Paul F.J. Eagles

Paul F.J. Eagles
University of Waterloo | UWaterloo · Department of Recreation and Leisure Studies

B.Sc., M.Sc., PhD

About

137
Publications
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5,287
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2001 - December 2012
University of Waterloo
September 1979 - March 2016
University of Waterloo
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (137)
Chapter
Building a viable tourism management plan requires integrative, holistic approaches that provide a foundation for outstanding visitor experience opportunities: diversity of products (the park setting in terms of managerial, biophysical, and social attributes) and programs that connect potential visitors with nature-based products (e.g. marketing)....
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper was first prepared in 1989. Recent controversies over lawn management in suburbia suggests that an update was necessary. This 2020 version outlines the European background to the concept of a lawn; that of a sheep pasture around the manor house. In Canada the sheep are forgotten, but the sheep pasture remains.
Article
Full-text available
The paper provides an analysis of the closure of green spaces and parks in Canada during March and April 2020. It discussed the gradual reopening of these sites starting in May 2020. The paper attempts to understanding the underlying forces that allowed these closures to take place and then caused them to be reopened.
Presentation
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The paper was written as a contribution to the TAPAS webinar on May 15, 2020. This paper outlines the Canadian experience with park visitation shutdowns due to government pandemic restrictions. This is a rapidly changing situation with constant government policy changes due to the staged removal of restrictions on citizen travel and outdoor recreat...
Book
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Tourism is the world's number one industry, and protected areas are the focus of an increasing proportion of it. It is imperative to manage tourist pressures so that visitors can appreciate protected areas without damaging what they come to see.
Article
Currently, the only brand for ecolodges is for high-end properties. Cooperative branding involves individually-owned properties working together within a cooperative marketing strategy. This research investigated the development of a cooperative brand strategy for midscale ecolodge businesses, using Costa Rica as a case study location. Twelve ecolo...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The guidelines on tourism partnerships and concessions for protected areas developed were in response to an under-utilized potential of protected areas to utilise tourism as a means to contribute towards the financial sustainability of protected areas and to recent decisions of the CBD on tourism, which invite Parties to “. . . build the capacity o...
Article
Full-text available
Most park agencies have a policy and standardized procedure for the collection of visitor use data, which are then used for planning and management functions. The data are collected using a wide variety of personal and non-personal systems, such as permit sales, axle counters, infrared beams, and remote sensing. The normal expectation is that those...
Article
An importance–performance analysis (IPA) investigated levels of satisfaction with natural attributes and facilities in place at a short-stop nature-based tourism site in the Shark Bay World Heritage Area (WHA). Over 700 on-site questionnaires were collected from visitors who visited the stromatolite viewing-boardwalk, an attraction with little mana...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper was prepared for and discussed at the Canadian Parks Summit held in Canmore, Alberta April 11 to 14, 2016. The Summit was an initiative of the Canadian Parks Council (CPC) and the Canadian Parks and Recreation Association (CPRA), as well as non-government stakeholders. Approximately 160 invited policy leaders attended from all government...
Article
Leisure in parks and other forms of protected areas are connected to an individual’s health and well-being. In this paper, we report on the results of a multi-year study that surveyed 1,515 visitors to three Provincial Parks and three Kananaskis Country Provincial Recreation Areas in Alberta, Canada. Results revealed several important findings with...
Article
Full-text available
Effective management of protected areas relies on good governance. An assessment was undertaken using the standards provided by the United Nations Development Programme's characteristics of good governance for sustainable development as a starting point. Being able to assess governance based on indicators is essential for ongoing effective manageme...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the degree to which commitment to parks and parks-focused motivations are linked to well-being, broadly defined. We draw on psychological theory that suggests that experiences that expand our sense of meaning and identity enhance well-being and act as stress buffers. Similarly, pursuit of social and spiritual motivations have...
