Paul Hanges

Paul Hanges
University of Maryland, College Park | UMD, UMCP, University of Maryland College Park · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

98
Publications
201,454
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18,498
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 1986 - present
University of Maryland, College Park
Description
  • Professor, Industrial/Organizational Psychology Program
January 1986 - present

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
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Big data is becoming a buzzword in today's corporate language and lay discussions. From individually targeting advertising based on previous consumer behavior or Internet searches to debates by Congress concerning National Security Agency (NSA) access to phone metadata, the era of big data has arrived. Thus, the Guzzo, Fink, King, Tonidandel, and L...
Research
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Ree, Carretta, & Teachout (2015) argue that a dominant general factor (DGF) is present in most, if not all, psychological measures (e.g., personality, leadership, attitudes, skills). Researchers tend to ignore the DGF and rather pay attention to specific dimensions. Ree et al argue that this is a mistake because DGF captures almost all of the expla...
Article
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Previous research has investigated the relationship between cultural values and leadership. This research expands on this tradition and examines how the strength of social norms— or tightness–looseness—influences perceptions of effective leadership. Data from Gelfand, Raver, et al. were integrated with GLOBE's leadership research to examine the att...
Article
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In their article, Ree, Carretta, and Teachout (2015) argued that a dominant general factor (DGF) is present in most, if not all, psychological measures (e.g., personality, leadership, attitudes, skills). A DGF, according to Ree et al., is identified by two characteristics. First, the DGF accounts for the largest amount of a measure's systematic var...
Article
By integrating psychological research from the social, cognitive and organizational domains, this symposium explores the factors that contribute to leaders acting ethically and seeks to identify the mechanisms through which such leaders are effective. Factors such as follower isolation, individual mindfulness, and organizational climate were found...
Article
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Purpose This paper provides a historical review of the origins and legacy of the 1964 Civil Rights Act through the lens of the African American Civil Rights and the Women’s Rights Movements. Design/Methodology/Approach The historical narrative was developed using psychological, historical, and legal source material. Findings While the Civil Rights...
Article
The goal of our focal article was to initiate a conversation on how I–O psychology can reengage in research on intelligence. We are encouraged by the ways in which the commentators have furthered this conversation. We discuss 4 overarching themes in the set of commentaries: the extent that I–O psychology is contributing to the intelligence field, o...
Article
Intelligence (i.e., g, general mental ability) is an individual difference that is arguably more important than ever for success in the constantly changing, ever more complex world of business (Boal, 2004; Gatewood, Field, & Barrick, 2011). Although the field of industrial–organizational (I–O) psychology initially made substantial contributions to...
Article
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In this chapter, we focus on the importance of establishing causal relationships in the organizational sciences. Specifically, we provide an explicit definition of a causal relationship, identify several different forms that have been explored in the scientific literature, and discuss the conditions under which causality can be established. Specifi...
Article
McDaniel, Kepes, and Banks (2011) discuss revising or rescinding the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Civil Service Commission, Department of Labor, & Department of Justice, 1978). In this paper, we analyze two problematic overgeneralizations in their article. First, we discuss their alte...
Article
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In this overview, the authors use the seven studies included in the feature topic as a platform to delineate three areas that latent class procedures are particularly useful for in advancing the field of organizational research. The first topic area focuses on dealing with the need to identify and understand unobserved subpopulations in organizatio...
Article
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In this chapter, we propose that society- and organization-level social context cues influence the endorsement of ethical leadership. More specifically, we propose that certain organizational culture values provide proximal contextual cues that people use to form perceptions of the importance of ethical leadership. We further propose that specific...
Article
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We respond to H. Blanton et al.'s critique of J. C. Ziegert & P. J. Hanges and illustrate that their criticisms regarding our study are based on very weak evidence. In this rebuttal, we highlight the appropriateness of our manipulation as well as present reanalyses that illustrate the predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test. In particu...
Article
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Our study shows that preferred leadership prototypes held by female leaders differ from the prototypes held by male leaders, and that these prototype differences vary across countries, cultures, and especially industries. In general, female managers prefer participative, team oriented, and charismatic leadership prototype dimensions more than males...
Article
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ClimateQUAL™ is the latest assessment tool in the assessment toolkit development by ARL and accessible through the StatsQUAL® gateway to li-brary assessment tools. The tools available through StatsQUAL® are combining the power of both quan-titative and qualitative methods and are integrated into a platform that allows easy data collection, analy-si...
Article
PAUL J. HANGESUniversity of MarylandJONATHAN C. ZIEGERTDrexel UniversityIn his commentary, Landy (2008) high-lighted the Ziegert and Hanges’ (2005) arti-cle and claimed that it was the only ImplicitAssociation Test (IAT) study that exploreda meaningful selection criterion. Whilehighlighting this article, Landy noted twoproblemswithit.First,itdidnot...
Article
The article discusses leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, which focuses on the relationship between leaders and followers. LMX theory postulates that leaders tend to create high quality relationships with some employees and low quality relationships with others. As employees are likely to be influenced by the leader-follower relationships of other...
