Paul Cozens

Paul Cozens
Curtin University · Department Planning and Geography

PhD Crime and Design

About

64
Publications
89,894
Reads
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2,624
Citations
Citations since 2017
9 Research Items
1432 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200250
Additional affiliations
June 2006 - April 2016
Curtin University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
Full-text available
This paper utilizes an ecological perspective to explore the development of a crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) audit tool through an ongoing iterative process. We draw upon existing examples from criminology and research into auditing the built environment for physical activity and active travel. The purpose of the paper is to...
Article
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There has been limited empirical attention to the date on the effectiveness of mechanical surveillance and natural surveillance, both individually and in combination, on burglaries at residential properties, particularly in non-Western contexts. Moreover, few studies examine natural and/or mechanical surveillance as multi-dimensional concepts in re...
Article
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This paper explores Oscar Newman’s Defensible Space (1972) concept of geographical juxtaposition (GJ) highlighting a significant lack of research within the criminological literature over the last 50 years. We argue the concept is a key foundation in understanding crime and crime prevention theories and in developing crime prevention strategies. Fi...
Article
There are tensions between agencies seeking to restrict and control the night-time economy (NTE) and those focused on promoting it. These tensions need to be inspected. Using perspectives from environmental criminology it has been hypothesized that planning governance issues, relating to the provision of public transport, taxis services and public...
Article
Purpose Crime and fear of crime in and around the university campus can affect enrolments and retention rates as well as compromising the safety, security and well-being of students and staff. The purpose of this paper is to explore user perceptions of personal safety using the “Prospect and Refuge Model” and crime prevention through environmental...
Chapter
In Australia, it is estimated that there were 1.3 million incidents of shop thefts in 2011 (Smith, Jorna, Sweeney, & Fuller, Counting the Costs of Crime in Australia: A 2011 Estimate, Research and Public Policy Series No. 129, Australian Institute of Criminology, Canberra, 2014). The literature highlights a number of situational factors, which can...
Article
Full-text available
Criminological research has long utilized visual representations of environments in seeking to explore perceptions of crime and personal safety and to investigate the relevance of specific design and security features. Much of this research has been in the field of environmental psychology and crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED)....
Article
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate “image management” as an important element within the concept to the Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Globally, guidance tends to focus on promoting surveillance and few studies have explored how vacant poorly maintained housing might affect perceptions of crime and CPTED....
Article
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Personal safety and security are essential criteria for measuring the quality of public transport, and research has consistently demonstrated that crime and fear of crime affect levels of patronage. Although authorities throughout the world are implementing Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), research and practice commonly focus...
Article
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This article reviews the current status of the concept of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED). It provides an overview of its history and origins and defines how it is commonly understood and conceptualized. Globally, CPTED is an increasingly popular crime prevention strategy supported by governments all over Europe, North America...
Article
This paper presents a co-teaching mentor model, which improved the teaching of academics and enhanced student satisfaction and retention. Two research-focused lecturers responsible for first-year units were partnered with a co-teaching mentor to offer guidance on how the content (urban and regional planning) could be delivered more effectively with...
Article
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This paper reports on a co-teaching mentor model focused on improving first year undergraduate retention rates through enhanced teaching practise. A lecturer responsible for first year units was partnered with a co-teaching mentor to offer guidance on how the content (urban and regional planning) could be delivered more effectively with an emphasis...
Article
There has been a significant increase in the use of physical security measures in Western cities over the past 30 years and situational crime prevention has become increasingly popular. During this period, the night-time economy (NTE) has become a significant area for international research. Much of the research has concentrated on investigating an...
Article
The use of crime prevention technology continues to expand within the urban environments of post-industrial cities. Target-hardening technologies such as alarms, shutters, bars, gates, walls and CCTV are increasingly being used to protect retail, industrial and residential properties. The use of security shutters on windows in residential settings...
Article
Despite a vast body of empirical evidence emphasizing the significance of urban landscapes for improved quality of life, academic literature examining the impacts of urban consolidation on established vegetation and trees remain limited. This paper outlines the economic, social and environmental benefits of urban vegetation and trees and investigat...
Article
Despite a vast body of empirical evidence emphasizing the significance of urban landscapes for improved quality of life, academic literature examining the impacts of urban consolidation on established vegetation and trees remain limited. This paper outlines the economic, social and environmental benefits of urban vegetation and trees and investigat...
