Paul Hanel

Paul Hanel
University of Essex · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

107
Publications
55,611
Reads
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1,030
Citations
Introduction
I am a Lecturer (Assistant Professor) at the Department of Psychology, University of Essex.
Education
October 2013 - December 2016
Cardiff University
Field of study
  • Psychology
October 2012 - September 2013
Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg
Field of study
  • Political science and sociology (90/90)
October 2010 - July 2013

Publications

Publications (107)
Article
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Most psychological studies rely on student samples. Students are usually considered as more homogenous than representative samples both within and across countries. However, little is known about the nature of the differences between student and representative samples. This is an important gap, also because knowledge about the degree of difference...
Article
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We tested whether mere source attribution is sufficient to cause polarization between groups, even on consensual non-divisive positions. Across four studies (N = 2,182), using samples from Germany, the UK, and the USA, agreement with aphorisms was high in the absence of source attribution. In contrast, atheists agreed less with brief aphorisms when...
Article
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Most published research focuses on describing differences, while neglecting similarities that are arguably at least as interesting and important. In Study 1, we modified and extended prior procedures for describing similarities and demonstrate the importance of this exercise by examining similarities between groups on 22 social variables (e.g., mor...
Article
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Members of extreme political groups are usually perceived as more homogeneous than moderates. We investigated whether members of the general public who share the same political ideology would exhibit different levels of heterogeneity in terms of human values across 20 European countries and Israel. We directly compared the variability across modera...
Article
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Researchers are increasingly noticing the value of multiverse analysis. While such analysis is important, they should not neglect the impact of multiverse operationalisations on the outcome – that is, multiple ways of operationalising or measuring constructs such as well-being or religiosity. The “Many Analysts Religion Projects” (2022) found that...
Article
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Significance Communicating in ways that motivate engagement in social distancing remains a critical global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tested motivational qualities of messages about social distancing (those that promoted choice and agency vs. those that were forceful and shaming) in 25,718 people in 89 countries...
Article
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Finding communication strategies that effectively motivate social distancing continues to be a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This crosscountry , preregistered experiment (n = 25,718 from 89 countries) tested hypotheses concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of social distancing messages that promoted p...
Preprint
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The number of refugees who are displaced from their homes is increasing. It is therefore important to understand how these people can adapt well to their (temporary) new homes. In the present research, we examined the role of human values in acculturation strategies in a sample of 215 male refugees from Arabic speaking countries living in Germany....
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Facial neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is the application of an electrical current to the skin to induce muscle contractions and has enormous potential for basic research and clinical intervention in psychology and neuroscience. Because the technique remains largely unknown, and the prospect of receiving electricity to the face can be d...
Preprint
Facial neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is the application of an electrical current to the skin to induce muscle contractions and has enormous potential for basic research and clinical intervention in psychology and neuroscience. Because the technique remains largely unknown, and the prospect of receiving electricity to the face can be d...
Preprint
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Conspiracy beliefs have spread during the Covid-19 pandemic. They impact how much individuals trust societal institutions and how people feel towards the vaccine. In the present research (N=538), we assessed the links between conspiracy beliefs, trust in institutions (e.g., government, World Health Organization), and attitudes towards the Covid-19...
Preprint
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To increase Covid-19 vaccine uptake and protect vulnerable people, many countries have introduced a Covid-19 passport, allowing vaccinated individuals to access indoor facilities more freely and travel to foreign countries. However, the passport has unintended consequences in discriminating against those who do not want to get vaccinated for medica...
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Returning home after a study abroad experience can be challenging. In the current research, we examine the discrepancy between adaptation expectations and experience in a longitudinal sojourner study (N = 1319; M age = 17 years; 70% female). Returnees adaptation expectations were assessed prior to returning home, followed by post return measures of...
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Background Food allergy (FA) has been shown to have an adverse impact on food allergy quality of life (FAQL). To more fully understand this impact, correlates and predictors of FAQL must be reliably measured. Coping is one such factor. In the present study (n = 200), we sought to adapt the widely used COPE Inventory and its 15 distinct strategies t...
Preprint
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COVID-19 has likely been the most disruptive event at a global scale the world experienced since WWII. Our discipline never experienced such a phenomenon, whereby software engineers were forced to abruptly work from home. Nearly every developer started new working habits and organizational routines, while trying to stay mentally healthy and product...
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In the present research, we investigate whether cultural value orientations (CVOs) and aggregate personality traits (Big-5) predict actual levels of alcohol consumption, smoking, and obesity across 50 countries using averages derived from millions of data points. Aggregate traits explained variance above and beyond CVOs in obesity (particularly neu...
Article
Engagement is a multidimensional construct with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components that captures how subjective experiences result from interactions between perceptions, information-processing and ecological influences in a way that activates internal states to maintain behavior. This process underlies the way people relate to differen...
