Paul Callister

Paul Callister
Callister & Associates

Phd in Social Policy

About

115
Publications
44,413
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763
Citations
Citations since 2017
11 Research Items
180 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (115)
Technical Report
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There has been some debate about the use of helicopters in Tāmaki Makaurau, with residents of Herne Bay and other areas of the region opposing landings and take-offs from private properties. But the issues are much wider than noise and invasion of privacy. Helicopters are an amazing piece of technology. They can rush people from remote rural locati...
Technical Report
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Prior to Covid, the global aviation industry was undergoing a period of unprecedented growth and was predicted to continue growing rapidly for at least the next three decades. But the emissions growth associated with this forecast traffic growth was incompatible with the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate change. Therefore, many industry group...
Technical Report
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New Zealand’s public sector is being required to rapidly decarbonise. While the initial focus is on replacing fossil fueled boilers and electrifying the car fleet, emissions from aviation also need to be tackled. In Europe night trains are making a comeback. In New Zealand decarbonisation of aviation seems to rely on distant promises of electric an...
Technical Report
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Emissions from transport are a major part of New Zealand’s climate challenge, as highlighted by the Climate Change Commission in February 2021. While transport emissions have been rising in most of the world, New Zealand’s increase in road transportation emissions by 101.6% from 1990 to 2018 has been remarkable. New Zealand is also unusual among ad...
Technical Report
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Aviation emissions are an important contributor to climate change. This report examines New Zealand's emissions from domestic and international aviation and explores options for reducing these emissions.
Working Paper
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Technical Report
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The aim of this report is to isolate important, low-income occupations in which New Zealand women are over-represented. 2013 census data are used. Particular attention is placed on low-income occupations that government has some influence on, through either direct employment or through funding of services.
Technical Report
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The first aim of this project is to gain an understanding of lizard diversity and abundance on a small site on New Zealand’s Paekakariki-Pukerua Bay escarpment through lizard surveys and monitoring programmes. On this small site, an aim is then to improve animal pest control regimes so they protect existing lizard populations and allow these popula...
Article
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This research note reports on the first stage of a larger project in which we investigate the potential ways in which interdisciplinary approaches to important questions of identity and belonging can harness both existing data and emerging alternative information sources. Measures of identity are fundamental to social and health sciences, but often...
Article
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In New Zealand, a 'two peoples' framework is adopted by many researchers and commentators. Having Maori and 'non-Maori' groups is useful for analysis of data in the decades following initial contact. But in the 21st Century, a 'two peoples' lens requires a new prescription. To try and create firm ethnic boundaries when these are, in fact, quite b...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Demographic change is driving the increasing demand for aged care in New Zealand. This paper examines the changing characteristics of caregivers for the elderly in terms of age, whether born in New Zealand and duration of residence. It also explores whether temporary migrants are becoming a more significant component of the elder care workforce. It...
Chapter
Skin cancer is the most common cancer in New Zealand. Australia and New Zealand also lead the world in melanoma incidence rates. This is attributed to various geographical, demographic, and behavioral characteristics in both countries, including high summer ultraviolet radiation (UVR) levels, predominantly fair- to medium-skinned populations, and a...
Chapter
While New Zealand’s diverse population means that there is no one historical or current role for fathers in New Zealand, many men take an active role in parenting. Yet, most fathers in New Zealand face a range of barriers to active involved fathering. Some are relatively minor but others are more significant. While the majority of these barriers ar...
Article
In recent years the existence of an Antipodean ‘man drought’ has attracted considerable media attention. Australian demographer Bernard Salt first used this term in 2005 when highlighting unusual sex ratios in each country’s census. It has been suggested this ‘drought’ affects the ability of women to find male partners. However, unusual sex ratios...
Article
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Ethnicity is an important variable in studies of health inequalities in New Zealand. Yet there are ongoing concerns about the nature, quality and use of ethnic data. In 2004, Statistics New Zealand recommended that researchers and policy makers no longer use the system of ethnic prioritisation, a system originally designed to assign people with mul...
Article
In the August 2011 issue of Policy Quarterly, Maureen Baker sets out to outline ‘Key issues in parental leave policy’. One aim of the article was to examine ‘some of the continuing debates about paid parental leave’. However, we argue that the article fails to advance debates about paid parental leave in New Zealand, because: 1) it does not adequat...
Article
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We would like to thank Katherine Baxter of the Super 2000 Taskforce who managed the early stages of the project, and Bryan Perry of the Ministry of Social Policy who took over the subsequent management of the project. We would also like to thank the staff of Statistics New Zealand who provided much of the data on which this report is based. During...
Article
CALLISTER P, BADKAR J and DIDHAM R. Nursing Inquiry 2011; 18: 205–215 Globalisation, localisation and implications of a transforming nursing workforce in New Zealand: opportunities and challenges Severe staff and skill shortages within the health systems of developed countries have contributed to increased migration by health professionals. New Zea...
Article
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Using New Zealand as a case study, to determine whether ethnicity is appropriate for communicating sun exposure health promotion messages. This study reviews recent literature on minimising skin cancer risk and achieving sufficient serum vitamin D levels. It draws on a variety of scientific literature, reports and media statements to determine appr...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Population growth means an increasing number of young people are likely to want to enrol in bachelor degree study. However, constrained government finances have led to the government capping funding. The result is that many education providers are restricting entry to courses. One way to restrict entry is to set academic requirements that are highe...
Article
Public policy discussions involving ethnicity often assume that people remain in fixed ethnic categories over their lifecycles. While New Zealand research carried out a decade ago had already identified ethnic mobility in the census in relation to Māori, the dramatic and somewhat unexpected increase in ‘New Zealander’- type responses in the 2006 ce...
Article
