Paul Glasziou

Paul Glasziou
Bond University · Centre for Research in Evidence-Based Practice (CREBP)

FRACGP, PhD

About

886
Publications
222,575
Reads
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93,836
Citations
Introduction
Paul Glasziou FRACGP, PhD is Professor of Evidence-Based Medicine at Bond University and a part-time General Practitioner. He was the Director of the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine in Oxford from 2003-2010. His key interests include identifying and removing the barriers to using high quality research in everyday clinical practice.
Additional affiliations
Position
  • EBM

Publications

Publications (886)
Article
Full-text available
Financial incentives can sometimes improve the quality of clinical practice, but they may also be an expensive distraction. Paul Glasziou and colleagues have devised a checklist to help prevent their premature or inappropriate implementation Financial incentives (pay for performance) for clinicians are an intuitively reasonable solution to the wel...
Article
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To estimate the degree of scatter of reports of randomised trials and systematic reviews, and how the scatter differs among medical specialties and subspecialties. Cross sectional analysis. PubMed for all disease relevant randomised trials and systematic reviews published in 2009. Randomised trials and systematic reviews of the nine diseases or dis...
Article
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presented,in meeting abstracts: “Research results should be easily accessible to people
Conference Paper
Background TeachingEBHC.org is a platform for the global sharing of learning resources for teaching and learning Evidence-Based Health Care (EBHC). It launched at the International Society for Evidence-Based Health Care (ISEHC) conference in 2018 and now includes >600 resources and >110 members. Objectives We aim to deliver a workshop about how to...
Article
Importance: Audit and feedback can improve professional practice, but few trials have evaluated its effectiveness in reducing potential overuse of musculoskeletal diagnostic imaging in general practice. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of audit and feedback for reducing musculoskeletal imaging by high-requesting Australian general practi...
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Purpose The incidence of musculoskeletal disease is increasing in Australia and around the world. However, medical student education does not necessarily reflect current and projected trends in musculoskeletal medicine. The aim of this study was to assess junior doctors’ competency in musculoskeletal medicine using the Freedman and Bernstein Basic...
Article
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Thromboembolic events are a common risk in adults with atrial fibrillation, those with previous cerebrovascular accidents and undergoing emergency or elective surgeries. The widespread availability of antithrombotic agents and differing guidelines contribute to practice variations and increased risk of complications and deaths. The objective of thi...
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Ensuring continuity of care for patients with major depressive disorders poses multiple challenges. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials comparing real-time telehealth to face-to-face therapy for individuals with depression. We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (to November 2020), conducted...
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Purpose Antibiotic treatment of uncomplicated cellulitis is highly variable with respect to agent, dose, and route of administration. As there is uncertainty about optimal/appropriate time to reassess, we aimed to assess time to clinical response. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials reporting clinical response...
Article
BACKGROUND: Recent observational studies suggest that vaccines may have little effect in preventing infection with the Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. However, the observed effects may be confounded by patient factors, preventive behaviours, or differences in testing behaviour. To assess potential confounding, we...
Preprint
Background The impact of COVID-19 vaccination on preventing or treating long COVID is unclear. We aim to assess the impact of COVID vaccinations administered (i) before and (ii) after acute COVID-19, including vaccination after long COVID diagnosis, on the rates or symptoms of long COVID. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 trial...
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Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing real-time telehealth (video, phone) with face-to-face therapy delivery to individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), by primary or allied health care practitioners. Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Cochrane Cent...
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Importance: Coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) are used to help assess patients' cardiovascular status and risk. However, their best use in risk assessment beyond traditional cardiovascular factors in primary prevention is uncertain. Objective: To find, assess, and synthesize all cohort studies that assessed the incremental gain from the addi...
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Risk prediction models are potentially useful tools for health practitioners and policy makers. When new predictors are proposed to add to existing models, the improvement of discrimination is one of the main measures to assess any increment in performance. In assessing such predictors, we observed two paradoxes: 1) the discriminative ability withi...
Article
Background Population trends in PSA testing and prostate cancer incidence do not perfectly correspond. We aimed to better understand relationships between trends in PSA testing, prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Australia and factors that influence them. Methods We calculated and described standardised time trends in PSA tests, prostate b...
Article
Objectives Methods to quantify overdiagnosis of screen detected cancer have been developed, but methods for quantifying overdiagnosis of non-cancer conditions (whether symptomatic or asymptomatic) have been lacking. We aimed to develop a methodological framework for quantifying overdiagnosis that may be used for asymptomatic or symptomatic conditio...
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Background Mental disorders are a leading cause of distress and disability worldwide. To meet patient demand, there is a need for increased access to high-quality, evidence-based mental health care. Telehealth has become well established in the treatment of illnesses, including mental health conditions. Objective This study aims to conduct a robus...
Article
Background Elevated plasma cystatin C levels reflect reduced renal function and increased cardiovascular risk. Less is known about whether the increased risk persists long‐term or is independent of renal function and other important biomarkers. Methods and Results Cystatin C and other biomarkers were measured at baseline (in 7863 patients) and 1 y...
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Objective: To identify challenges faced by Australian hospital healthcare staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We conducted an online survey (30 June-15 August 2020) of healthcare staff from Australian Emergency and Infectious Disease Departments. Participants were contacted via professional organisations, and asked about preparedness, p...