Article
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Brazil is one of the epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic (i.e., 563,470 deaths until August 9th, 2021). Since the Brazilian government is partly struggling and partly unwilling to control the pandemic, staying healthy falls almost exclusively to the population. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the predictive role of personality traits to expl...
Preprint
We examined how different types of communication influence people’s responses to health advice. Specifically, we tested whether presenting Covid-19 prevention advice (i.e., washing hands) as either originating from the government or a scientific source would affect people’s trust and intentions to comply with the advice. We also tested the effects...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
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The present research provides the first direct assessment of the fit of diverse behaviors to putatively related personal and social values from Schwartz's theory. Across three studies, we examined spatial representations of value-related behaviors that were explicitly derived from people's mental representations of the values. Participants were ask...
Preprint
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Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns, software engineers' daily life was disrupted and they were abruptly forced into working remotely from home. Across one exploratory and one confirmatory study (N = 482), we tested whether a typical working day is different to pre-pandemic times and whether specific tasks are asso...
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Opinion polls regarding policies designed to tackle COVID-19 have shown public support has remained high throughout the first year of the pandemic in most places around the world. However, there is a risk that headline support over-simplifies people's views. We carried out a two-wave survey with six-month interval on a public sample (N = 212) in th...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments worldwide to impose movement restrictions on their citizens. Although critical to reducing the virus’ reproduction rate, these restrictions come with far-reaching social and economic consequences. In this paper, we investigate the impact of these restrictions on an individual level among software enginee...
Article
The climate agenda has gathered extraordinary pace due to Greta Thunberg and other autistic environmentalists. Thunberg's autism is widely used to explain and celebrate, but also diminish and denigrate, her activism. However, despite speculation linking autism, pro-environmental action, and climate change belief, there is neither psychological theo...
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This study investigated whether relationship satisfaction mediates the association between attachment styles and mate-retention strategies. Four-hundred and twenty individuals in a heterosexual committed relationship participated in this study (79.7% women; Mage = 23.22; SDage = 8.07). Participants completed questionnaires assessing attachment styl...
Article
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In this crowdsourced initiative, independent analysts used the same dataset to test two hypotheses regarding the effects of scientists' gender and professional status on verbosity during group meetings. Not only the analytic approach but also the operationalizations of key variables were left unconstrained and up to individual analysts. For instanc...
Preprint
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Effectively motivating social distancing—keeping a physical distance from others —has become a global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-country preregistered experiment (n=25,718 in 89 countries) tested hypotheses derived from self-determination theory concerning generalizable positive and negative outcomes of differen...
Chapter
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Attitudes are our likes and dislikes towards anything and anyone that can be evaluated. This can be something as concrete as a mosquito that is tormenting you during the night or abstract and broad as capitalism or communism. In contrast, human values have been defined as abstract ideals and guiding principles in our life, and are considered as abs...
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Self-esteem is defined as sense of self-worth and self-respect, being crucial for understanding people’s well-being and success. It is one of the most studied constructs in the social sciences, with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) being the most used measure. Across four studies (N = 1450), we tested the psychometric parameters of an abbrevi...
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One of the main challenges governments faced during the Covid-19 pandemic was to balance economic considerations with protecting the health of people (i.e., economic vs humanitarian motives). In the present study (N = 296), we investigated whether human values, political orientation, and fear of Covid-19 predicted economic and humanitarian motives....
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We investigated differences in personality traits (Big-5) and human values amongst four groups of Brazilian students staying at home or studying abroad. Two groups came from Brazilian universities: one had no interest studying abroad (n = 112), while the other group was interested studying abroad (n = 227). The third and fourth groups were Brazilia...
Article
In the present research, we replicate and extend previous findings on the relations between human values and bright\dark traits of personality, using the functional theory of human values (Gouveia, 2013). Specifically, we assessed which dark traits are associated with human values, and whether the dark traits explained variance in values beyond the...
Article
Pathological personality traits are an important inhibitor of social functioning and well-being. Individual human values also possess important connections to both personality and well-being, but the links between human values and pathological personality traits have not been directly examined. Across two studies (N = 478), we provide the first dir...
Preprint
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Following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdowns, software engineers' daily life was disrupted and abruptly forced into remote working from home. This change deeply impacted typical working routines, affecting both well-being and productivity. Moreover, this pandemic will have long-lasting effects in the software industry, with...
Article
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The need for cognition refers to people’s tendency to engage in and enjoy thinking and has become influential across social and medical sciences. Using three samples from the USA and the UK (N = 1,596), we introduce a 6-item short version of the need for cognition scale (NCS-18; Cacioppo, Petty, & Kao, 1984). First, we reduced the number of items f...
Preprint
Traditional models of personality traits and of human values have frequently pointed to theoretical interconnections between these constructs, which both refer to stable psychological characteristics. Yet, decades of study have yielded no consensus about precisely how these constructs interrelate. The present research takes a significant step forwa...
