Paul Franklin

Paul Franklin
National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research | NIWA · Centre for Freshwater and Estuaries

PhD

About

35
Publications
18,425
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560
Citations
Introduction
I am interested in how we can better balance human uses of freshwater environments with the need to preserve and restore our unique freshwater ecosystems. I'm particularly interested in fish passage and environmental flows. My research spans from fundamental ecological studies through to the science-policy interface.

Publications

Publications (35)
Article
The cumulative effect of culverts in impeding upstream fish passage is similar to that of large-scale high-head instream structures. The common solution to overcome this impediment is to add ancillary elements, with the goal to lower water velocities and to create discrete low velocity zones (LVZs) for fish to rest. The addition of spoiler baffles...
Article
There is growing recognition that multiple forms of uncertainty influence policy reform, but we need case studies illustrating how uncertainties influence reform, and strategies used to manage uncertainties in practice. We present a case study of how science was generated and incorporated into national water policy. We estimated turbidity (suspende...
Article
This study used an experimental approach to compare the passage success of native and exotic fish species from the temperate Southern Hemisphere over an artificial baffled fish ramp designed for overcoming low-head (≤1.0 m) fish migration barriers. Passage efficiency was, on average, lower for the exotic species (koi carp (Cyprinus carpio), rudd (S...
Article
Full-text available
A method for objectively estimating reference states for suspended fine sediment (turbidity) is presented. To be fit for water policy development and implementation the method had to satisfy four requirements: (1) the method must not be dependent on data from minimally-disturbed reference sites; (2) the method must facilitate characterization of re...
Article
Full-text available
Wood additions to streams can slow water velocities and provide depositional areas for bacteria and fine particles (e.g., particulate organic carbon and nutrients sorbed to fine sediment), therefore increasing solute and particle residence times. Thus, wood additions are thought to create biogeochemical hotspots in streams. Added wood is expected t...
Article
Increasing interest in fish passage solutions past low-head instream structures has led to the development and implementation of new designs with various types of roughness elements within these structures. We know that roughness elements increase the heterogeneity in water velocity by creating a continuous or discrete low velocity zone, which supp...
Article
Full-text available
can be found throughout the southern hemisphere temperate zone (usually at low elevations up to 230 m), except for South America. Although this species may be experiencing localised declines in specific areas within its range, it remains widespread and abundant throughout its southern hemisphere range and is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
Article
Full-text available
Galaxias brevipinnis is a large, cryptic, nocturnal galaxiid that is known from south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. Although G. brevipinnis may still be experiencing localised population declines in some parts of its range, the rate of decline has slowed significantly and the species is widely distributed throughout its current range. It is th...
Article
The modification and utilization of rivers in regions where small-bodied diadromous fish are prevalent has largely occurred without fully understanding the migration behaviour of these species. As a result, existing in-stream structures often prevent or restrict migration. Current fish passage design guidance generally focuses on providing average...
Article
• Amphidromy is a form of migratory life history typified by the reproduction of fish in freshwater environments, the early downstream dispersal of post‐hatch larvae to marine environments, and the return of small‐bodied young juveniles to freshwater environments for growth to adulthood. Island freshwater fish communities are frequently dominated b...
Article
Full-text available
Irrigated agriculture and inland fisheries both make important contributions to food security, nutrition, livelihoods and wellbeing. Typically, in modern irrigation systems, these components operate independently. Some practices, commonly associated with water use and intensification of crop production can be in direct conflict with and have advers...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The scope of this study was to undertake monitoring of fish, macroinvertebrates, macrophytes and periphyton at ten sites across the Waihou and Piako catchments. Five sites were to be surveyed in each catchment. The aim was to build on and consolidate the previous ecological monitoring studies in the catchments by adding to the time series of data f...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This draft NIWA report provides the first attempt to develop bottom-line thresholds for suspended and deposited sediment based on ecological responses for New Zealand rivers and streams.
Article
Globally, many freshwater fishes are declining in distribution and abundance, but for many species conservation measures are hindered by a limited knowledge of their ecology. Recent development of 12-mm half-duplex (HDX) passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has broadened the potential application of this technology for studying habitat selecti...
