating from below. As gravity waves strongly affect the large-scale dynamics and thermal state, constraining their statistical characteristics is of great importance for modeling the atmospheric circulation. We present a new data set of density perturbation ampli...
Article
Our aim is to investigate early activity (2014 July) of 67P/C–G with 3D coma and radiative transfer modeling of Microwave Instrument on the Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) measurements, accounting for nucleus shape, illumination, and orientation of the comet. We investigate MIRO line shape information for spatial distribution of water activity on the nucleu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Remote sensing observations suffer significant limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. This impacts our knowledge of the formation of these planets and the physics of their atmospheres. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements was illustrated by the explo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Remote sensing observations suffer significant limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. This impacts our knowledge of the formation of these planets and the physics of their atmospheres. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements was illustrated by the explo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Remote sensing observations suffer significant limitations when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. This impacts our knowledge of the formation of these planets and the physics of their atmospheres. A remarkable example of the superiority of in situ probe measurements was illustrated by the explo...
Conference Paper
ARIEL (the Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) has been selected by ESA as the next medium-class science mission (M4), expected to be launched in 2028. The mission will be devoted to observing spectroscopically in the infrared a large population of warm and hot transiting exoplanets (temperatures from ~500 K to ~3000 K) in o...
Article
Full-text available
Context. The origin of water in the stratospheres of Giant Planets has been an outstanding question ever since its first detection by ISO some 20 years ago. Water can originate from interplanetary dust particles, icy rings and satellites and large comet impacts. Analysis of Herschel Space Observatory observations have proven that the bulk of Jupite...
Preprint
Uranus and Neptune, and their diverse satellite and ring systems, represent the least explored environments of our Solar System, and yet may provide the archetype for the most common outcome of planetary formation throughout our galaxy. Ice Giants are the last remaining class of planet in our system to have a dedicated orbital mission. This white p...
Article
Full-text available
We present results of simulations with the Max Planck Institute Martian general circulation model implementing a hydrological cycle scheme. The simulations reveal a seasonal water “pump” mechanism responsible for the upward transport of water vapor. This mechanism occurs in high latitudes above 60° of the southern hemisphere at perihelion, when the...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present results of simulations with the Max Planck Institute general circulation model (MPI-MGCM) implementing a hydrological cycle scheme. The simulations reveal a seasonal water "pump" mechanism responsible for the upward transport of water vapor. This mechanism occurs in high latitudes above 60$^\circ$ of the southern hemisphere at perihelion...
Article
Full-text available
We present a feasibility study for a submillimeter instrument on a small Mars platform now under construction. The sensor will measure the emission from atmospheric molecular oxygen, water, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide in order to retrieve their volume mixing ratios and the changes therein over time. In addition to these, the instrument will be abl...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon dioxide (CO2) ice clouds have been routinely observed in the middle atmosphere of Mars. However, there are still uncertainties concerning physical mechanisms that control their altitude, geographical, and seasonal distributions. Using the Max Planck Institute Martian General Circulation Model (MPI-MGCM), incorporating a state-of-the-art whol...
Article
Full-text available
Thousands of exoplanets have now been discovered with a huge range of masses, sizes and orbits: from rocky Earth-like planets to large gas giants grazing the surface of their host star. However, the essential nature of these exoplanets remains largely mysterious: there is no known, discernible pattern linking the presence, size, or orbital paramete...
Article
Full-text available
ARIEL, the Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey, is one of the three M-class mission candidates competing for the M4 launch slot within the Cosmic Vision science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). As such, ARIEL has been the subject of a Phase A study that involved European industry, research institutes and universi...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon dioxide (CO2) ice clouds have been routinely observed in the middle atmosphere of Mars. However, there are still uncertainties concerning physical mechanisms that control their altitude, geographical, and seasonal distributions. Using the Max Planck Institute Martian General Circulation Model (MPI-MGCM), incorporating a state-of-the-art whol...
Poster
Full-text available
Density measurements from the MAVEN orbiter provide information for explaining the physics of the thermosphere. MPI Martian General Circulation Model (known as MAOAM MGCM) is used for interpretation of the MAVEN data. The study reveals and constrains the effects in the thermosphere of internal gravity waves generated in the lower atmosphere. Simula...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a new implementation of the hydrological cycle scheme into a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The model includes a semi-Lagrangian transport scheme for water vapor and ice, and accounts for microphysics of phase transitions between them. The hydrological scheme includes processes of saturation, nucleation, particle gr...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new implementation of the hydrological cycle scheme into a general circulation model of the Martian atmosphere. The model includes a semi-Lagrangian transport scheme for water vapor and ice and accounts for microphysics of phase transitions between them. The hydrological scheme includes processes of saturation, nucleation, particle gro...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere–troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapor assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from or coincident with seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for th...
