Paul Carling

Paul Carling
University of Southampton · Faculty of Social and Human Sciences

PhD

About

294
Publications
101,558
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9,293
Citations
Citations since 2017
61 Research Items
3623 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
20172018201920202021202220230200400600
Introduction
Paul Carling Emeritus Professor University of Southampton, Visiting Professor Lancaster University & Chengdu University of Technology, Overseas Expert Chinese Academy of Sciences. Interests include anastomosed rivers (Indus); Quaternary megafloods in China & Altai; SE Asia meteorite impact; glacial erratics in northern England as indicators of ice palaeopressure field. Erosion history of mountains in Eastern Egyptian Desert, flooding in wadis & alluvial fans indicators of Levant climate change

Publications

Publications (294)
Article
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Evidence for ungauged large freshwater palaeofloods in valley-confined landscapes frequently includes giant flow-eddy bars, deposited in alcoves along the floodway margins. Elevations of the bar tops commonly are used to define the minimum water level for computational flood simulations. Field study has shown that giant bar stratigraphy and sedimen...
Preprint
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Hypertidal estuaries are very dynamic environments characterised by high tidal ranges (>6 m) that can experience rapid rates of bank retreat. Whilst a large body of work on the processes, rates, patterns and factors driving bank erosion has been undertaken in fluvial environments, the process mechanics affecting the stability of the banks with resp...
Article
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The Australasian Tektite Event, ca. 0.8 Ma, is the youngest record of a large impact event on Earth. Although it is estimated that it occurred somewhere in Indochina based on the distribution of tektites, the crater has never been located. Here, we report the discovery and occurrence of shocked quartz with planar deformation features (PDFs) in the...
Article
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Plain Language Summary Multi‐thread rivers display astonishingly complex patterns with multiple channels splitting and joining to form intricate networks. Multi‐thread rivers are often highly dynamic, and seasonal flooding can trigger significant channel reorganization. Understanding multi‐thread systems and their dynamics relies on our capacity to...
Article
Assessment and quantitative description of river morphology using widely recognized river planview measures (e.g., length, width and sinuosity of channels, bifurcation angles and island shape) for multichannel rivers are regarded as fundamental parts of the toolkit of geomorphologists and river engineers. However, conventional assessment methods in...
Article
Owing to only a few decades of human influence and unsustainable management of the Mekong River basin’s natural resources, the Mekong Delta is receding rapidly. Most of the delta landform, home to 17 million people and an economic powerhouse, could slip below sea level by 2100. Avoiding such a catastrophic impact will require concerted actions that...
Article
A significant feature of the surface sediments of southeast Asia is a regionally extensive layer of distinctive red, quartz-rich, cover sand observed throughout Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos and Thailand, and further afield. In many locations, these cover sands immediately overlay a laterite layer containing tektites, known as the Muong Nong type, associ...
Article
Professor Kenneth J. Gregory was a major contributor to fluvial palaeohydrological research. Beginning in the early 1980s, under his influence, rapid international growth of the discipline was accompanied by major advances in research methods and techniques. Current research emphases include applications of quantitative modeling and meta‐analysis;...
Article
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Alluvial rivers commonly are subject to the integrated effects of hydrodynamic and eco‐geomorphologic controls and there has been a lack of suitable methods to measure the effects. By taking the alluvial reach of the Yellow River over the Yinchuan Plain as a suitable example, this study evaluates the degree of hydrodynamic control in the channel‐fo...
Article
Ice dammed glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) associated with surge glaciers are increasing in response to climate change. Predicting the phenomenon to protect downstream communities remains challenging around the globe. Surge-type glaciers are characterized by unsteady movements and frequent frontal advances, which cause natural hazards by obstr...
Article
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Geoscientists frequently are interested in defining the overall trend in x-y data clouds using techniques such as least squares regression. Yet often the sample data exhibits considerable spread of y-values for given x-values, which is itself of interest. In some cases the data may exhibit a distinct visual upper (or lower) ‘limit’ to a broad sprea...