Article
Research consistently documents positive links between human contact with nature and health and well-being. Recent work has explored the role of visitation to parks and protected areas in providing health and well-being benefits. This conceptual paper identifies the state-of-the-art research findings on this issue from an interdisciplinary perspect...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the potential of classifying tourist destinations according to the travel distance of tourists, portrayed within 11 distance classes. The analysis maps the usersheds for camping of five provincial parks in Ontario: Algonquin, Bon Echo, Earl Rowe, The Pinery, and Quetico. The research revealed that Earl Rowe Provincial Park is a...
Article
Research consistently documents positive links between human contact with nature and health and well-being. Recent work has explored the role of visitation to parks and protected areas in providing health and well-being benefits. This conceptual paper identifies the state-of-the-art research findings on this issue from an interdisciplinary perspect...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report details the results of an empirical study that examined perceived health and well-being motives and benefits among visitors to a sample of Alberta’s parks and protected areas. The study revealed several major findings with important policy and management implications. First, the human health and well-being benefits that the visitors exp...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report details the results of an empirical study that examined perceived health and well-being motives and benefits among visitors to a sample of Alberta’s parks and protected areas. The study revealed several major findings with important policy and management implications. First, the human health and well-being benefits that the visitors exp...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the increasing number of protected areas around the world and their importance in the conservation of species and ecosystems, protected areas management capacity remains difficult to evaluate. A standard is needed to help policy makers compare the goals with the results obtained. This empirical research builds a tool to analyze the manageme...
Article
Full-text available
Strategic planning for parks and recreation (P & R) in municipalities occurs worldwide, but evaluation of the process and content of such planning is scarce. This study evaluated those factors that lead to success in P & R planning in a case study area, the Province of Ontario in Canada. Research revealed the factors required for successful impleme...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background/Question/Methods We explored the evolving process of natural heritage protection on the Oak Ridges Moraine (ORM), Ontario Canada. The focus is on the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated mainly on private lands that connect natural core areas...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive Summary The lakes, waterfalls, cascades and forests of Plitvice Lakes National Park have become a globally significant destination for tourists. The combination of these attributes produce outstanding natural scenery found in few other locations. However, the quickly accelerating level of visitation strains the capacity of park management...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews the fiscal implications of moving from government funding of park management to user-funded operations in a major park system, the Provincial Parks in Ontario, Canada. In 1995/1996 after the introduction of the new funding model, the government grant to Ontario Parks was reduced to $10.6 million from $28.8 million, a reduction...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The major recommendations involved developing a visitor management strategy involving seven areas: 1. Identify risks to the park and visitor experiences 2. Develop a vision and goals for visitor experiences 3. Identify visitor expectations, motivations, satisfactions and economic impacts through a social science research program 4. Identify, test,...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the advance-booking behavior of park visitors found that 72% of reservations were made before arrival at the park, indicating substantial demand for the booking system. The length of the booking period peaked for groups of 6 (70 days) and declined according to group size. It is probable that as the number of travellers in a group increa...
Article
Full-text available
The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleucais) is an endangered species with a high-profile international image. Its profile is heightened through its use by the World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) as a symbol of conservation. To protect the giant panda and its habitat, the Chinese government established 33 nature reserves between 1962 and 2002, with...
Article
Results from three different studies in southern Ontario show that the protection of the most significant, remaining natural areas is an important component of the public agenda and has widespread support. This protection ethic appears to stand up when actual resource allocation decisions are being made. The recent movement of local municipalities...
Article
Full-text available
Park tourism is a large and important activity on which a substantial body of research work has been published. This paper reviews that work in the light of the issues now faced by parks and park tourism, and argues that there are significant research gaps that urgently need additional work. The paper outlines 10 such areas, including: visitor use...
Article
Studies document degradation and loss of publicly owned urban woodland area following adjacent residential development due to residential encroachment. Residential encroachment is the negative impacts of housing land uses within both rural and urban green infrastructure networks. Prevailing planning, design and management approaches in Southern Ont...