Article
Full-text available
The Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) package is an element of the Russian contribution to the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars 2016 Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) mission. ACS consists of three separate infrared spectrometers, sharing common mechanical, electrical, and thermal interfaces. This ensemble of spectrometers has been designed and developed in response to...
Article
Full-text available
Motions of neutrals and ions in the thermosphere-ionosphere (TI) do not, generally, coincide due to the presence of the geomagnetic field and associated electromagnetic forces affecting plasma. Collisions of ions with gravity wave (GW)-induced motions of neutrals impose damping on the latter. We derive a practical formula for the vertical damping r...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Hera Saturn entry probe mission is proposed as an ESA M-class mission to be piggybacked on a NASA spacecraft sent to or past the Saturn system. Hera consists of an atmospheric probe built by ESA and released into the atmosphere of Saturn by its NASA companion Saturn Carrier-Relay spacecraft. Hera will perform in situ measurements of the chemica...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Uranus and Neptune, referred to as ice giants, are fundamentally different from the better-known gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn). Exploration of an ice giant system is a high-priority science objective, as these systems (including the magnetosphere, satellites, rings, atmosphere, and interior) challenge our understanding of planetary formation and...
Article
Full-text available
The ice giants Uranus and Neptune are the least understood class of planets in our solar system but the most frequently observed type of exoplanets. Presumed to have a small rocky core, a deep interior comprising ∼70% heavy elements surrounded by a more dilute outer envelope of H2 and He, Uranus and Neptune are fundamentally different from the bett...
Article
Full-text available
As part of the second SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes And their Role in Climate) water vapour assessment (WAVAS-II), we present measurements taken from, or coincident with, seven sites from which ground-based microwave instruments measure water vapor in the middle atmosphere. Six of the ground-based instruments are part of the Network for...
Article
Aims. Using spectroscopic and continuum data measured by the MIRO instrument on board Rosetta of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, it is possible to derive and track the change in the water production rate, to learn how the outgassing evolves with heliocentric distance. The MIRO data are well suited to investigate the evolution of 67P, in unpreceden...
Article
Full-text available
Thermochemical models have been used in the past to constrain the deep oxygen abundance in the gas and ice giant planets from tropospheric CO spectroscopic measurements. Knowing the oxygen abundance of these planets is a key to better understand their formation. These models have widely used dry and/or moist adiabats to extrapolate temperatures fro...
Article
Full-text available
A Mars-orbiting sub-millimeter sensor can be used to retrieve the magnetic field at low altitudes over large areas of significant planetary crustal magnetism of the surface of Mars from measurements of circularly polarized radiation emitted by the 368 GHz ground-state molecular oxygen absorption line. We design a full retrieval system for one examp...
Article
Mainly for historical reasons, nearly all of the current thermophysical models of dust activity rely on the poorly justified assumption of cohesionless dust lifted by a gas drag force against the weak nucleus gravity. The interpretation of Rosetta data and our understanding of comet activity is particularly sensitive to this assumption. Aims. We in...
Article
Full-text available
Results of simulations with a new high-resolution Martian general circulation model (MGCM) (T106 spectral resolution, or ~67-km horizontal grid size) have been analyzed to reveal global distributions of gravity waves (GWs) during the solstice and equinox periods. They show that shorter-scale harmonics progressively dominate with height, and the bod...
Conference Paper
The Atmospheric Remote-Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey (ARIEL) is one of the three candidate missions selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) for its next medium-class science mission (M4) due for launch in 2026. It is just coming to the conclusion of the assessment phase (phase A) study and beginning the process that will lead to missi...
Article
Aims. We develop a physical model to explain the potent outbursts that occurred in the fractured terrain of comet 67P near perihelion, and predict its temporal characteristics. Methods. The feasibility of the proposed mechanism is studied using a numerical model accounting for the relevant microscopic/macroscopic processes. We rely on the thermophy...
Article
We present a model of cometary dust capable of simulating the dynamics within the first few tens of km of the comet surface. Recent measurements by the GIADA and COSIMA instruments on Rosetta show that the nucleus emits fluffy dust particles with porosities above 50% and sizes up to at least mm [42, 41, 13]. Retrieval of the physical properties of...