Article
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Discoveries of cataclysmic glacial lake outburstfloods have expanded the scale and frequency of known mass transport events on Earth and other planets. It has been realized that sedimentary deposits related to high-energy freshwater floods are widespread across continents and these deposits share some commonalities when compared carefully. However,...
Article
An understanding of step-pool geometry has important practical applications in ecological restoration, erosion control and hazard assessment in mountain streams. However, published analysis is insufficient: (1) fully to identify the controls on step-pool geometry, and; (2) to allow inference to be made as to the origin of step-pools and the hydraul...
Article
Global climate changes significantly impact the water condition of big rivers in glacierized high mountains. However, there is a lack of studies on hydrological changes within river basins caused by climate changes over a geological timescale due to the impossibility of direct observations. In this study, we examine the hydro-climatic variation of...
Article
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Catastrophic meltwater drainage from glacial Lake Agassiz has been hypothesized as a trigger for large-scale ocean circulation change initiating the Younger Dryas cold reversal. Here we quantify the flood discharge that formed the northwestern outlet of Lake Agassiz using a one-dimensional step-backwater model and a zero-dimension gradual incision...
Article
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Successive landslides Successive outburst floods Multi-hazard chain Effective dam height Narrowing effect A B S T R A C T Two large landslides in October and November 2018 sequentially dammed the Jinsha river at Baige village, eastern Tibet, China. Subsequently, breaching of each dam induced massive outburst floods t...
Article
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Former lakes and wetlands can provide valuable insights to the late Pleistocene environments encountered by the first humans to enter the Levant from Africa. Fluvial incision along Wadi Gharandal in hyperarid southern Jordan has exposed remnants of a small riverine wetland that accumulated as a sedimentary sequence up to ~ 20 m thick. We conducted...
Article
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Jon et al. (2020) document the geographic and geologic landscapes of Mt. Kumgang (38°38´N, 127°59´E) in the DPR Korea and provide a systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the natural- and geo-heritage significance of the region. We argue that Mt. Kumgang, which has a thousand-year-long history of tourism in Korea (Shin, 2016), should be nominat...
Article
Unlike glaciers in other parts of the world, Karakoram glaciers seem to be stable or gaining in mass in response to global climate change, a phenomenon known as 'the Karakoram anomaly'. Many of the glaciers experience irregular, frequent, and sudden advances (surges) that pose an increasing threat of ice dam lake formation and subsequent outburst f...
Article
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There are several reports of Australasian tektites found within a stratum called "laterite” layer widely distributed in Indochina. However, it has been debated whether these tektites are in situ or reworked. This uncertainty is because a detailed description of their field occurrence is lacking. Here, we describe the detailed occurrence of a cluste...
Article
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Abstract Fluid retention and flow resistance due to natural vegetation remain poorly understood despite the importance of understanding these for flow routing and floodplain revegetation projects. Experiments were undertaken in a shallow earthen channel containing a natural cover of small trees, herbaceous plants and leaf-litter which were sequenti...
Article
Runup deposits are veneers of alluvium that drape floodway valley side walls above the height of giant bars deposited during megafloods. Given sufficient sediment supply, the highest giant bars, deposited in re-entrants along the flood margins, tend to grow to close to the maximum time-averaged water level of the flood. However, considerable fluctu...
Article
Results from geomorphological, sedimentological and geochronological analyses, together with micropaleontological and mineralogical characteristics of lacustrine deposits in five locations within the Kuray intermountain depression, southeast Altai, Mountains of south Siberia, support the thesis of repeated formations of ice-dammed lakes during MIS-...
Article
The concept of ‘megafloods’ and ‘superfloods’ was introduced at the end of the last century to define exceptionally large-discharge floods, primarily those associated with the failure of Quaternary ice-dams. These floods exceeded, by one or two magnitudes, historically recorded floods, megafloods having peak discharges equalling, or exceeding, 1 M...