Chapter
Neural Networks and Statistical ModelingNeural Networks and Psychological ProcessesCatastrophe Theory and Dynamic SystemsFinal CommentsNotesReferences
Article
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The issues of organizational diversity and climate are of major concern to many organizations, a fact reflected in the extensive literature about both. This interest is based on the simple, perhaps intuitive, notion that we should find ways of measuring organizational climate because climate will have an impact on organizational goals—from service...
Article
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According to Helms, "test fairness" is defined as "removal from test scores of systematic variance attributable to experiences of racial or cultural socialization." Some of Helms's reasoning is based on earlier work, which recommended that racial group or category variables be replaced entirely with individual-level constructs, to reflect racial so...
Article
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This paper explains why GLOBE used a set of cultural values and practices to measure national cultures. We show why there is no theoretical or empirical basis for Hofstede's criticism that GLOBE measures of values are too abstract or for his contention that national and organizational cultures are phenomena of different order. We also show why Hofs...
Article
Peterson and Castro [Peterson, M.F. and Castro (2006-this issue). Measurement metrics at aggregate levels of analysis: Implications for organization culture research and the GLOBE project. The Leadership Quarterly, 17, 506 –521.] have presented a critique of the GLOBE societal and organizational culture scales. In this article, we clarify what we b...
Article
This study examined whether the content of organizationally-shared cognitive prototypes of effective leadership varies in predictable fashion according to the degree to which organizations are mechanistic or organic. Data for this study come from the GLOBE Project [House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta V. (Eds.) (2004)....
Article
Foreword - Harry Triandis Preface - Robert J. House Part 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction - Robert House Chapter 2 Overview of the Globe Research Program - Robert House and Mansour Javidan Part 2 Literature Chapter 3 Literature Review - Mansour Javidan and Robert House Chapter 4 Cultures and Leadership - Peter Dorfman and Robert House Chapter...
Article
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Several recent studies have addressed the topic of climate strength--the degree to which there is agreement among an organization's members regarding the practices and policies as well as the shared values that characterize the organization. To further investigate antecedents of climate strength, the authors used data from the GLOBE Project, totali...
Article
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The western-based leadership and ethics literatures were reviewed to identify the key characteristics that conceptually define what it means to be an ethical leader. Data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Effectiveness (GLOBE) project were then used to analyze the degree to which four aspects of ethical leadership – Character/Integrity,...
Article
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In this paper, we discuss a new information processing model of culture and leadership (Hanges, Lord, & Dickson, 2000). First, we review the older cognitive categorization approach that has been used to explain the relationships between culture, preferred leadership attributes and follower behavior. Then we present a new model based on the connecti...
Article
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Every year, U.S. News and World Report (USNEWS) creates a stir among academics and the public by publishing its ranking of universities and various departments within those universities. Although members of the public rely on the USNEWS rankings when making their academic choices, psychologists and other academics tend to rely on the National Resea...
Article
In this chapter, we discuss Cohen and Doveh's (this volume) proposed protocol for testing differences in intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). We believe that there are many research questions that can be addressed by this procedure. We provide several potential examples of using this procedure at the individual, group, and organizational/so...
Article
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This study is an attempt to replicate and extend research on employment discrimination by A. P. Brief and colleagues (A. P. Brief, J. Dietz, R. R. Cohen, S. D. Pugh, & J. B. Vaslow, 2000). More specifically, the authors attempted (a) to constructively replicate the prior finding that an explicit measure of modern racism would interact with a corpor...
Article
Statistical issues associated with multilevel data are becoming increasingly important to organizational researchers. This paper concentrates on the issue of assessing the factor structure of a construct at aggregate levels of analysis. Specifically, we describe a recently developed procedure for performing multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (...
Chapter
Managing a large multinational team such as the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) project (ongoing since the early 1990s) presents numerous leadership, communication and organization challenges. This chapter discusses the challenges that occurred in the GLOBE project owing to: (a) the long-term nature of the projec...
Article
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Organizational data are inherently nested; consequently, lower level data are typically influenced by higher level grouping factors. Stated another way, almost all lower level organizational data have some degree of nonindependence due to work group, geographic membership, and so on. Unaccounted-for nonindependence can be problematic because it aff...
Article
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Leadership scholars are faced with pressing methodological issues that challenge our current scholarship. In this paper, we discuss methodological concerns such as multi-level hypothesis testing, construct validity of group-level scales, sampling countries in cross-cultural research, self-report measurement – issues that are endemic to organiza-tio...
Article
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Entrepreneurship is a major factor in the national economy; thus, it is important to understand the motivational characteristics spurring people to become entrepreneurs and why some are more successful than others. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between achievement motivation and variables associated with entreprene...
Article
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Employee attitude data from 35 companies over 8 years were analyzed at the organizational level of analysis against financial (return on assets; ROA) and market performance (earnings per share: EPS) data using lagged analyses permitting exploration of priority in likely causal ordering. Analyses revealed statistically significant and stable relatio...
