Paul N Griffiths

Paul N Griffiths
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) | EMCDDA · Scientific Coordination

BA(hon) Sociology , MSC Research Methods

About

192
Publications
31,367
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
10,358
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 2003 - present

Publications

Publications (192)
Article
Since early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic impact on the way we live, with European countries having to introduce unprecedented measures to protect public health. As with all areas of life, drug consumption, related harms and drug markets have been impacted, as have the drug services established to respond to drug-related problems....
Article
Full-text available
Background The lack of an agreed international minimum approach to measuring cannabis use hinders the integration of multidisciplinary evidence on the psychosocial, neurocognitive, clinical and public health consequences of cannabis use. Methods A group of 25 international expert cannabis researchers convened to discuss a multidisciplinary framewo...
Article
Full-text available
Developments in information technology have impacted on all areas of modern life and in particular facilitated the growth of globalisation in commerce and communication. Within the drugs area this means that both drugs discourse and drug markets have become increasingly digitally enabled. In response to this, new methods are being developed that at...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the question of whether Europe is facing an opioid epidemic and utilizes data from the European monitoring system on opioid use, harms and availability, to help assess the situation. Data sources covering the last decade on overdose deaths, drug treatment entrants and drug‐related emergencies suggest that the health burden asso...
Chapter
The present chapter is aimed at enabling the readers to understand the methods and the available tools to ascertain whether an evidence-based recommendation is appropriate for real-world patients in specific contexts. In times of a wide availability of real-time information on potentially anything, it is crucial to develop an individual capacity fo...
Preprint
Full-text available
Introduzione All'inizio del 2020 in Europa sono stati riscontrati i primi focolai epidemici di COVID-19, in risposta ai quali i Paesi europei hanno messo in atto misure di contenimento e mitigazione della diffusione del virus. I pazienti con disturbo da uso di sostanze (DUS) 1 (European Union, 2006) rientrano nella popolazione a rischio di infezion...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic and the response to have resulted in an increase in sales activity levels on darknet markets during the first three months of 2020, mainly related to cannabis products. One key question is whether more people will become used to this form of purchasing their drugs and will they continue with it post COVID-19 lockdown. As one-t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Globally, an estimated 15·6 million people inject drugs. We aimed to investigate global variation in the age profile of people who inject drugs (PWID), identify country-level factors associated with age of PWID, and assess the association between injecting drug use (IDU) in young people and rates of injecting and sexual risk behaviours...
Article
The rapid emergence since the mid-2000s of a large and diverse range of substances originally designed as legal alternatives to more established illicit drugs (pragmatically clustered and termed new psychoactive substances; [NPS]) has challenged traditional approaches to drug monitoring, surveillance, control, and public health responses. In this s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Originally, Captagon® was the main brand name for a medicinal product containing fenetylline as its active ingredient. It is no longer produced today or used for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, many countries in the Middle East regularly report seizures of a drug known as ‘captagon’ as part of their reporting obligations to international organi...
Article
Background: Women-specific factors exist that increases vulnerability to drug-related harms from injecting drug use including bloodborne viruses (BBV), but gender differences in BBV prevalence have not been systematically examined. Methods: We conducted meta-analyses to estimate country, regional, and global prevalence of serologically-confirmed...
Article
Full-text available
Commentary to: How should we set consumption thresholds for low risk drinking guidelines? Achieving objectivity and transparency using evidence, expert judgement and pragmatism.
Article
Commentary to: Illicit fentanyls in the opioid street market: desired or imposed?
Chapter
Understanding the complexity of patterns and trends in substance use is essential for effectively planning, selecting, and implementing local substance-use prevention interventions. This chapter summarises the background for developing methods to monitor substance-use patterns within well-defined populations. Such surveillance and monitoring system...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To quantify changes in (i) potency (concentration of Δ⁹‐tetrahydrocannabinol; %THC), (ii) price (Euros/gram of cannabis), and (iii) value (quantity of THC per price unit; mg THC/Euro) of cannabis resin and herbal cannabis in Europe. Design Repeated cross‐sectional study. Setting and participants Data collected from 28 EU member states, Norwa...
Article
Full-text available
EU Agencies within the EU Agency Network for Scientific Advice (EU ANSA) provide scientific advice to EU policy makers across a broad spectrum of disciplines from public health to gender equality. The primary role of the EU Agencies in ANSA is to collect, use and communicate scientific evidence, and hence there is an onus to identify and communicat...
Preprint
The paper presents an analysis of gender differences in the data on people presenting to treatment for their drug use in some European countries. The method for data collection in the access to treatment and in patterns of drug use among clients and country differences in gender breakdown are described, trying to analyse reasons for it and highligh...
Article
Full-text available
Aims This review provides an up‐to‐date curated source of information on alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use and their associated mortality and burden of disease. Limitations in the data are also discussed, including how these can be addressed in the future. Methods Online data sources were identified through expert review. Data were mainly obt...
Article
Aims: To estimate temporal trends in adolescents' current cigarette, alcohol and cannabis use in Europe by gender and region, test for regional differences and evaluate regional convergence. Design and setting: Five waves of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) from 28 countries between 1999 and 2015. Countries w...
Article
Full-text available
A reflection paper that provides a foundation for action by which EU–ANSA agencies could enhance their added value to EU research actors and policymakers in the EU institutions.
Article
Full-text available
Background The number of people entering specialist drug treatment for cannabis problems has increased considerably in recent years. The reasons for this are unclear, but rising cannabis potency could be a contributing factor. Methods Cannabis potency data were obtained from an ongoing monitoring programme in the Netherlands. We analysed concentra...
Article
Cannabis policies are changing in some countries. This may have consequences that extend beyond cannabis-specific outcomes, such as an impact on the consumption patterns of other substances. Changes in cannabis policies may also influence policy responses to other drugs, as countries re-assess the balance between law enforcement and public health o...
Article
This paper explores the recent resurgence in use of ecstasy/MDMA in Europe and highlights keys areas of continuity and divergence between the ecstasy market of the 1990s and the current MDMA market. Based on a scoping study involving a targeted multi-source data collection exercise on MDMA, it highlights nine areas that have undergone some level of...
Article
Issues: Treatment outcomes for drug users are critical for informing policy and therapeutic practice. The coherence of outcomes, changes and drug use measures from observational studies on opioid use treatment were reviewed. Approach: Systematic review of the literature for longitudinal observational studies, from 1980 through November 2015, in...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by the global HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) epidemics. HIV and HCV prevention interventions for PWID include needle and syringe programmes (NSP), opioid substitution therapy (OST), HIV counselling and testing, HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART), and condom distribution progra...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sharing of equipment used for injecting drug use (IDU) is a substantial cause of disease burden and a contributor to blood-borne virus transmission. We did a global multistage systematic review to identify the prevalence of IDU among people aged 15-64 years; sociodemographic characteristics of and risk factors for people who inject dru...
Research
Full-text available
This report provides a first look at the emergence of more problematic forms of use of new psychoactive substances among a range of demographic groups, including opioid and amphetamine injectors, prisoners, the homeless and men who have sex with men. It explores, in particular, the use of synthetic cathinones, synthetic cannabinoids and new synthet...
Article
Introduction and aims: The effect of heroin administration route on speed of transition to regular use is unknown. This paper aims to determine whether the speed of transition from initiation of heroin use to daily heroin use differs by route of administration (injecting, chasing/inhaling or snorting). Design and methods: Privileged access inter...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite advances in our knowledge of effective services for people who use drugs over the last decades globally, coverage remains poor in most countries, while quality is often unknown. This paper aims to discuss the historical development of successful epidemiological indicators and to present a framework for extending them wi...
Article
Commentary to: Understanding and learning from the diversification of cannabis supply laws
Article
The internet facilitates rapid and covert communication, knowledge transfer, and has the potential to disrupt and transform drug market models and associated consumption patterns. Innovation and new trends diffuse rapidly through this medium and new operational models are emerging. Although the online drug markets currently only account for a small...
Chapter
Human consumption of psychoactive substances goes back to prehistory and has always been a global phenomenon even if patterns of use and prevalence rates vary considerably by time and place. The concept of problematic drug use, and concerns about how this should be defined and measured, is, however, a more recent development and until recently most...
Book
Full-text available
Most of the discourse in the area of peer review takes place within the context of the assessment of papers for inclusion in scientific journals. There is a need to explore the use of peer review within the very specific context of the work of EU agencies providing scientific advice and technical support and identify the specific challenges of util...
Article
Policy changes that increasingly permit the medical and recreational use of cannabis have important implications for society and drug policies overall (see Nature 524, 280–283; 2015 and Nature 525, S1–S18; 2015). There is an urgent need to set up collaborative international monitoring of the effects of these changes in different countries to achiev...
Chapter
The present chapter is aimed at enabling the readers to master the methods to ascertain whether an evidence-based recommendation is appropriate for real-world patients in specific contexts. Nowadays it is crucial to develop an individual capacity for critical assessment and to know where to search for updated and reliable sources of evidence. The m...
Article
Aim: A central task for the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is to produce an annual report of the latest data available on drug demand and drug supply in Europe. This paper is intended to facilitate a better understanding of, and easier access to, the main quantitative European level data sets available in 2015. M...
Article
As in New Zealand, three European countries (Ireland, Poland, Romania) have chosen to reverse the established control model, using effect-based definitions; the supply of any unregulated psychoactive substance that meets certain criteria is banned unless specifically permitted.
Article
AimsTo perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population.DesignAnalyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013.Setting and ParticipantsCatchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: People who inject drugs (PWID) are a key population affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Treatment options are improving and may enhance prevention; however access for PWID may be poor. The availability in the literature of information on seven main topic areas (incidence, chronicity, genotypes, HIV co-infection, diagnosis and treatmen...
Article
Illicit drug use is a global phenomenon involving millions of individuals, which results in serious health and social costs. The chemical analysis of urban wastewater for the excretion products of illicit drugs is a potent approach for monitoring patterns and trends of illicit drug use in a community. The first international and multidisciplinary c...
Data
Appendix S3 Answers from questionnaire, all analytical data 2012 and 2013, means and P-values for changes of one week to another for all substances and locations (different spread sheets in separate Excel file).
Data
Full-text available
Appendix S4 Weekly variation of drug loads 2012 (separate pdf file).
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cocaine-related health consequences are difficult to observe. Data on drug users in health-emergency settings may be a useful source of information on consequences that are not visible via other information sources. Methods: Thirty European countries submit an annual national report on the drug situation to the EMCDDA. All reports fo...