Chapter
Spectacular discoveries have been made in regard to megafloods, which are paleofloods for which peak discharges have equaled or exceeded 1 million cubic meters per second. Most of the known megafloods and related catastrophic flooding phenomena are associated with large-scale glaciation, notably that which occurred in the terminal phases of the Ple...
Article
Pleistocene floods, from ice-dammed lakes in the Russian Altai Mountains, are among the largest freshwater megafloods in Earth history. Improved dating techniques have led to new dates constraining the timing of flood erosional and depositional events. In addition to a variety of interpretations and explanations of event histories, a proliferation...
Article
This paper presents one of the first dedicated studies on mobile bed hydraulics of dam-break flow and the induced sediment transport and morphological evolution. A theoretical model is built upon the conservative laws of shallow water hydrodynamics, and a high-resolution numerical solution of the hyperbolic system is achieved using the total-variat...
Article
ShareLink: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1ZMl-2weQbDCI Download for free before the 1st of September. In this work, we present a whole system model of megafloods from catastrophic ice-dam failure in the late Pleistocene that comprises the study of the dynamics of the glacial lake, the propagation of the flood wave downstream of the dam, and an ap...
Article
Outburst floods can have disastrous impacts on people, and are an important driving force in landscape change and have been studied widely on Earth. In China, although outburst floods have occurred frequently, there has been relatively little systematic investigation of the controlling factor. Here, we review outburst floods in China in terms of th...
Article
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Martian gullies are widespread landforms in the mid-latitudes of Mars. When the first reports of these kilometre-scale features were published in 2000, they were controversially hailed as a sign of recent flows of liquid water on the surface of Mars. This supposition was contrary to our understanding of recent environmental conditions on Mars, unde...
Chapter
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Martian gullies are widespread landforms in the mid-latitudes of Mars. When the first reports of these kilometre-scale features were published in 2000, they were controversially hailed as a sign of recent flows of liquid water on the surface of Mars. This supposition was contrary to our understanding of recent environmental conditions on Mars, unde...
Article
The rate of bedrock channel incision is key to the understanding of landscape evolution. Theoretical models relate channel incision to sediment transport; the latter conditioned by the bed shear stress. However, theory is deficient in an appreciation of the transverse and vertical flow structure that mediates shear stress for deep, narrow inner‐cha...
Article
Landslide damming is an important disturbance factor in the river evolution of mountain belts and may control river morphology at variable timescales. This temporal aspect is mostly discussed in terms of the spatial relationships between the dams and river longitudinal profiles within any given region. Largely lacking are detailed studies of the ge...
Article
Detailed descriptions of the architecture of dryland‐river deposits are few, which hinders the understanding of stratigraphic development in aggradational settings. The aim of this study was to obtain new insight into the depositional dynamics and resultant stratigraphy of steep, high‐energy dryland rivers in particular. The study site is within th...
Article
Shore-normal grooves (gutters) cut into the seabed have been eported widely from the marine geological record. Grooves commonly are spaced regularly across plane, consolidated surfaces in the littoral and sub-littoral zones and may be deeply incised. Despite their common occurrence in the rock record, there are few detailed descriptions of examples...
Article
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Remarkable channel degradation has occurred in a braided reach of the Lower Yellow River owing to the recent operation of Xiaolangdi Reservoir, and downstream progressive incision has caused a significant process of channel widening. The dynamic adjustments in bankfull channel widths were investigated at both the section-scale and reach-scale, for...
Article
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Many of the world’s major river deltas are subsiding and experiencing accelerated coastal erosion because of accelerated sea level rise, reduced supply of sediments and nutrients, accelerated subsidence, and channelizing of sediment laden flows directly to the sea instead of depositing over the delta plain. The Mekong Delta is likewise threatened,...
Article
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The incidents of sudden landslides in Thailand during the past decade have occurred frequently and more severely. The rain-triggered landslide hazard analysis is the focus of this research. The combination of geotechnical and hydrological data is used to determine permeability, conductivity, bedding orientation, overburden and presence of loose blo...
Article
Full-text available
Remarkable channel degradation has occurred in a braided reach of the Lower Yellow River owing to the recent operation of Xiaolangdi Reservoir, and downstream progressiveincision has caused a significantprocess of channel widening. The dynamic adjustments in bankfull channel widths were investigated at both the section-scale and reach-scale, forthe...
Article
Two decades after the construction of the first major dam, the Mekong basin and its six riparian countries have seen rapid economic growth and development of the river system. Hydropower dams, aggregate mines, flood-control dykes, and groundwater-irrigated agriculture have all provided short-term economic benefits throughout the basin. However, it...
Article
The channel boundary conditions along the Lower Yellow River (LYR) have been altered significantly since the 1950s with the continual reinforcement and construction of both main and secondary dykes and river training works. To evaluate how the confined complex channel-floodplain system of the LYR responds to floods, this study presents a detailed i...
Article
Nine fossil wood samples from the Mesozoic bedrock and the Quaternary terrace deposits of the Lower Mekong Basin in Southeast Asia including Thailand, Laos, and Cambodia were investigated in order to assist in developing a hypothesis about the Mekong River palaeocourses. Six of the samples were conifers assigned to Agathoxylon sp., and three were d...
Article
Arguably, the current planform behaviour of the Indus River is broadly predictable. Between Chashma and Taunsa, Pakistan, the Indus is a 264-km-long multiple-channel reach. Remote sensing imagery, encompassing major floods in 2007 and 2010, shows that the Indus has a minimum of two and a maximum of nine channels, with on average four active channel...
Article
The channel boundary conditions along the Lower Yellow River (LYR) have been altered significantly since the 1950s with the continual reinforcement and construction of both main and secondary dykes and river training works. To evaluate how the confined complex channel-floodplain system of the LYR responds to floods, this study presents a detailed i...
Article
Full-text available
Nine fossil wood samples from the Mesozoic bedrock and the Quaternary terrace deposits of the Lower Mekong Basin in Southeast Asia including Thailand,Laos and Cambodia were investigated in order to assist in developing a hypothesis about the Mekong River palaeo courses.Six of the samples were conifers assigned to Agathoxylonsp.,and three were dico...
Article
The erosion of rock-bedded channels generally is considered a slow process caused mainly by abrasion due to bedload or suspended sediments, but the mechanisms of rapid erosion remain unclear. Cavitation is a clear-fluid erosive process, well known for its effect on engineering structures, when water vapour bubbles collapse and the resultant pressur...
Article
The critical point of planform transition from straight to meandering in the wandering Ganges River is identifiable. Recent remote-sensing data indicate that four similar meanders cut off, or attempted to cut off, after ∼31–35 yr, primarily due to channel aggradation. As main channels aggrade, sinuosity is maximized for broad channel widths and sma...
Article
The critical point of planform transition from straight to meandering in the wandering Ganges River is identifiable. Recent remote-sensing data indicate that four similar meanders cut off, or attempted to cut off, after ∼31–35 yr, primarily due to channel aggradation. As main channels aggrade, sinuosity is maximized for broad channel widths and sma...
Conference Paper
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The Luni River is the largest river in the Thar desert, and an important dryland fluvial system, yet the stratigraphy of the channel was unknown. Monsoon discharge can reach 14,000 m3s-1 but the bed is dry most of the year. Pipeline construction created an opportunity to record the stratigraphy in a 700 m trench 5 m deep. GPS positioning and mm-res...
Article
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Ground-penetrating radar was used to elucidate the stratigraphy of late Pleistocene gravel dunes in the Altai Mountains of southern Siberia that formed when a lake emptied as a result of ice-dam failure. Survey-lines across dunes had a resolution of decimetres, with depth penetration of 20 m. The reflections identify bounding surfaces and radar fac...