Article
Full-text available
Early career researchers (ECRs) play a critical role in our increasingly knowledge-based society, yet they are the most vulnerable group in the scientific community. As a relatively young, interdisciplinary science, ecohydraulics is particularly reliant on ECRs for future progress. In 2014, the Early Careers on Ecohydraulics Network (ECoENet) was c...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The decline of freshwater fish biodiversity is proceeding at an alarming and persistent rate. Given that most fish must undertake some form of migration in order to complete their life-cycle, of particular concern is the proliferation of hydropower schemes that block migration routes, as well as a variety of other barriers such as weirs and culvert...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fish passage research for Southern Hemisphere species lags significantly behind that for Northern Hemisphere species. This is despite there being a relatively high prevalence of diadromous species relying on free access between marine and freshwater environments to complete their life cycles. With an emphasis on New Zealand experiences, this paper...
Article
Full-text available
The giant kōkopu, Galaxias argenteus (Gmelin, 1789), is the largest of the galaxiid species and is endemic to New Zealand. While it was the first of the galaxiid species to be described, knowledge of its ecology remains relatively poor, particularly with respect to the reproductive phase of its life-cycle. This article describes the first observati...
Article
The potential cumulative impacts of abstraction on several aspects of the hydrograph can be managed by setting limits defined by two properties as outlined in the National Policy Statement for Freshwater Management. These two properties are a minimum flow and an allocation rate. This paper explores how, once rules to define a minimum flow and an al...
Article
Full-text available
Water resource use limits ensure protection of environmental values and define the availability and reliability of water supply for out-of-channel use. We examined how three types of scientific tools (environmental flow setting methods, hydrological analyses for setting total allocations, and spatial frameworks) have been used to define limits acro...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many of New Zealand’s iconic freshwater fish species (e.g. whitebait and eels) are migratory and require free access to and from the sea, and within waterways to complete their life-cycles. However, low-head (<4 m) structures such as tide gates, culverts, weirs and dams, which are commonly found in streams and rivers countrywide, can obstruct fish...
Article
Full-text available
Maintenance of suitable conditions in lowland rivers for both fish passage and resident species is crucial to ensuring the long-term sustainability of fish populations. The dissolved oxygen concentration of water is a key factor controlling habitat quality for fish and a critical measure of stream health. Continued land use intensification and grea...
Article
1. Restoring longitudinal connectivity is a key river restoration goal. This study tested the efficacy of a fish ramp and spoiler baffles for restoring indigenous fish communities upstream of a culvert. 2. Before–after monitoring showed that installation of the ramp and spoiler baffles increased species richness (mean increase 80%) and total fish d...
Article
We review the current status of knowledge regarding the role that flow parameters play in controlling the macrophyte communities of temperate lowland rivers. We consider both direct and indirect effects and the interaction with other factors known to control macrophyte communities. Knowledge gaps are identified and implications for the management o...

Network

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
Improving hydraulic aspects of fish passage design for native New Zealand species under consideration of the new NZ fish passage guidelines.
Project
The Early Careers on Ecohydraulics Network (ECoENet) is a new international research network consisting of PhD students and early career researchers working within the interdisciplinary field of ecohydraulics. This research is critical to understanding the impacts of flood management, river regulation and climate change, among many other potential stressors on riverine ecosystems, as it informs sustainable development of river corridors and basins. ECoENet aims to develop a platform for ecohydraulics-related research training, to strengthen the identity and integration of its disciplines, and to mitigate some of the key barriers facing early career researchers. The network will further develop this platform through a series of steps: Outreach, Online presence, Key participation at Conferences, Mentorship, Training and Education, Research and policy exchanges, and Citizen science.
Project
This project will investigate how to overcome bottlenecks to dispersal and recruitment for valued freshwater fish species and macroinvertebrates that result from changes we make to our river networks. Key focuses will be understanding how the dispersal capabilities and behaviour of different organisms can be exploited to minimise the impact of habitat fragmentation, and to what degree the recruitment of freshwater organisms may be limited by habitat bottlenecks resulting from modified river environments.