Article
Full-text available
Studies increasingly document degradation and loss of publicly owned urban forest area following adjacent development due to residential encroachment. Little is known about prevailing approaches for limiting these impacts. Taking Southern Ontario as a case study, long interviews were conducted among Ontario planners, landscape architects, forest ma...
Article
Full-text available
This paper compares perspectives on the governance of the management models employed by two of Canada’s largest provincial park systems, from the viewpoint of non-governmental organization members (NGOs) with an interest in protected areas. The two models are the parastatal model of Ontario (ON) Provincial Parks and the public and for-profit combin...
Article
Full-text available
Actualmente existe una gran diversidad de modelos de gestión de espacios protegidos y, por consiguiente, de modelos de gobernanza (quién toma las decisiones, cómo las toma y qué nivel de participación tienen en el proceso los distintos agentes implicados). Para cada uno de los modelos de gestión se puede analizar y evaluar su respectivo modelo de g...
Article
Full-text available
Urban forests provide essential functions in support of human communities; however, studies indicate adjacent residential land uses degrade urban forests following development. The resulting impacts are known as encroachment. Local Ontario governments rely primarily on passive management, such as boundary structures (e.g. fences) to limit this degr...
Article
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As government funding is reduced and tourism-based fees are increasingly used to fund protected area operations, two options are often used for management: transfer of tourism services to the private sector or operation of tourism services by a government agency that functions like a corporation. This paper reports stakeholders’ views concerning go...
Article
This paper reports the results of a study from two protected areas that identifies visitors’ perceived health and well-being motives and benefits associated with visitation to, and experiences provided by, protected areas. First, the expected human health benefits received from visits, and in particular the anticipated improvements associated with...
Article
Full-text available
There is currently a wide diversity of management models for protected areas. As a result, there is a wide diversity of governance models too (who are the decision-makers, how are decisions taken, and how are various stakeholders involved in the decision making process). Governance within management models for parks and protected areas can be analy...
Article
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This paper explores the perceptions of the impact that volunteer tourism has on the conservation awareness of non-volunteer tourists at the Elephant Nature Park (ENP) in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The ENP is a privately owned sanctuary that rehabilitates injured and abused elephants and relies on tourism and volunteer tourism for its upkeep. Data for th...
Article
Natural systems play important ecological, social and economic functions within suburban environments, such as wildlife habitat, community recreation and stormwater management. However, their integrity is at risk if there is encroachment into these systems from adjacent land uses. Local governments often consider active management of natural system...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to compare visitor perspectives of the governance of two of Canada's largest park systems: the parastatal model of Ontario Provincial Parks and the public and for-profit combination model of British Columbia Provincial Parks. Design/methodology/approach – The authors developed an electronic survey based on the...
Article
Full-text available
Decline in birding visitation to Point Pelee National Park stimulated investigation of recreation specialisation to better prepare programmes for birdwatchers. This research identified characteristics of birdwatchers' at three specialisation levels and advised park managers in the design and management of birding programmes. Research found that the...
Article
Full-text available
Urban forests provide essential social, ecological, and economic functions in support of their communities; however, surveys indicate adjacent residents conduct activities within their yards and the adjacent public forest edge that degrade these systems. Local governments rely on boundary-focused passive management and/or active management to limit...
Article
Full-text available
All park planning and management decisions in parks are ultimately based on values. These values and meanings are translated into various forms and functions within parks. Dearden and Rollins (20095. Dearden , P. and Rollins , R. 2009. “Parks and protected areas in Canada”. In Parks and protected areas in Canada: Planning and management, 3rd, Edi...
Article
Full-text available
Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representi...
Article
Full-text available
Numerous studies have profiled ecotourists but these have been done mainly in the context of North American ecotourists. This study provides one of the few examinations of the rapidly developing Asian ecotourism market in the context of domestic visitation to Taiwan's Taroko National Park. The study uses an innovative self-defined approach to defin...