Chapter
Inclined heterolithic stratification (IHS) forms the upper parts of a vegetated point-bar that forms the channel bank in the fluvial–tidal transition toward the head of the Severn Estuary. Continuing accretion of IHS occurs at the level of mean high water spring tides. The IHS overlies bar sands. The channel bank is convex upward with a tidal curre...
Conference Paper
The vegetation on forested floodplains plays an essential role in floodplain flow routing, flow dynamics and therefore the transfer of sediments and associated nutrients and contaminants. The flow resistance introduced by the presence of vegetation assemblages leads to changes in flow velocity and depth that, in turn, modulate sediment transport. A...
Article
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Coupled flood and sediment transport modelling in large-scale domains has for long been hindered by the high computational cost. Adaptive mesh refinement is one of the viable ways to solving this problem without degrading the accuracy. This goal can be accomplished through mesh adaptation, e.g., mesh coarsening and refining based on the dynamic reg...
Article
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Numerical simulations of the catastrophic draining of Pleistocene glacial-lake Kuray–Chuja quantify the discharge history of the draining event in detail. The plan-view basin flows are modelled as water emptied due to the instantaneous failure of the impounding ice-dam when the lake was at maximum capacity. The Chuja Basin water exited as a jet-flo...
Chapter
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Article
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The Mekong River is undergoing rapid dam construction. Seven mainstem dams are completed or under construction in China and 133 completed or proposed for the Lower Mekong River basin. We combined geomorphic assessments of the Mekong channel and delta with models of sediment trapping by reservoirs to forecast geomorphic change. We expect the biggest...
Article
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One of the largest known megafloods on earth resulted from a glacier dam-break, which occurred during the Late Quaternary in the Altai Mountains in Southern Siberia. Computational modeling is one of the viable approaches to enhancing the understanding of the flood events. The computational domain of this flood is over 9460 km 2 and about 3.784 × 10...
Article
Lag deposits of cobble-sized clasts found within the troughs of fine-gravel dunes on a rock-bed intertidal zone are explained by the process of enhanced fluid transport due to attached seaweed. Field determinations of the competence of the tidal currents demonstrated that the currents were not able to transport weed-free clasts on the tidal flat. C...
Article
River avulsion as studied in small-sized and medium-sized rivers is partly explained by the water surface gradient advantage of a new channel course over the old course, caused by spatial differences in aggradation and compaction. Recently, the effect of meandering upstream of the avulsion node, or bifurcation, was shown to have an equally large ef...
Article
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By trapping sediment in reservoirs, dams interrupt the continuity of sediment transport through rivers, resulting in loss of reservoir storage and reduced usable life, and depriving downstream reaches of sediments essential for channel form and aquatic habitats. With the acceleration of new dam construction globally, these impacts are increasingly...
Data
The history of investigations of channel change consequent upon river regulation is traced from the late 1960s until the present. The associated sediment transport and depositional processes are also reviewed. Conveniently the approaches adopted historically have fallen into three basic groups, these are: (I) analyses of the changes in channel netw...
Article
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Quaternary fauna and flora fossils were found in situ in a sand pit at the Khok Sung village of Khok Sung Subdistrict, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima province. Six lithostratigraphic units from unit 1 to unit 6 in ascending order were recognized in the sand pit. The sediments in the Khok Sung sand pit were deposited as two meandering channel set...
Article
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Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a critical role in the development of the juvenile stages of benthic spawning fish and salmonids in particular. Factors influencing the DO regime within spawning gravels include the accumulation of fine sediment, penetration of groundwater or surface water into the gravels, thermal regime, and the consumption of oxygen b...
Article
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The etymology and historic usage of such terms as ‘anabranch’, ‘anastamose’ and ‘braided’ within river science are reviewed. Despite several decades of modern research to define river channel typologies inclusive of single channels and multiple channel networks, typologies remain ill-conditioned and consequently ill-defined. Conventional