Article
Oscar Newman's Defensible Space (1973) ideas have had a profound influence on both urban planning and criminology during the past 30 years or so. They underpin modern ideas of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), which are increasingly being used to tackle crime by governments across the world's developed and developing countries....
Article
At a time of ever-increasing urbanization, research consistently indicates that crime and the fear of crime are key concerns for society and that safety is a vital feature of what is considered a high-quality sustainable environment. This paper critically inspects the theories and evidence from the field of environmental criminology and interrogate...
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Since the 1980s, the incidence of wildfires (forest fires), across the World has significantly increased (Jensen) and climate change has been implicated in this trend (UNEP). In recent years, major wild fires have occurred in the United States, Canada, Australia, Indonesia, Latin America, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Iran, Russia and most recently, in...
Article
Crime and safety are significant issues for individuals, communities and businesses but they have tended to be undervalued elements in the consideration of social impacts in impact assessment theory and practice. It has been argued that crime is a form of pollution and an externality of development. In principle, the precautionary impact assessment...
Article
In response to the sustainability agenda, planning policy in the UK, USA and Australia has shifted to promote compact, high-density, mixed-used residential developments in walkable and permeable street networks close to public transport (Commonwealth of Australia, 1995; DETR, 1998; American Planning Association, 2007). This is to encourage walking...
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Entertainment districts play a significant role in the post-industrial place-making for the night-time economies of many Western cities, and they are significant contributors to these economies. However, many cities are experiencing increased levels of crime in their alcohol-oriented entertainment districts. This paper explores crime in Northbridge...
Article
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Sustainability now influences government policy in the UK, Australia and USA and planning policy currently advocates high density, mixed-use residential developments in 'walkable', permeable neighbourhoods, close to public transport, employment and amenities. This clearly demonstrates the growing popularity, influence and application of New Urbanis...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present developments in designing out crime policy in Western Australia (WA) as a case study example, discussing the innovative designing out crime strategy, a systematic attempt at embedding such ideas within government policy. Design/methodology/approach – This paper reports on the systems approach adopte...
Article
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Purpose: Cities as places of human habitation have multiple and interwoven impacts on the environment and upon their inhabitants. There are many defi nitions and interpretations of sustainable development and various models exist for the sustainable city, ranging from 'light green' to 'dark green'. This paper discusses the 'redesigning the city' mo...
Article
There is much debate in the UK, North America and Australia within both crime prevention and planning concerning New Urbanism and the design of suburban housing layouts. New Urbanism promotes high-density, mixed-use residential developments in ‘walkable’ neighbourhoods close to public transport, employment and amenities. One significant factor is N...
Article
Full-text available
Studies have consistently found that safety and security are major public concerns; however, crime is rarely considered as an outcome in public health. The recent shift by planning policy towards promoting compact, 'walkable' communities close to public transport aims to redress many of the problems associated with urban sprawl. However, communitie...
Article
Full-text available
Globally, the environmental movement has played a pivotal role in influencing the development of sustainability. Increasingly, urban sustainability is seen as a new large-scale vision to guide the planning agenda for the twenty-first century. However, a review of the literature clearly indicates that crime and fear of crime can seriously undermine...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate the available evidence on the contribution of crime prevention through environmental design as a crime prevention strategy. Design/methodology/approach Large‐scale evaluati...
Article
Designing Out Crime is an increasingly fashionable crime prevention approach, which is being implemented on a global scale (Cisneros, 1995) despite criticisms concerning the apparent lack of evidence to support this approach. This paper reviews the evidence and argues that although residual uncertainty remains, there is a large body of research, wh...
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Crime on the railways in Britain is an increasing concern for train operating companies, the British Transport Police (BTP), passengers, and local residents. Significantly, rail users consistently perceive their risks from crime to be considerably higher than official crime statistics indicate, having a negative affect on levels of patronage. This...
Article
The personal security of fears of the rail users and its relation to different component parts of the Valley Lines railway stations environment are investigated. The customer satisfaction surveys along with virtual reality (VR) technology show that the fear of crime and nuisance are the significant factor in dissuading both potential rail users fro...
Article
The UK government has projected a need for some 4.1 million homes by 2021 (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1999a) and a stated policy objective of achieving 60 per cent of new-build housing on 'brownfield' sites (Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, 1999b). The government is clearly committed to 'desig...
Article