Article
Purpose: To determine whether acute respiratory infection (ARI) decision aids and a general practitioner (GP) training package reduces antibiotic dispensing rate and improves GPs' knowledge of antibiotic benefit-harm evidence. Methods: A cluster randomized trial of 27 Australian general practices (13 intervention, 14 control) involving 122 GPs....
Preprint
Backgroun Recent observational studies have suggested that vaccines for the omicron variant of SARS-Cov2 may have little or no effect in preventing infection. However, the observed effects may be confounded by patient factors and preventive behaviours or vaccine-related differences in testing behaviour. To assess the potential degree of confounding...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Mental disorders are a leading cause of distress and disability worldwide. To meet patient demand, there is a need for increased access to high-quality, evidence-based mental health care. Telehealth has become well established in the treatment of illnesses, including mental health conditions. Objective: Conduct robust evidence synthesi...
Article
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Objectives: To develop a thematic framework for the range of consequences arising from a diagnostic label from an individual, family/caregiver, healthcare professional, and community perspective. Design: Systematic scoping review of qualitative studies. Search Strategy: We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and CINAHL for primary studies...
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Objective To investigate the decisional impact of an age-based chart of kidney function decline to support general practitioners (GPs) to appropriately interpret estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and identify patients with a clinically relevant kidney problem. Design and setting Randomised vignette study Participants 372 Australian GPs...
Article
Introduction Worldwide, it is estimated that 264 million people meet the diagnostic criteria for anxiety conditions. Effective treatment regimens consist of cognitive and behavioural therapies. During the COVID-19 pandemic, treatment delivery relied heavily on telemedicine technologies which enabled remote consultation with patients via phone or vi...
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Objectives To investigate differences between target and actual sample sizes, and what study characteristics were associated with sample sizes. Design Observational study. Setting The large trial registries of clinicaltrials.gov (starting in 1999) and ANZCTR (starting in 2005) through to 2021. Participants Over 280 000 interventional studies exc...
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Aims Biological rationale suggests that parasympathomimetics (cholinergic receptor stimulating agents) could be beneficial for patients with underactive bladder. However, no systematic review with meta-analysis addressing potential benefits or adverse effects exists. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness, both benefits and harms, o...
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Background The effect of eye protection to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in the real-world remains uncertain. We aimed to synthesize all available research on the potential impact of eye protection on transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Methods We searched PROSPERO, PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library for clinical trials and comparative observational stud...
Article
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Background Antibiotic prescribing is a major concern that contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance. Aim To assess the effect on antibiotic prescribing in primary care of telehealth (TH) consultations compared to face-to-face (F2F). Design & setting Systematic review and meta-analysis of adult or paediatric patients with a history of a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The effect of eye protection to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in the real-world remains uncertain. We aimed to synthesize all available research on the potential impact of eye protection on transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We searched PROSPERO, PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library for clinical trials and comparative observational stu...
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Introduction Clinically complex patients often require multiple medications. Polypharmacy is associated with inappropriate prescriptions, which may lead to negative outcomes. Few effective tools are available to help physicians optimise patient medication. This study assesses whether an electronic medication management support system (eMMa) reduces...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The effect of eye protection to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection in the real-world remains uncertain. We aimed to synthesize all available research on the potential impact of eye protection on transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: We searched PROSPERO, PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library for clinical trials and comparative observational stu...
Article
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Objective To explore factors that potentially impact external validation performance while developing and validating a prognostic model for hospital admissions (HAs) in complex older general practice patients. Study design and setting Using individual participant data from four cluster-randomised trials conducted in the Netherlands and Germany, we...
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Objective To compare the effectiveness of hand hygiene using alcohol-based hand sanitiser to soap and water for preventing the transmission of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and to assess the relationship between the dose of hand hygiene and the number of ARI, influenza-like illness (ILI) or influenza events. Design Systematic review and meta...
Article
Background Long-term monitoring is important in chronic condition management. Despite considerable costs of monitoring, there is no or poor evidence on how, what and when to monitor. The aim of this study was to improve understanding, methods, evidence base and practice of clinical monitoring in primary care, focusing on two areas: chronic kidney d...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Mental disorders are a leading cause of distress and disability worldwide. To meet patient demand, there is a need for increased access to high-quality, evidence-based mental health care. Telehealth has become well established in the treatment of illnesses, including mental health conditions. OBJECTIVE This study aims to conduct a robus...
Article
Objective We investigated systematic review automation tool use by systematic reviewers, health technology assessors and clinical guideline developers. Study design and settings An online, 16-question survey was distributed across several evidence synthesis, health technology assessment and guideline development organisations. We asked the respond...
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Background Current guidelines recommend that patients attending general practice should be screened for excess weight, and provided with weight management advice. Objective This study sought to elicit the views of people with overweight and obesity about the role of GPs in initiating conversations about weight management. Methods Participants wit...
Article
Background : The impact of school holidays on influenza rates has been sparsely documented in Australia. In 2019, the early winter influenza season coincided with mid-year school breaks, enabling us the unusual opportunity to examine how influenza incidence changed during school holiday closure dates. Methods : The weekly influenza data from five A...
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Virtual and augmented reality have seen increasing employment for teaching within medical and health sciences programs. For disciplines such as physiology and anatomy, these technologies may disrupt the traditional modes of teaching and content delivery. The objective of this systematic review and meta‐analysis is to evaluate the impact of virtual...
Preprint
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Objective We investigated the use of systematic review automation tools by systematic reviewers, health technology assessors and clinical guideline developers. Study design and settings An online, 16-question survey was distributed across several evidence synthesis, health technology assessment and guideline development organisations international...
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Background Accurate seroprevalence estimates of SARS-CoV-2 in different populations could clarify the extent to which current testing strategies are identifying all active infection, and hence the true magnitude and spread of the infection. Our primary objective was to identify valid seroprevalence studies of SARS-CoV-2 infection and compare their...
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Objective: The decisions and processes that may compose a systematic search strategy have not been formally identified and categorized. This study aimed to (1) identify all decisions that could be made and processes that could be used in a systematic search strategy and (2) create a hierarchical framework of those decisions and processes. Methods...
Article
Purpose: Lower urinary tract symptoms are very common in older men. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of self-management interventions on these symptoms. Methods: We included randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of self-management interventions (alone or combined with drug therapy) with usual...
Preprint
Background We conducted a survey to identify what types of health research could be exempted from research ethics reviews in Australia. Methods We surveyed active Australian health researchers and members of Human Research Ethics Committees (HREC). We presented the respondents with eight hypothetical research scenarios, involving: N of 1 trials, no...
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Background and objectives: Evidence supports some beneficial effects of antibiotics prescribed to patients with a sore throat and proven presence of group A streptococci (GAS). Method: A total of 283 patients were included from North and North-West Queensland, Australia, at their first presentation for uncomplicated acute sore throat. Patterns o...
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Objective To identify, appraise and synthesise studies evaluating the downsides of wearing face masks in any setting. We also discuss potential strategies to mitigate these downsides. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL and EuropePMC were searched (inception–18 May 2020), and clinical registries were s...
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Objective Public cooperation to practise preventive health behaviours is essential to manage the transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. We aimed to investigate beliefs about COVID-19 diagnosis, transmission and prevention that have the potential to impact the uptake of recommended public health strategies. Design An online cross-sec...
Article
Background We conducted a survey to identify what types of health/medical research could be exempt from research ethics reviews in Australia. Methods We surveyed Australian health/medical researchers and Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) members. The survey asked whether respondents had previously changed or abandoned a project anticipating d...
Preprint
Doctors are placed under significant pressure to do research for career progression. Our review suggests that specialty training college entry requirements incentivise research to gain entry and focus on volume and authorship position over research quality. These requirements may be unintended drivers of research waste.
Article
BACKGROUND: Knowing the prevalence of true asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases is critical for designing mitigation measures against the pandemic. We aimed to synthesize all available research on asymptomatic cases and transmission rates. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane COVID-19 trials, and Europe PMC for primary st...
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Background Non-bullous impetigo is typically treated with antibiotics. However, the duration of symptoms without their use has not been established, which hampers informed decision making about antibiotic use. Aim To determine the natural history of non-bullous impetigo. Design and setting Systematic review. Method The authors searched PubMed up...
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Abstract The fourth meeting of the International Collaboration for Automation of Systematic Reviews (ICASR) was held 5–6 November 2019 in The Hague, the Netherlands. ICASR is an interdisciplinary group whose goal is to maximize the use of technology for conducting rapid, accurate, and efficient systematic reviews of scientific evidence. The group s...
Article
Background: Timely and effective contact tracing is an essential public health measure for curbing the transmission of COVID-19. App-based contact tracing has the potential to optimize the resources of overstretched public health departments. However, its efficiency is dependent on widespread adoption. Objective: This study aimed to investigate th...
Article
Introduction: When health conditions are labelled it is often to classify and communicate a set of symptoms. While diagnostic labelling can provide explanation for an individual's symptoms, it can also impact how individuals and others view those symptoms. Despite existing research regarding the effects of labelling health conditions, a synthesis...
Article
Background : The impact of school holidays on influenza rates has been sparsely documented in Australia. In 2019, the early winter influenza season coincided with mid-year school breaks, enabling us the unusual opportunity to examine how influenza incidence changed during school holiday closure dates. Methods : The weekly influenza data from five A...
Article
Full-text available
Background Polypharmacy interventions are resource-intensive and should be targeted to those at risk of negative health outcomes. Our aim was to develop and internally validate prognostic models to predict health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and the combined outcome of falls, hospitalisation, institutionalisation and nursing care needs, in older...
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Background: Although uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) is commonly treated with antibiotics, the duration of symptoms without their use is not established; this hampers informed decision making about antibiotic use. Aim: To determine the natural history of uncomplicated UTI in adults. Design and setting: Systematic review. Method:...