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Objective: Extant research mostly treats values as being stable over time. Our research examined how people perceive values over time and whether or not these perceptions reflect motivational tensions between theoretically opposing values. We also assessed the viability of examining values over time to predict well-being and future intentions. Meth...
Article
The Covid-19 pandemic has far-reaching implications for researchers. For example, many researchers cannot access their labs anymore and are hit by budget-cuts from their institutions. Luckily, there are a range of ways how high-quality research can be conducted without funding and face-to-face interactions. In the present paper, I discuss nine such...
Article
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It is often assumed that incongruence between individuals’ values and those of their country is distressing, but the evidence has been mixed. Across 29 countries, the present research investigated whether well-being is higher if people’s values match with those of people living in the same country or region. Using representative samples, we find th...
Article
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There is growing interest in quantifying attitudes towards autistic people, however there is relatively little research on psychometric properties of the only existing measure and its ability to predict engagement with people with autism. To begin addressing these issues, we compared three scales measuring attitudes towards autistic people followin...
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We review recent research investigating the effect of shared human values on personal and social outcomes. Using more precise methods than past research, cross-sectional and experimental evidence suggests that well-being and prejudice are predicted by the extent to which people’s values align (or are perceived to align) with those of other people a...
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Perfectionism can be understood as a personality trait that establishes excessively high standards for the performance of individuals and ostensibly critical self-evaluations. It is associated with a range of variables, such as anxiety, suicidal tendencies, depression, and low satisfaction with life. Rice et al. (2014) proposed the Short Almost Per...
Preprint
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has forced governments worldwide to impose movement restrictions on their citizens. Although critical to reducing the virus' reproduction rate, these restrictions come with far-reaching social and economic consequences. In this paper, we investigate the impact of these restrictions on an individual level among software enginee...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Covid-19 pandemic has far-reaching implications for researchers. For example, many researchers cannot access their labs anymore and are hit by budget-cuts from their institutions. Luckily, there are a range of ways how high-quality research can be conducted without funding and face-to-face interactions. In the present paper, I discuss eight suc...
Article
Full-text available
Since the British “Brexit referendum” in 2016, tensions between ‘leave’ and ‘remain’ voters have been growing. Using a novel analytical approach based on the full distribution of responses rather than their arithmetic means, Study 1 (N=1,506) showed on average 90% of overlap among Leavers and Remainers across a range of important variables. Even on...
Article
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Previous research has established a reliable link between religiosity and schizotypy as well as schizophrenia. However, past research mainly measured religiosity as a one-dimensional construct. In the present research (N = 189), we aimed to get a better understanding of the religiosity-schizotypy link by measuring religiosity using Huber's five-dim...
Article
Arieli, Sagiv, and Roccas's lead article provides a timely and important review of the role of individual values and their role in organizations. At the same time as identifying several key areas of progress, the review identifies significant gaps. In this commentary, we focus on additional gaps that merit attention. In particular, we highlight a n...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is, first, to identify the relationship, if any, between customers’ perceptions of justice (functional element) and employee effort (symbolic element) and their effects on satisfaction and loyalty in the context of service recovery and, second, to determine the impact of cross-cultural differences on these relation...
Article
Transparent communication of research is key to foster understanding within and beyond the scientific community. An increased focus on reporting effect sizes in addition of p-value based significance statements or Bayes Factors may improve scientific communication with the general public. Across three studies (N = 652), we compared subjective infor...
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The present research provides the first direct examination of human values through concept categorization tasks that entail judging the meaning of values. Seven studies containing data from nine samples (N = 1,086) in two countries (United Kingdom and Brazil) asked participants to compare the meaning of different values found within Schwartz’s (199...
Chapter
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Cultural diversity refers to the extent of cultural differences that exist between people. The first part of our chapter discusses the influence that diversity has on creative processes. Historiometric, cross-sectional and experimental work supports the idea that, under the right circumstances, individual experiences of diversity can increase creat...
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Over the past century, various value models have been proposed. To determine which value model best predicts prosocial behavior, mental health, and pro-environmental behavior, we subjected seven value models to a hierarchical regression analysis. A sample of University students (N = 271) completed the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al.,...
Preprint
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In this paper, we investigate lay conceptions of creativity towards science as compared to art. In three studies across Brazil and the UK, we investigated whether science is less strongly associated with creativity compared to art. In Study 1, we found that art is more spontaneously associated with creativity among British but not Brazilian partici...
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Optimism can be defined as the hope that something good is going to happen in the future. It is a relevant construct in the study of happiness, and is associated with a range of variables, including subjective well-being, reduced risk of suicidal ideation, quality of social relationships, and a healthier lifestyle. However, current measures of opti...
Article
The present study tested the role of various personality traits in explaining dangerous driving and involvement in accidents, using a contextual mediated model (N = 311). We initially found direct effects of personality traits on dangerous driving indicators (Big-5, Dark Triad, sensation seeking, aggression, and impulsivity). Subsequently, personal...