Rail users consistently perceive their risks from crime to be significantly higher than official statistics suggest, discouraging many from using rail transport. The aims of the paper include a discussion of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) and current policy initiatives for reducing crime and the fear of crime on the railways....
Article
Product and building designers can “design out crime” by modifying goods and environments to make it tougher for people to break the law.
Article
Understanding fear of crime is a crucial dimension to the “designing out crime” debate, particularly in view of the “dark figure” of crime which remains largely unknown due to under-reporting and under recording of incidents. On the railways, customer satisfaction surveys have consistently reported that although recorded incidents of crime and nuis...
Article
The UK government has recently made £300 million available to help local authorities to modernise their street lighting. In consideration of such future funding, this paper reviews the relationship between lighting and crime, explores the current theoretical explanations, and discusses the limitations of the existing BS 5489 lighting standards as t...
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The Suzy Lamplugh Trust Research Institute at the University of Glamorgan is conducting research that focuses on personal safety issues as they relate to the design and maintenance of built environment facilities. The project, funded by Valley Lines (a network of 66 railway stations in South Wales) seeks to investigate the perception and reality of...
Article
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This paper is concerned with how both housing design and management and 'active citizenship' are perceived to influence crime and 'defensible space'. It explores the way in which criminals decode the 'active citizen', common housing designs and levels of safety within the British city. Urban designers, planners, the police and city centre managemen...
Article
The perceptions of various crucial stakeholders in urban Britain, relating to the criminogenic capacity of a range of characteristic housing designs, are explored. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is an increasingly popular crime reduction strategy, based primarily upon Newman's 'defensible space' theory. However, this theory r...
Article
This paper discusses the inter-related concepts of sustainable urban development and CPTED (crime prevention through environmental design). It argues that a ‘safer’ and ‘sustainable’ community must be characterised by the image of regulation, or at least some control of real and imagined threats to personal or community health and the threat of cri...
Article
This paper investigates the perceptions of the elderly in relation to crime and nuisance and the fear of crime associated with stereotypical British housing designs. Demographically, this diverse though highly urbanized group continues to grow; group members' observations, therefore, have increasing social relevance and political importance and are...
Article
Europe continues to become increasingly integrated socially, politically and economically and an efficient integrated transport system is therefore a vital component in this development. The role of local, regional and national railways as "gateways; both into rural communities, and gateways to the wider world" (Salveson, 2000, p28) is potentially...
Article
Full-text available
The first paper, entitled “Crime and the design of residential property: exploring the theoretical background” (Property Management, Vol. 19 No. 2), has argued that “perceptions” and the “image” of housing designs remain a largely untested avenue of investigation in the design-effects-crime debate. Presents and discusses exploratory research into t...
Article
This paper explores Newman's largely untested theory of 'defensible space' and questions the utility of these ideas in contemporary crime prevention initiatives such as 'secured by design'. The traditional statistical approach to measuring crime is criticised and rejected in favour of an investigation into the perceptions of crime and fear of crime...
Article
This paper provides a critical review of “Defensible Space” (Newman, 1973) and traces the development of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) in America and Canada, and Secured By Design (SBD) initiatives in the UK. It is argued that various aspects of the theory have avoided consideration and require further investigation and rese...
Article
This paper discusses the crime-specific problems that may arise with regard to potential solutions that have been provided to achieve the projected housing need of 4.4 million new homes by 2016. The development of “brownfield” land in this regard is briefly discussed and the urban-rural housing dilemma raised. Central to this paper is the issue of...
Article
Full-text available
Pedestrian Access Ways (PAWs) continue to present a significant and unresolved challenge to transport planners in local and State government. The responses by local and State government have often been piecemeal and have frequently resulted in tensions between civic constituencies, high levels of administrative cost, adverse publicity, reduced tran...
Article
At a time of increasing global urbanisation, research consistently indicates that crime and the fear of crime are key concerns for urban populations in both developed and developing countries and communal safety is considered to be one of the key features of a high quality environment (Dempsey, 2008). Government planning policy in the UK, USA and A...
Article
The State's Designing Out Crime Strategy (Office of Crime Prevention, 2007) is committed to reducing opportunities for crime and the fear of crime using Designing Out Crime principles and strategies. One of its five goals is to increase / disseminate understanding of Designing Out Crime.This phenomenological case study discusses the development of...
Article
Studies have consistently found that safety and security are major public concerns, however, crime is rarely considered as an outcome in public health. The recent planning policy shift towards promoting compact, ?walkable? communities close to public transport aims to redress many of the problems associated with urban sprawl. However, communities w...

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