Article
Full-text available
Starting in the 1980s ecolodges emerged as an increasingly popular accommodation form. Since the ecolodge industry is relatively young, the literature on the subject is limited, yet growing. The purpose of this study was to expand the current literature by determining the demographic characteristics, trip characteristics, and travel motivations of...
Article
Full-text available
Being inspired in the process of teaching and studying on tourism geography and heritage landscapes, the author attempts to broaden the scope of traditional studies in landscape ecology. Upon reviewing the progress, limitations and boundaries of landscape ecology, he criticizes the negligence of waterscapes by academics. The author further examines...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report was prepared under contract to the Ministry of Tourism and Parks of New Brunswick. The goal of the study was to evaluate management models for provincial parks, taking into account the current policy, legal and political situation in place. The report presents an analysis of the current state of park management generally, and in New Bru...
Article
Full-text available
Ornithology has developed bodies to make collective decisions on the taxonomy, scientific names, and common names of birds. This tradition within ornithology assists with communication and reduces confusion. For North and Central America, a committee of the American Ornithologists' Union standardizes the taxonomy and nomenclature of all the birds t...
Article
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This paper uses 10 criteria for governance to evaluate the eight management models that most commonly underpin recreation and tourism partnerships in parks and protected areas. The varying financial status, political propensities and history in different countries have led to the development of different approaches to partnership management. When g...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report presents information on visitor monitoring techniques for measurement and monitoring of visitor attendance and use in Canada’s National Marine Conservation Areas. Recommendations are made for both visitor monitoring techniques and for the National Marine Conservation Areas program. In order to prepare this report, the authors reviewed sc...
Article
Full-text available
Ecolodges are an increasingly popular accommodation form. This study determined the demographic and trip characteristics, as well as the travel motivations of ecolodge patrons at three different price levels: budget, mid-price and upscale. Six ecolodges were studied in the Cayo District of Belize. Of 480 questionnaires distributed at the ecolodges,...
Article
Full-text available
The paper explores the roles of environmental movement organisations (EMOs) in land-use planning, including domain creation (establishment of new or modified landscape planning boundaries) and regime change (adoption of new or modified legal and planning rules). The research involved two case studies of land-use planning processes: the Niagara Esca...
Article
Full-text available
There are many management approaches used for conservation of land and for the provision of tourism services on that land. This paper reviews the management approaches, and then applies generally accepted criteria for governance to those approaches. Initial phases of the research found that there are important differences amongst the models, with t...
Article
We explored the role of conservation biology in the planning of a natural-heritage system that includes long, wide conservation corridors situated primarily on private lands, and established to connect natural core areas in the Oak Ridges Moraine of Ontario, Canada. We based our review on government documents, semi-structured interviews with partic...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the recent evolution in the governance of protected area tourism in China. China now sees cooperation in the form of public-private partnerships occurring between authorized private tourism enterprises in various organizational forms and the public managers from specific portfolio departments of governments at different levels....
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an understanding of the goals and operational procedures of current cruise ship operators in Nunavut and gives insight into the policies necessary to effectively manage cruise ship tourism in Nunavut. The exploratory research found that cruise tourism in Nunavut is perceived as a safe and economically viable industry. However,...
Article
Full-text available
The published visitor management policies of national parks, national wildlife areas and refuges in Canada and the United States are important components of the overall management system. This paper analyses how the visitor management policies that apply to all units operated by each agency compare to each other and compare to an ideal framework, u...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses 16 important trends that are predicted to affect the planning and manage- ment of parks and protected areas in the medium term. While there are many trends visible, the ones chosen are mostly likely to require a management response. There are both challenges and opportunities for tourism-related benefits in parks and protected...
Chapter
This book focuses on the tourism issues discussed at the Vth IUCN World Parks Congress. The book reflects the past 10 years of global challenges in tourism and the lessons learnt in protected area management. It shows the significant achievements of tourism in contributing to sustainable ecosystem development and projects issues for the next decade...