Article
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Reports an error in "Integrating neural networks into decision-making and motivational theory: Rethinking VIE theory" by Robert G. Lord, Paul J. Hanges and Ellen G. Godfrey (Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 2003[Feb], Vol 44[1], 21-38). The paper by Lord, Henges and Godfrey, referred to in some of the commentaries (this issue), was accep...
Article
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This experiment examined the mediation of the stereotype threat effect and ex- plored the relationship of 2 different types of stereotype threat: stereotype threat-specific (threat that results specifically from the testing environment) and stereotype threat-general (a global sense of threat that individuals carry across sit- uations) on Raven Adva...
Article
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[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 44(3) of Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne (see record 2007-16858-001). The paper by Lord, Henges and Godfrey, referred to in some of the commentaries (this issue), was accepted as part of the Special Section on psychology without boundaries. However, it was inadvertentl...
Article
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This study tested a model of survivor reactions to reorganization, which incorporated multiple predictors and consequences of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. The 3 justice types had different correlates: all 4 antecedents (employee input, victim support, implementation, and communication quality) predicted interpersonal fairne...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested a model of survivor reactions to reorganization, which incorporated multiple predictors and consequences of procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. The 3 justice types had different correlates: all 4 antecedents (employee input, victim support, implementation, and communication quality) predicted interpersonal fairne...
Article
There has been almost a half century of effort to identify clusters of societies using the analysis of international-level data. Using the data collected on cultural values and beliefs from 61 nations, GLOBE proposed 10 a priori clusters and used discriminant analysis to confirm the clusters in a split half sample. Cross-validation was performed on...
Article
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GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) is a research program focusing on culture and leadership in 61 nations. National cultures are examined in terms of nine dimensions: performance orientation, future orientation, assertiveness, power distance, humane orientation, institutional collectivism, in-group collectivism, unc...
Article
Literature on leadership and literature on culture are each rich and deep, but the two were largely unrelated during the first several decades of their development. In more recent years, many researchers have explored relationships between these two literatures. In this chapter, we identify four developments or trends in the last 25 years of cross-...
Article
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Recently, 2 separate yet related criticisms have been levied against the adequacy of the five-factor model (or Big Five) as a descriptive taxonomy of job applicant personality: frame of reference effects (M. J. Schmit & A. M. Ryan, 1993) and socially desirable responding (A. F. Snell & M. A. McDaniel, 1998). Of interest, although both criticisms su...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, 2 separate yet related criticisms have been levied against the adequacy of the five-factor model (or Big Five) as a descriptive taxonomy of job applicant personality: frame of reference effects (M. J. Schmit & A. M. Ryan, 1993) and socially desirable responding (A. F. Snell & M. A. McDaniel, 1998). Of interest, although both criticisms su...
Article
Un mode`le de la relation entre la culture et le leadership est pre´sente´ dans cet article; ce mode`le est centre´ sur le traitement de l’information. Nous estimons qu’un re´seau connectionniste s’impose pour une bonne compre´hension de la faµon dont la culture et le leadership influencent les re´actions et la comprotement du suiveur, ce qui nous...
Article
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Recently, Aguinis, Cortina, and Goldberg (1998) questioned the logic underlying the traditional Cascio, Outtz, Zedeck, and Goldstein (1991) method of developing test bands. In this article, we examine their criticisms and argue that the traditional banding approach is not flawed. We discuss the logic underlying the traditional test band methodology...
Article
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Glick and Fiske have claimed that prior sexism measures are biased because they only capture hostile sexist attitudes and fail to tap benevolent sexist attitudes. The authors of the current article believe that other measures of sexism do, in fact, capture some aspects of benevolent sexism. To examine this hypothesis, they compared Swim, Aikin, Hal...
Article
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This study focuses on culturally endorsed implicit theories of leadership (CLTs). Although cross-cultural research emphasizes that different cultural groups likely have different conceptions of what leadership should entail, a controversial position is argued here: namely that attributes associated with charismatic/transformational leadership will...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on culturally endorsed implicit theories of leadership (CLTs). Although cross-cultural research emphasizes that different cultural groups likely have different conceptions of what leadership should entail, a controversial position is argued here: namely that attributes associated with charismatic/transformational leadership will...
Article
This study focuses on culturally endorsed implicit theories of leadership (CLTs). Although cross-cultural research emphasizes that different cultural groups likely have different conceptions of what leadership should entail, a controversial position is argued here: namely that attributes associated with charismatic/transformational leadership will...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on culturally endorsed implicit theories of leadership (CLTs). Although cross-cultural research emphasizes that different cultural groups likely have different conceptions of what leadership should entail, a controversial position is argued here: namely that attributes associated with charismatic/transformational leadership will...
Article
Full-text available
Statistical issues associated with multilevel data are becoming increasingly important to organizational researchers. This paper concentrates on the issue of assessing the factor structure of a construct at aggregate levels of analysis. Specifically, we describe a recently developed procedure for performing multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (...