Paul A. Garber

Paul A. Garber
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC · Department of Anthropology

Ph.D

About

325
Publications
81,376
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
8,072
Citations

Publications

Publications (325)
Article
Full-text available
Hainan gibbons are among the world's most critically endangered primates, with a remaining population of only 35 individuals distributed across five social groups in the Bawangling Branch of the Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park, China. Habitat conversion and forest fragmentation over the past 40 years have reduced their geographical distrib...
Article
Full-text available
Primates, represented by 521 species, are distributed across 91 countries primarily in the Neotropic, Afrotropic, and Indo-Malayan realms. Primates inhabit a wide range of habitats and play critical roles in sustaining healthy ecosystems that benefit human and nonhuman communities. Approximately 68% of primate species are threatened with extinction...
Article
Reducing conflict between humans and wildlife is considered a top conservation priority. However, increasingly human-induced disturbances across natural landscapes have escalated encounters between humans and wildlife. In Nepal, forests have been destroyed, fragmented, and developed for human settlements, agricultural production, and urban centers...
Article
Mammals rely on the metabolic functions of their gut microbiota to meet their energetic needs and digest potentially toxic components in their diet. The gut microbiome plastically responds to shifts in host diet and may buffer variation in energy and nutrient availability. However, it is unclear how seasonal differences in the gut microbiome influe...
Article
Climate oscillations may drive the divergence of ancestral species through climatic suitability isolation, effective population contraction, and the cessation of gene flow. However, traditional ecological niche models fail to consider gene flow and the historical demography of a species, and thus provide limited insight into how climate oscillation...
Article
Full-text available
Adult males living in a one-male multi-female social group are expected to try to monopolize copulations with resident females to increase reproductive fitness. Gibbons have traditionally been described as living in monogamous groups, with the sole resident adult male assumed to sire all of the group's offspring. Here, we used microsatellite analys...
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, the genus Rhinopithecus (Milne‐Edwards, 1872, Primates, Colobinae) included four allopatric species, restricted in their distributions to China and Vietnam. In 2010, a fifth species, the black snub‐nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri) was discovered in the Gaoligong Mountains located on the border between China and Myanmar. Despite...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding flexibility in the social structure and mating strategies of the world’s last remaining population (35 individuals) of wild Hainan gibbons (Nomascus hainanus) is critical for developing effective management plans to aid in their population recovery. Three of the five remaining Hainan gibbon groups (A, B, and C) currently live in a soc...
Article
Full-text available
Primates are facing a global extinction crisis driven by an expanding human population, environmental degradation, the conversion of tropical forests into monocultures for industrial agriculture and cattle ranching, unsustainable resource extraction, hunting, climate change, and the threat of emerging zoonotic diseases. And, although many primate s...
Article
Full-text available
Nonhuman primates are facing an impending extinction crisis with over 65% of species listed as Vulnerable, Endangered, or Critically Endangered, and 93% characterized by declining populations. Primary drivers of primate population decline include deforestation, principally for industrial agriculture and the production of food and nonfood commoditie...
Article
Full-text available
In mammal herbivores, fiber digestion usually occurs predominantly in either the foregut or the hindgut. Reports of mechanisms showing synergistic function in both gut regions for the digestion of fiber and other nutrients in wild mammals are rare since it requires integrative study of anatomy, physiology and gut microbiome. Colobine monkeys (Colob...
Article
1. Within‐group competition over food resources can be a major cost of social living. In the wild, foragers are confronted with social (e.g. hierarchical rank) and ecological (e.g. food availability and distribution) challenges that affect their foraging decisions and feeding success. Exhibiting prosocial behaviors, such as tolerance at feeding sit...
Article
Full-text available
The distribution and availability of microbes in the environment has an important effect on the composition of the gut microbiome of wild vertebrates. However, our current knowledge of gut-environmental interactions is based principally on data from the host bacterial microbiome, rather than on links that establish how and where hosts acquire their...
Article
Full-text available
Protecting biodiversity and reducing human poverty is a global challenge to all countries, including China, which has high biodiversity, large urban centers, and a large human population. Here, we discussed the effects of policies designed to alleviate poverty (Ecological Emigration, Ecological Restoration and Ecotourism) on the conservation status...
Article
In many areas of South Asia and Southeast Asia, macaques inhabiting agricultural landscapes are considered serious crop pests by local farmers. In Nepal, for example, the expansion of monocultures, increased forest fragmentation, the degradation of natural habitats, and changing agricultural practices have led to a significant increase in the frequ...
Article
Changes in land use and the conversion of natural forests to agricultural fields and cattle pastures are threatening the survival of many species of wild animals, including nonhuman primates. Given its almost 1.4 billion people, China faces a difficult challenge in balancing economic development, human well-being, environmental protection, and anim...
Article
Full-text available
In group-living mammals, an individual's fitness depends, in part, on the quality of social relationships it has with others. Among species of nonhuman primates in which one sex is philopatric, individuals of that sex often develop strong social bonds and alliances with closely related kin. Less is known regarding the social processes used by dispe...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: In mammal herbivores, the digestion of fiber usually occurs predominantly in either the foregut or in the hindgut. However, how both gut regions function synergistically in the digestion of fiber and other nutrients has rarely been reported in wild mammals. This requires an integrative study of host anatomy, physiology and gut microbiom...
Article
Full-text available
To increase efficiency in the search for resources, many animals rely on their spatial abilities. Specifically, primates have been reported to use mostly topological and rarely Euclidean maps when navigating in large-scale space. Here, we aimed to investigate if the navigation of wild common marmosets inhabiting a semiarid environment is consistent...
Article
Full-text available
Although recent studies have revealed that gut fungi may play an important functional role in animal biology and health, little is known concerning the effects of anthropogenic pressures on the gut mycobiome. Here, we examined differences of the gut mycobiome in wild and captive populations of Tibetan macaques ( Macaca thibetana ) targeting the fun...
Article
Full-text available
The Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus) is endemic to China and is the world’s rarest ape. The remaining wild population totals only 33 individuals. In the current study, we sequenced the Mitochondrial DNA control region of 12 wild Hainan gibbons representing three social groups of the five remaining groups. By conducting population genetic analyses,...
Article
Full-text available
Theories proposed to explain social play have centered on its function in establishing social relationships critical for adulthood, its function in developing motor skills needed to survive, and promoting cognitive development and social learning. In this study, we compared variations in social play among infant and juvenile male and female Macaca...
Article
Full-text available
Hierarchical steepness, defined as status asymmetries among conspecifics living in the same group, is not only used as a main characteristic of animal social relationships, but also represents the degree of discrepancy between supply and demand within the framework of biological market theory. During September and December 2011, we studied hierarch...
Article
Full-text available
The Hainan gibbon (Nomascus hainanus), once widespread across Hainan, China, is now found only in the Bawangling National Nature Reserve. With a remaining population size of 33 individuals, it is the world's rarest primate. Habitat loss and fragmentation are the primary drivers of Hainan gibbon population decline. In this study, we integrated data...
Article
Lateralized behavior is considered an observable phenotype of cerebral functional asymmetry and has been documented in many mammalian species. In the present study, we examined evidence of lateralization in neonatal nipple contact, maternal cradling, and the relationship between these two behaviors during the first 12 weeks of life in wild Taihangs...
Article
Birth attendance, or midwifery service, is an important characteristic in human evolution, and has been argued to separate our lineage from other taxa in the animal kingdom. Recent studies, however, indicate that similar or analogous behaviors also may occur in a small number of nonhuman primate species. Here, we report the first case of both male...
