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Paul Martin Coen

Paul Martin Coen
AdventHealth Orlando · Translational Research Institute

PhD

About

122
Publications
28,951
Reads
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4,323
Citations
Introduction
Dr. Paul Coen is an Associate Investigator at the Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, AdventHealth Orlando.Paul’s research program is supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and is broadly focused on elucidating the role of skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics in the pathophysiology’s associated with aging and obesity.
Additional affiliations
September 2013 - present
Florida Hospital, Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes
Position
  • Investigator
September 2013 - present
Sanford-Burnham-Prebys Medical Discovery Institute
Position
  • Research Assistant
September 2013 - June 2017
Florida Hospital
Position
  • Investigator
Education
September 2003 - March 2008
Purdue University
Field of study
  • Exercise Physiology
September 2000 - August 2003
Dublin City University
Field of study
  • Vascular Biology
September 1996 - May 2000
Technological University Dublin - Tallaght Campus
Field of study
  • Bioanalytical Science

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Full-text available
We tested the primary hypotheses that sphingolipid and diacylglycerol (DAG) content is higher within insulin-resistant muscle and that the association between intramyocellular triglycerides (IMTG) and insulin resistance is muscle fiber type specific. A nested case-control analysis was conducted in 22 obese (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) women who were classifie...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery causes profound weight loss and improves insulin sensitivity (S(I)) in obese patients. Regular exercise can also improve S(I) in obese individuals; however, it is unknown whether exercise and RYGB surgery-induced weight loss would additively improve S(I) and other cardiometabolic factors. Method...
Article
Full-text available
Both Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery and exercise can improve insulin sensitivity (SI) in individuals with severe obesity. However, the impact of RYGB with or without exercise on skeletal muscle mitochondria, intramyocellular lipids and SI is unknown. We conducted a randomized exercise trial in patients (N=101) who underwent RYGB surgery an...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important tissue for thermogenesis, making it a potential target to decrease the risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and recent studies have also identified BAT as an endocrine organ. While BAT has been implicated to be protective in cardiovascular disease, to this point...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise provides a robust physiological stimulus that evokes cross-talk among multiple tissues that when repeated regularly (i.e., training) improves physiological capacity, benefits numerous organ systems, and decreases the risk for premature mortality. However, a gap remains in identifying the detailed molecular signals induced by exercise that...
Article
Full-text available
Microphysiological systems (MPS), also referred to as tissue chips, incorporating 3D skeletal myobundles are a novel approach for physiological and pharmacological studies to uncover new medical treatments for sarcopenia. We characterize a MPS in which engineered skeletal muscle myobundles derived from donor-specific satellite cells that model aged...
Conference Paper
Skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity is reduced in both aging and diabetes. Whether diabetes further impairs mitochondrial capacity in older adults and how this relates to cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and glycemic control (HbA1c) remains uncertain. We examined muscle mitochondrial capacity of those with diabetes (self-reported, including T...
Article
Full-text available
A major gap impeding development of new treatments for cancer-related fatigue is an inadequate understanding of the complex biological, clinical, demographic, and lifestyle mechanisms underlying fatigue. In this paper, we describe a new application of a comprehensive model for cancer-related fatigue: the predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuatin...
Chapter
Full-text available
For centuries, regular exercise has been acknowledged as a potent stimulus to promote, maintain, and restore healthy functioning of nearly every physiological system of the human body. With advancing understanding of the complexity of human physiology, continually evolving methodological possibilities, and an increasingly dire public health situati...
Article
In cohorts of young and older adults who were comprehensively phenotyped, Janssens and colleagues traverse an important translational gap by providing compelling evidence for the purported link between elevated NAD+ levels and the healthy aging muscle phenotype in humans.
Article
Age-related declines in cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function are mitigated by regular endurance exercise in older adults. This may be due in part to changes in the transcriptional program of skeletal muscle following repeated bouts of exercise. However, the impact of chronic exercise training on the transcriptional response to an acute b...
Article
Full-text available
Background Aging-related disease risk is exacerbated by obesity and physical inactivity. It is unclear how weight loss and increased activity improve risk in older adults. We aimed to determine the effects of diet-induced weight loss with and without exercise on insulin sensitivity, VO2peak, body composition, and physical function in older obese ad...
Chapter
This chapter examines several possible causes of mitochondrial dysfunction with aging, including a progressive decline of physical function, oxidative stress, anabolic resistance, accumulation of somatic mutations, and alterations of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms including proteostasis, fusion/fission, and mitophagy. Skeletal muscle unde...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasing, especially among older adults. HFpEF is commonly associated with exercise intolerance and skeletal muscle weakening which likely contribute to functional decline. We studied the utility of nitrite (NO 2 ) supplementation with the aim to augment skeleta...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise has multi-systemic benefits and attenuates the physiological impairments associated with aging. Emerging evidence suggests that circulating exosomes mediate some of the beneficial effects of exercise via the transfer of microRNAs between tissues. However, the impact of regular exercise and acute exercise on circulating exosomal microRNAs (...
Article
Full-text available
The loss of skeletal muscle mass and function with age (sarcopenia) is a critical healthcare challenge for older adults. 31‐phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (³¹P‐MRS) is a powerful tool used to evaluate phosphorus metabolite levels in muscle. Here, we sought to determine which phosphorus metabolites were linked with reduced muscle mass an...
Article
Full-text available
Background Older adults exposed to periods of inactivity during hospitalization, illness or injury lose muscle mass and strength. This, in turn, predisposes poor recovery of physical function upon re-ambulation and represents a significant health risk for older adults. Bed rest (BR) results in altered skeletal muscle fuel metabolism and loss of oxi...
Article
The effects of exercise training on the skeletal muscle (SKM) lipidome and mitochondrial function have not been thoroughly explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesize that 10 weeks of supervised endurance training improves SKM mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity that are related to alterations in lipid signatures w...
Article
Full-text available
Skeletal muscle atrophy is a clinically important outcome of disuse due to injury, immobilization and bed rest. Disuse atrophy is accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction which likely contributes to activation of the muscle atrophy program. However, the linkage of muscle mass and mitochondrial energetics, during disuse atrophy and its recovery is i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Mitochondrial respiratory states and rates MitoEAGLE Task Group
Article
Background: Fasting lactate is elevated in metabolic diseases and could possibly be predictive of the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Plasma samples were analyzed for fasting lactate to compare lean subjects, nondiabetic subjects with severe obesity, and metabolically impaired subjects. Subjects with severe obesity were studi...
Chapter
Acute periods of contractile inactivity cause skeletal muscle atrophy along with profound alterations in tissue metabolism. Hind limb unloading via tail suspension is a commonly used rodent model of muscle atrophy. Here, we describe a sample preparation and LC-MS/MS approach for quantifying specific panels of acylcarnitines, amino acids, and organi...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical function decreases with age, and though bioenergetic alterations contribute to this decline, the mechanisms by which mitochondrial function changes with age remains unclear. This is partially because human mitochondrial studies require highly invasive procedures, such as muscle biopsies, to obtain live tissue with functional m...
Article
ON SARCOPENIA: THE CONVOLUTION OF THE TERM TO THE EDITOR: For a few millennia, the Greek term (lacking flesh) has been used to designate probable medical conditions: the extremely pale gaunt figure of Democritus, as well as his erratic antisocial behavior, impelled the city senate to invite Hippocrates to treat the philosopher (5). Similarly, poor...
Article
Full-text available
Sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass, strength, and physical function that is characteristic of aging. The progression of sarcopenia is gradual but may be accelerated by periods of muscle loss during physical inactivity secondary to illness or injury. The loss of mobility and independence and increased comorbidities associated with sarcopenia repr...
Conference Paper
Objective Muscle atrophy is a common and clinically important outcome of many diseases and hospitalization bed rest. Mechanical unloading of skeletal muscles may result in a rapid loss of muscle mass and mitochondria dysfunction. And the recovery from disuse muscle atrophy is usually complete in young healthy adults but is delayed and often incompl...
Article
Full-text available
Tissue regeneration is a highly coordinated process with sequential events including immune cell infiltration, clearance of damaged tissues, and immune‐supported regrowth of the tissue. Aging has a well‐documented negative impact on this process globally; however, whether changes in immune cells per se are contributing to the decline in the body’s...
Article
Full-text available
The long-term efficacy of bariatric surgery is not entirely clear, and weight regain and diabetes relapse are problems for some patients. Exercise is a feasible and clinically effective adjunct therapy for bariatric surgery patients. We hypothesize that exercise is also a critical factor for long term weight loss maintenance and lasting remission o...
Article
Circulating factors released from tissues during exercise have been hypothesized to mediate some of the health benefits of regular physical activity. Lipokines are circulating lipid species that have recently been reported to affect metabolism in response to cold. Here, lipidomics analysis revealed that a bout of moderate-intensity exercise causes...
Article
Full-text available
The progression of age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following periods of disuse due to illness or immobilization. However, the mechanisms underlying poor recovery of aged muscle following disuse remain to be delineated. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial energetics play an important role in regu...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The concept of mitochondrial dysfunction in ageing muscle is highly controversial. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that reduced muscle oxidative capacity and efficiency underlie the aetiology of mobility loss in older adults. Here, we hypothesized that studying well-phenotyped older cohorts across a wide range of physical activ...
Article
Full-text available
Mitochondrial function in human skeletal muscle declines with age. Most evidence for this decline comes from studies that assessed mitochondrial function indirectly, and the impact of such deterioration with respect to physical function has not been clearly delineated. We hypothesized that mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized human muscle fib...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in sedentary populations, yet no prospective studies in humans have examined IMCL accumulation with overfeeding. Methods: Twenty-nine males were overfed a high-fat diet (140% caloric intake, 44% from fat) for 8 weeks. Measures of IMCL, whole-body fat oxidation f...
Article
Full-text available
The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in Development and DNA Damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose...
Preprint
The progression of age-related sarcopenia can be accelerated by impaired recovery of muscle mass following periods of disuse due to illness or immobilization. The molecular underpinnings of poor recovery of aging muscle following disuse remain largely unknown. However, recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial energetics may play an important rol...
Preprint
Background The concept of mitochondrial dysfunction in aging muscle is highly controversial. In addition, emerging evidence suggests that reduced muscle oxidative capacity and efficiency underlie the etiology of mobility loss in older adults. Here, we hypothesized that studying well phenotyped older cohorts across a wide range of physical activity...
Article
Full-text available
Loss of muscle mass during periods of disuse likely has negative health consequences for older adults. We have previously shown that β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during 10 days of strict bed rest (BR) attenuates the loss of lean mass in older adults. To elucidate potential molecular mechanisms of HMB effects on muscle during bed...
Article
Full-text available
Objective. This study investigated the associations of both physical activity time (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) with weight and fat mass (FM) loss in patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Methods. Ninety-six nondiabetic patients were included in this analysis. Post-RYGB patients were randomized in one of two treatments: A...
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery improves insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-cell function in obese non-diabetic subjects. Exercise also improves SI and may be an effective adjunct therapy to RYGB surgery. However, the mechanisms by which exercise or weight loss improve peripheral SI after RYGB surgery are unclear. We hypo...
Article
Full-text available
PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) α; ;and β serve as master transcriptional regulators of muscle mitochondrial functional capacity and are capable of enhancing muscle endurance when overexpressed in mice. We sought to determine whether muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of PGC-1β affects the detraining response following endurance training. Fi...
Article
Full-text available
Background Skeletal muscle insulin resistance and reduced mitochondrial capacity have both been reported to be affected by aging. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of calorie restriction-induced weight loss and exercise on insulin resistance, skeletal muscle mitochondrial content, and mitochondrial enzyme activities in older over...
Article
Full-text available
to the editor: The author team of our recently published manuscript ([1][1]) on improved single muscle fiber quality in the oldest-old thank Dr. Venturelli and colleagues ([5][2]) for their thoughtful appraisal of our work. Furthermore, this group is to be commended for their efforts examining force
Data
Fig. S1 Plots of ceramide species significantly and inversely correlated with VO2 peak in men.
Data
Fig. S2 Plots of ceramide species significantly and inversely correlated with VO2 peak in women.