Paul B Hamilton

Paul B Hamilton
Canadian Museum of Nature / Musée canadien de la nature · Research & Collections

About

191
Publications
45,050
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
4,385
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 1985 - present
Canadian Museum of Nature / Musée canadien de la nature
Position
  • Research Assistant
Description
  • Curator of the National Phycology Collection of Canada. Primary research in freshwater ecology, paleolimnology and taxonomy.

Publications

Publications (191)
Article
The microbial food-loop is critical to energy flow in aquatic food webs. We tested the hypothesis that species composition and relative abundance in a microbial community would be modified by the development of toxic algal blooms either by enhanced carbon production or toxicity. This study tracked the response of the microbial community with respec...
Article
Many large, ancient lakes support primarily planktonic-driven food webs. In contrast, the lowest trophic levels of the Malili Lakes of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia are dominated by benthic diatom communities composed mainly of endemic species. Centric diatoms are not observed in the current diatom assemblage and pennate pelagic species are rare. Usin...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: Ecological communities are structured through the interplay of deterministic assembly processes such as competition and environmental filtering. Whereas the drivers of spatial community structure are frequently studied in extant communities, little is known about the relative importance of assembly processes in response to environmental factor...
Article
Virtual scarce water (VSW) is an improved indicator of virtual water, enabling meaningful comparisons between water use of products from regions with different water resources and water scarcity. This study considers virtual water for comprehensive water pressures (VWCP) as an improvement to VSW, adding a more thorough consideration of available wa...
Article
Synedra planktonica was originally described by Hains and Sebring from a freshwater locality in the southeastern USA using light and transmission electron microscopy. The authors placed S. planktonica into the genus Synedra Ehrenberg because of its solitary habit and lack of marginal linking spines. Since the original description of S. planktonica,...
Article
A new diatom genus, Brevilinea gen. nov., is described from an acidic freshwater lake situated on the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA. The type for the genus, Brevilinea pocosinensis sp. nov., differs from other diatoms by the presence of a unique and reduced raphe that is restricted to the central portion of the valve. The new taxon...
Article
The implementation of the virtual water strategy (VWS) transporting invisible water resources through products scheduling, faces resistance due to limited reporting and understanding, and the lack of motivation analysis for stakeholders. This study builds a semi‐quantitative Hotelling game model under different scenarios to analyse the influence of...
Article
This third paper revising the European Brachysira species deals with Brachysira serians and the closely related B. brebissonii-intermedia complex. The morphology of these species is charac-terised in greater detail than before based on a combination of analyses of original type material and additional historic and modern samples. All taxa in this c...
Article
The taxonomic identity of several similar Brachysira species in Europe is investigated based on a combination of the analysis of original type material, additional historic samples, and modern samples. Brachysira microcephala and B. neoexilis can be separated based on morphological and ecological differences. Brachysira microcephala shows a lanceol...
Article
Multiple stressors affect water quality and biodiversity in lakes worldwide. However, our understanding of which combinations of stressors are of greatest impact and how lakes have shifted from their pre-industrial baselines is fragmented. Questions remain regarding how multiple trophic groups are affected by global change stressors and whether reg...
Data
Abstract A sediment core from a subarctic Lake (Pocket Lake) was collected to examine its paleolimnological history. Pocket Lake over 2800 years shows a trajectory of ontogeny from an alkaline and productive system to a less alkaline and less productive lake. Irrespective of ontogeny, diatoms in the sediments form six paleoecological assemblages, w...
Article
Full-text available
The paleolimnological record of diatoms and climate, spanning the last 2800 years, was investigated in a small subarctic lake (Pocket Lake) that from AD 1948 to 2004 was contaminated by gold smelting waste. An age-depth model was constructed using a combination of ²¹⁰ Pb, ¹⁴ C, and tephra to determine a 2800 year history of lake ontogeny (natural a...
Article
The virtual water strategy (VWS) provides a theoretically‐feasible method to transport virtual water (VW) and balance regional differences in water resource endowments. However, the practical implementation of VWS faces selective resistance due to the lack of research in motivation analysis across potential executor regions. Game theory provides a...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative paleoclimate reconstructions based on biological fossils over glacial-interglacial timescales are a major source of information on long-term climate variability. However, such reconstructions can present major methodological challenges, as calibration methods based on modern climatic and biological patterns may yield biased results, es...
Article
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) bring economic loss, damage aquatic ecosystems, and produce cyanobacterial toxins that threaten human health. Algicidal bacteria as pathogens can expediate the decline of CyanoHABs. In this study, a Streptomyces globisporus strain (designated G9), isolated from soil near an eutrophic pond, showed high...