Article
Full-text available
Studies of feeding patch choice in primates have traditionally analyzed individual foraging decisions in relation to patterns of social foraging, dominance, and feeding competition. However, information on detailed ecological and nutritional characteristics of the patches also is needed to understand the basis of feeding patch preferences. In parti...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, ~65% of extant primate species ( ca 512 species) distributed in 91 countries in the Neotropics, mainland Africa, Madagascar, South Asia and Southeast Asia are threatened with extinction and 75% have declining populations as a result of deforestation and habitat loss resulting from increasing global market demands, and land conversion for...
Article
Full-text available
Population size is a critical indicator used to assess the demographic profile and conservation status of animal species living in disturbed habitats. Using GIS technology, we calculated the remaining habitat area and estimated the population size of the Guizhou snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi), an Endangered primate endemic to China. The...
Article
Full-text available
Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) provides a long-term retrospective measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, and is increasingly used to assess the life history, health and ecology of wild mammals. Given that sex, age, season and pregnancy influence HCC, and that it may indicate ongoing stress, we examined HCC in common marmosets (...
Article
Full-text available
Leadership is a key issue in the study of collective behavior in social animals. Affiliation-leadership models predict that dyadic partner preferences based on grooming relationships or alliance formation positively affect an individual’s decision to follow or support a conspecific. In the case of many primate species, females without young infants...
Article
Full-text available
In mammals characterized by a mating system in which a single male monopolizes reproduction, infanticide is reported to occur following a male take-over, often resulting in females returning to oestrus more rapidly than if their infant has survived. However, over the course of a 17-year study of golden snub-nosed monkeys, Rhinopithecus roxellana, a...
Article
Full-text available
In the face of ongoing habitat fragmentation, many primate species have experienced reduced gene flow resulting in a reduction of genetic diversity, population bottlenecks and inbreeding depression, including golden snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana. Golden snub-nosed monkeys live in a multilevel society composed of several one male harem...
Article
Full-text available
The study of vocal communication in nonhuman primates, especially apes, offers critical insight into the origins of human language. Although human language represents a highly derived and complex form of communication, researchers have found that the organization of language follows a series of common statistical patterns, known as ‘linguistic laws...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic changes and fragmentation of natural habitats often exert a negative effect on resource availability and distribution, and the nutritional ecology and feeding behavior of nonhuman primates. The goals of this study are to examine food choice and to identify the nutritional profile of foods consumed by the Critically Endangered black sn...
Chapter
Full-text available
Given their shared evolutionary history with humans, nonhuman primates play an exceptional role in the study of animal behavior, ecology, and evolution. This close phylogenetic relationship has led scholars from a diverse set of disciplines (e.g., biological and social sciences, notably psychology and anthropology) and theoretical perspectives (e.g...
Chapter
Full-text available
In this chapter, our goal is to review the evidence for multiple behavioral exchange and interchange in Tibetan macaque groups at Mt. Huangshan, China, and to analyze these dyadic behavioral interactions within the context of behavioral exchange or interchange. We focus on grooming exchanges (grooming vs. grooming), the interchange of grooming for...
Article
Full-text available
Gibbons represent a highly successful radiation of four genera and 20 species of Asian apes that, in response to recent habitat fragmentation and deforestation, are threatened with extinction. China has six species of gibbons, each of which is critically endangered. We present new biogeographical information on the distribution of the black crested...
Chapter
Full-text available
To understand animal behavior, we need to know more about how the brain works. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive imaging technology that has been widely used to examine the functional basis of human decision-making and the interplay between neuroanatomy, endocrinology, and behavior. In this chapter, we argue that recent advances in...
Article
Field studies of wild nonhuman primates have grown exponentially over the past 40 years and our knowledge of primate behavior, ecology, and social, and mating systems has expanded greatly. However, we are facing a major extinction crisis with some 60% of all primate species listed as threatened and more than 75% of species with declining population...
Article
Full-text available
The gut microbiome of primates, including humans, is reported to closely follow host evolutionary history, with gut microbiome composition being specific to the genetic background of its primate host. However, the comparative models used to date have mainly included a limited set of closely related primates. To further understand the forces that sh...