Article
The Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), China, is the largest man-made reservoir in the world. Harmful algal blooms (HABs) have become common since the reservoir’s impoundment in 2003. To investigate the mechanisms of HAB formation in the reservoir and to determine possible mitigation measures, we conducted surveys over a range of spatial scales and temp...
Article
The mechanisms that regulate the composition and structure of biological communities remain poorly understood. Diatom communities have traditionally been assumed to be a collection of r-selected, ecologically redundant generalist taxa with distributions constrained largely by dispersal limitation. Here, we challenge this notion by presenting a nove...
Article
Full-text available
A new species, Envekadea vranaensis Caput Mihalić, Galović & Levkov sp. nov., is described from Holocene sediments of Lake Vrana, Croatia. The new species is characterized by linear-lanceolate valves with broadly capitate apices and is 40.0–67.5 μm long and 7.5–9.0 μm wide. Based on its morphological features it is similar to E. hedin...
Article
Frustulia Rabenhorst is an established diatom genus that is common and widespread across North America. As for many diatom genera, taxa within Frustulia have been the subject of taxonomic confusion. Although recent studies have examined species from Europe and New Zealand, there exist no detailed genetic data for North American individuals. Using b...
Article
Full-text available
In this overview (introductory article to a special issue including 14 papers), we consider all main types of natural and artificial inland freshwater habitas (fwh). For each type, we identify the main biodiversity patterns and ecological features, human impacts on the system and environmental issues, and discuss ways to use this information to imp...
Article
This study assessed the possibility of replacing conventional microscopic methods of species-level identification and quantification of Arcellinida with a more rapid method utilizing the FlowCam® with VisualSpreadsheet® (FCVS; Fluid Imaging Technologies, Inc.). Arcellinida are an established group of benthic bioindicators of water and sediment qual...
Article
Five taxa in the genus Neidium, N. iridis, N. beatyi sp. nov., N. vandusenense sp. nov., N. collare sp. nov. and N. lavoieanum sp. nov. are documented from a pond and stream system in the VanDusen Botanical Garden, Vancouver, Canada. Neidium beatyi is a large linear species with multiple longitudinal canals and sagittate apices. The areolae are occ...
Article
Multiple biogeochemical variables in a sediment core from Lake Lugu in southwest China were studied to investigate the effects of regional environmental changes on the ecosystem. Subfossil Cladocera, together with diatom, pollen and geochemical records, were used to examine climate-induced changes in lake ecosystem since the Last Glacial Maximum (3...
Article
Full-text available
The relative tolerance of four diatoms (Nitzschia palea, Pinnularia mesolepta, Mayamaea atomus, and Gomphonema truncatum) to Cd was evaluated, including their proneness to deformities, and the severity of the abnormalities in relation to Cd concentration. The indirect effect of Cd on photosynthetic capacities was assessed during a short time exposu...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims-Confusion over the taxonomic identity of Neidium iridis (Ehrenb.) Cleve (= Navicula iridis Ehrenb.) has persisted for more than 130 years with identifications of valve shapes varying from elliptical to linear and sizes from 100 to 300 µm. This confusion can be linked to the rarity of the species and poor attention to the origina...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims – An increased interest in the diatom flora from subaerial habitats in the Republic of North Macedonia has revealed the presence of a large number of interesting and often unknown, species. During a recent biodiversity survey, seven Muelleria species were recorded, several of which could not be identified based on the available...
Article
The genus Neidiopsis is small comprising eight known taxa distributed in oligotrophic to dystrophic freshwater habitats. During observations of diatoms from alpine intermittent ponds on the Shara Mountain, Republic of North Macedonia, a species of Neidiopsis with high abundance was observed. It is characterized by linear to linear–lanceolate valves...
Article
The biomagnification of metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn) and the metalloid As in aquatic systems is a global health concern. In this study, concentrations of fatty acid biomarkers in zooplankton were analyzed from the Pearl River, South China between September 2016 and July 2017. The objective was to examine how particulate matter, algae...
Article
The geochemical speciation of total mercury (THg) was examined in pre‐1800 Arctic lake sediments to improve understanding of the factors controlling “natural baseline” THg. Solid‐phase binding forms of THg were determined by sequential extraction of dated cores from three lakes in different ecozones (barren tundra, grassy tundra, and boreal forest)...
Article
Full-text available
A <5 mm thick volcanic ashfall layer associated with the White River Ash (east lobe [WRAe]) originating from the eruption of Mount Churchill, Alaska (833-850 CE; 1,117–1,100 cal BP) was observed in two freeze cores obtained from Pocket Lake (62.5090°N, −114.3719°W), a small subarctic lake located within the city limits of Yellowknife, Northwest Ter...
Data
APPENDIX S2. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots for the diatoms and leaf shape extraction example. (A) PCA plot for the identification of diatom genera (Luticola, Gomphonema, Cymbella, and Gyrosigma). (B) PCA plot for all the specimens examined in the shape study. (C) Example of shape extractions for leaves.
Data
APPENDIX S3. Principal component analysis (PCA) plots for specimens and species within the four genera: Gomphonema (A), Luticola (B), Cymbella (C), and Gyrosigma (D).
Data
APPENDIX S1. A subset of specimens selected for the shape analysis. Specimens within each species represents a size diminution series. Reprinted with permission from Koeltz Botanical Books.
Article
Premise of the Study Studies of plant cell and organ outline using shape analysis for taxonomic and morphological research have increased in the past decade. However, there are a limited number of available modern, intuitive, and easy software tools to conduct this work. Methods We developed a tool for shape outline extraction using MATLAB accompa...
Article
Full-text available
The virtual water strategy (VWS) provides an alternative modelling method to transport virtual water (VW) from water-rich regions to areas with water-scarce resources. This strategy is designed to balance the differences of regional water supplies, improve water-use efficiency, and ensure the environmental sustainability of water resources. However...
Article
Analysing intermediate products within a water footprint (WF) across different economic sectors can show the root causes of water usage and is helpful for water resource management and policy making. However, conventional methods and data for a WF rarely assess the input and output of intermediate products directly and comprehensively. Therefore, t...
Article
Full-text available
The impact of cadmium on the diatom Nitzschia palea (Kützing) W. Smith 1856 was studied by examining the relation between valve deformities and response through biological processes and genetic expression. Cultures of N. palea were exposed to two Cd treatments (C1 = 2.4 ± 0.6 and C2 = 42.6 ± 4.2 µg Cd/L) along with a control (C0 = 0 µg Cd/L) for 28...
Poster
Full-text available
Diversity in unicellular organisms such as diatoms has evolved via multiple colonization events rather than by in situ diversification. However, a recent study demonstrated that diatoms may also radiate, and that this mechanism is perhaps most relevant in isolated and long-term stable environments such as ancient lakes. Among others, the endemic di...
Article
Full-text available
Over the last 22 years significant phytoplankton changes in Hongfeng lake reservoir have been observed with multiple years of harmful cyanobacteria blooms (cHABs). Fish farming and other anthropogenic activities from 1994-2001 triggered the harmful blooms. Nine years after the cessation of aquaculture, a conversion from problematic species (Microcy...
Article
A new centric diatom, Cyclotella longirimoportulata sp. nov., is described from Alalay Pond, a shallow, eutrophic, urban ecosystem in the city of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Following the morphological species concept, this diatom is very similar to species in the Cyclotella meneghiniana species complex, but diff ers in its epiphytic habit and, more chara...
Article
Full-text available
Habitat homogenization, nutrient enrichment and loss of biodiversity are broadly recognized as the consequences of human activity in aquatic systems. Diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) are frequently used in aquatic environmental assessment and impact monitoring, but in unique habitats dominated by endemic taxa, traditional approaches may not be appropria...
Article
Full-text available
DiaCurv is a software application that uses a simple approach to calculating curvature by identifying the chord (length) and the sagitta (length) from a mid-point of an object or part of an object. This software application and associated R scripts provide the users with the possibilities to identify and apply curvature analysis in diatom taxonomy....
Article
Historically a morphological species concept has applied shape subjectively in the delimitation of diatom species. This has led to confusion between taxa within the benthic diatom genus Neidium. Samples from Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland (Canada) and New York, (USA) were examined for Neidium taxa under LM and SEM. Fourier shape analysi...
Article
Recent morphology-based investigations of freshwater Arctic diatoms suggest that many species remain to be discovered, reflecting a unique polar flora. During a survey of the freshwater diatom flora of northern Billefjorden, including the Petuniabukta fjord region (Spitsbergen), several morphodemes belonging to the Achnanthidium minutissimum specie...
Article
Two new species of Gomphonema with linear-lanceolate valves, narrow cells (width ≤6 µm), wide axial areas, short uniseriate striae, and one stigmoid per valve are described. Gomphonema caperatum sp. nov. has narrow, almost linear valves with short marginal striae, apically elongated slit-like areolae, and transapically oriented linear markings on t...
Article
Full-text available
Two new freshwater species of Achnanthidium Kutzing are described from Eastern Ghats Mountain range of Peninsular India based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Achnanthidium initium sp. nov. belongs to the group of Achnanthidium taxa that have terminal raphe fissures curved to opposite sides of the valve. This taxon is charact...
Article
Full-text available
The mechanisms controlling phytoplankton biomass and composition in the lower reach of the eutrophic Rivière Yamaska were studied over six consecutive summers characterized by high (2008–2009) and low (2012–2013) discharge conditions. In the lower river reach, low river discharge favoured planktonic blooms dominated by centric diatoms, in contrast...
Article
Full-text available
The Mars Desert Research Station is a Mars analog research site located in the desert outside of Hanksville, Utah, U.S.A. Here we present a preliminary checklist of the vascular plant and lichen flora for the station, based on collections made primarily during a two-week simulated Mars mission in November, 2014. Additionally, we present notes on th...
Article
Full-text available
Neogene terrestrial deposits of sand and gravel with preserved wood and peat accumulations occur in many areas of the High Arctic. The Pliocene-aged Beaver Pond fossil site (Ellesmere Island, NU) is one such site that differs from other sites in the great thickness of its peat layer and the presence of a rich vertebrate faunal assemblage, along wit...
Article
Full-text available
We examined diatom assemblages from 18 stream and pond samples in the Franz Josef Land Archipelago (FJL), the most northern land of Eurasia. More than 216 taxa were observed, revealing a rich circumpolar diatom flora, including many undescribed taxa. Widely distributed taxa were the most abundant by cell densities, while circumpolar taxa were the m...
Data
Plate B Fig. (A), Cymbella cleve-eulerae, external view. Fig. (B). Humidophila ingeiiformis, external view. Fig. (C), Hygropetra balfouriana, external view. Fig. (D), Cymbopleura stauroneiformis, external view. Fig. (E), Cavinula cocconeiformis, external view. Fig. (F), Pinnularia biceps, external view. Scale bars. Fig. (F) = 20 µm, Figs. (A, D) =...
Data
Table of Common FJL diatoms Common diatoms species (abundance >2% at least in one sample) in FJL with the code used in plots, their geographic distribution, the mean, the maximum and the standard deviation of their relative abundance (percentages) in FJL samples.
Data
Plate A SEM imatges of prominent diatom taxa from Franz Joseph Land Figs. (A–B), Diatoma tenuis, external view. Fig. (C), Merdion circulare, internal view. Fig. (D), Hannaea arcus, internal view. Fig. (E), Diadesmis gallica external view. Fig. (F), internal view. Scale bars. Fig. (D) = 20 µm, Fig. (A) = 10 µm, Figs. (C–D) = 5 µm, Figs. (B, F) = 2 µ...
Data
Plate C Plate 3. Fig. (A), Nitzschia homburgiensis, external view, Fig. (B), Nitzschia frustulum, external view, Fig. (C), Eunotia scandiorussica, external view, Fig. (D), Eunotia septentrionalis, internal view. Fig. (E), Achnanthidium sp. (Achnanthidium minutissimum sensu lato), external view, Fig. (F), Psammothidium marginulatum, external view. S...
Article
Full-text available
Single cell Chelex ® DNA extraction and nested PCR amplification were used to examine partial gene sequences from natural diatom populations for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies at and above the level of species. DNA was extracted from cells that were either fresh collected or stored in RNAlater. Extractions from Lugol's fixation were also attemp...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring changes in environmental conditions is increasingly important as the Canadian economic infrastructure ramps up exploration and mining development in the more inaccessible northern regions of Canada. Governments are concurrently assessing effects from past mining activities and absorbing the economic cost to society with on-going remediat...
Article
Full-text available
Surirella is a polyphyletic and highly diverse diatom genus with more than 500 species described worldwide. Within a study of its diversity and distribution in the Republic of Macedonia, ancient Lake Prespa has been investigated, as " sister " to Lake Ohrid and part of a unique lake system with extraordinary age, biodiversity and number of endemic...
Article
Full-text available
A bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa Kütz. is reported from the plankton of Alalay Pond, a brackish, urban and highly eutrophic ecosystem. The cyanobacterial colonies were in turn colonized by the diatom Nitzschia palea (Kütz.) W. Sm. This co-occurrence has been previously reported only twice in the literature. As part of the grouping, pleomorphic bac...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Neidium contains a large array of diatoms with a wide range in structural and morphological forms. Many of the larger species in this genus are old taxa dating back to the 1800s. However, there continues to be confusion over these large species including N. iridis, N. dilatatum, N. firma, and N. amphigomphus. In this study, selected Neidi...
Article
Comprehensive studies examining the driving forces of water use and evaluating their historical and