Article
Full-text available
Difficult to study species that inhabit inaccessible terrain, present significant challenges in obtaining accurate ecological, distributional, and conservation information. To address these challenges, we used an effective set of time- and cost-efficient methods including interview-based surveys assisted by Google earth 3D maps to document the dist...
Data
Table S9 - Percent of total number of primate species threatened with extinction due to 10 human land use types under current and six future scenarios for 2050 and 2100
Data
Table S8 - Percent of primate species threatened with extinction currently (2016) and under six future scenarios for 2050 and 2100
Article
Full-text available
As a consequence of recent human activities. populations of approximately 75% of the world's primates are in decline, and more than 60% of species (n = 512) are threatened with extinction. Major anthropogenic pressures on primate persistence include the widespread loss and degradation of natural habitats caused by the expansion of industrial agricu...
Article
Body mass is a strong predictor of diet and nutritional requirements across a wide range of mammalian taxa. In the case of small‐bodied primates, because of their limited gut volume, rapid food passage rate, and high metabolic rate, they are hypothesized to maintain high digestive efficiency by exploiting foods rich in protein, fats, and readily av...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the set of factors that promote and constrain a species' ability to exploit ecologically distinct habitats is central for addressing questions of intraspecific variability in behavior and morphology. In this study, we compared newly collected data with published data on body measurements, group size and composition, daily path length,...
Article
Background: Endogenous retroviruses (ERV) are remnants of former exogenous retroviruses that had previously invaded the germ line of the host that can be vertically transmitted across generations. While the majority of ERVs lack infectious capacity due to the accumulation of deleterious mutations, some ERVs remain active and produce potentially in...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we integrate data from field investigations, spatial analysis, genetic analysis, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) to evaluate the effects of habitat fragmentation on the population dynamics, genetic diversity, and range shifts in the endangered Yunnan snub-nosed monkey ( Rhinopithecus bieti ). The results indicate that from 1994...
Article
Full-text available
Since its initial discovery in 2010 in the Gaoligong Mountains on the Sino–Myanmar border, there remains no direct information on the feeding habits of the black snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus strykeri). This species is on the verge of extinction, with an estimated remaining population of < 400 individuals. Due to difficulties in following these...
Article
Correlational models are widely used to predict changes in species' distribution, but generally have failed to address the comprehensive effects of anthropogenic activities, climate change, habitat connectivity and gene flow on wildlife sustainability. Here, we used integrated approaches (MAXENT model, circuit model and genetic analysis) to assess...
Article
Full-text available
While regular allomaternal nursing (suckling) has been documented in a number of rodent and carnivore species, as well as in some prosimians, New World monkeys, and humans, it is not common in Old World monkeys and apes. Here, we present a detailed field study of allomaternal nursing in golden snub-nosed monkeys ( Rhinopithecus roxellana , Colobina...
Article
Full-text available
Models of primate sociality focus on the costs and benefits of group living and how factors such as rank, feeding competition, alliance formation, and cooperative behavior shape within‐group social relationships. We conducted a series of controlled field experiments designed to investigate how resource distribution (one or three of four reward plat...
Article
Full-text available
China is facing an unprecedented set of challenges in balancing the effects of economic development and global climate change with environmental protection and maintaining biodiversity. Although positive steps have been undertaken to remedy this situation, currently 80% of China’s 25 extant primate species are threatened, 15–18 species have populat...
Article
Full-text available
Between September 2011 and August 2013, we studied patterns of habitat selection and habitat use in the Guizhou golden monkey (Rhinopithecus brelichi) at Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, China. the monkeys ranged across elevations between 1432 and 2100 m. Within this altitudinal range we recorded 125 genera, 72 families, and 236 tree and vine s...
Article
Male–male interactions in mixed‐sex groups of social mammals are typically characterized by a mix of hostility and affiliation, as a result of inherent conflicts over mating opportunities, and the costs and benefits of social alliances, co‐operative behaviors, and coalitionary defense. In species of nonhuman primates that form all‐male groups, it i...