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Questions concerning the widening disparity in numbers of males and females in the prime working age groups in New Zealand's population have attracted attention from researchers and the media in recent years. This paper reviews some of the findings from research for a FRST-funded programme that has been investigating several inequalities based on g...
Chapter
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The first decade of the 21st century was characterised by a succession of years of net migration gains in New Zealand -- the first decade since the 1950s when every year ended March 31 had a net gain. The period was characterised by successive years of sustained economic growth and record levels of arrivals and departures for periods of 12 months o...
Article
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BACKGROUND Pacific mortality rates are traditionally presented for all Pacific people combined, yet there is likely heterogeneity between separate Pacific ethnic groups. We aimed to determine mortality rates for Samoan, Cook Island Māori, Tongan, and Niuean ethnic groups (living in New Zealand). METHODS We used New Zealand Census-Mortality Study (N...
Article
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Race and ethnicity continue to be evolving concepts. They are influenced by genetic research but are also shaped by discussion and debate that takes place far from laboratories. Their meanings also evolve somewhat differently in local contexts. One of the newer influences on these concepts are the findings from the ongoing Human Genome Project. Thi...
Article
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Since 1991 a growing share of the New Zealand population has reported more than one ethnic group in the census, with rates especially high among children. A key challenge arising from the collection of ethnicity data is deciding where to count people who record more than one group. In this paper we explore how a self-prioritised measure of main eth...
Article
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In this paper we turn to two somewhat overlapping areas where we see potential future demand for lower-skill workers. These are domestic workers and caregivers for the elderly. In contrast to workers brought from overseas to pick fruit or prune vines, the workers we consider are either directly or indirectly caring for people. In this paper we cons...
Article
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Internationally there is a growing demand for health services. Skilled health workers, including doctors, have a high degree of international mobility and New Zealand (NZ) stands out internationally in terms of the significant flows of doctors in and out of the country. Through changes in training of doctors in NZ and migration flows, there have be...
Article
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New Zealand's paid parental leave policy was introduced in 2001. Since then it has been altered a number of times, including an extension to its length and a loosening of eligibility criteria. Given that some parents continue to be ineligible for leave, there have been calls for further expansion of the eligibility criteria and an increase in the l...
Article
As an international phenomenon, domestic work is a significant area of employment. In fact, the International Labour Organization ("the ILO") conservatively estimates that there are over 100 million domestic workers globally, of which many are migrants and most are women. 1 These workers are also commonly the most disadvantaged and vulnerable in so...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper explores three areas in society where skin colour might matter. First, based primarily on USA literature, the question of the role of skin colour in discrimination and, ultimately, economic and health outcomes, is examined. Then, returning to New Zealand, there is a discussion of whether skin colour is a factor in why those responding to...
Article
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Although a third of nurses in New Zealand are born overseas, little is known about their composition. Among OECD countries, the reliance on overseas trained health professionals is currently strong and growing. Globally, as the population ages, and fertility rates decline, the demand for health professionals, particularly doctors and nurses is proj...
Article
Pick up any official New Zealand publication which includes photographs representing the population and it is highly likely that the people featured will have visible characteristics, including skin colour, that are stereotypically associated with the main ethnic groups living in this country. Equally, examine official reports which consider differ...
Article
In all industrialised countries, including New Zealand, the population is ‘ageing’. The reasons for this vary somewhat between nations but, in most, a key driver has been a shift to below-replacement fertility rates. This ageing of the population has raised policy concerns in individual countries and international agencies as to how to economically...
Article
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This study examines the development of new tools for analysing links between ethnicity and health outcomes. In a New Zealand context, it focuses on (1) how ethnicity is increasingly articulated as a social construct, (2) how individuals belonging to more than one ethnic group have been recorded and reported in research, and (3) health research and...
Article
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Skilled migration flows into New Zealand are important to the Department of Labour's goal of building New Zealand's workforce and attracting (and retaining) talent to contribute to the nation's economic transformation. Globally, female migrants constitute nearly half of all migrants in developed and developing countries. This global presence of wom...
Book
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During the post-World War Two era, governments in New Zealand and in many other countries have introduced policies designed to achieve greater equality between ethnic groups. These have been variously referred to as ‘positive discrimination’, ‘preferential treatment’, ‘affirmative action’, ‘measures to ensure equality’ and ‘special measures’. This...
Chapter
Ethnicity (or race) is considered to be a very significant dimensional variable in social science research and policy making in most, but not all, countries. Yet, ethnicity is not a human characteristic that can be easily identified or measured. As a result in many countries, including New Zealand, there is an ongoing debate as to the best way of m...
Article
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Introduction There has been much publicity in recent years about how girls are performing better than boys in many areas of schooling (Driessen, 2005). But in recent times New Zealand has also experienced a gender transition in tertiary educational enrolment and attainment, with, for the fi rst time in our history, women participating in tertiary e...
Article
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In New Zealand, in all age groups under 20, and in key working age groups, historically there have been more men than women. Life table data suggest that, without migration, the number of males should remain greater than the number of females until around the age of 60 years. However, census data indicate that the number of New Zealand women reside...
Article
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In early 2005 the Labour-Progressive government stated that, while New Zealand’s overall labour force participation rates were high, the rate for some groups of women, particularly those aged 25-34 years, were below the OECD average. Given that this is the main childbearing age range for New Zealand women, mothers of young children form a significa...
Article
The issues surrounding the nature and impact of diversity – and especially ethnic and social diversity – have attracted growing interest in many countries during the past decade. For the purposes of this discussion the term ‘social diversity’ is used to embrace diversity in values, religious beliefs, life circumstances, lifestyles and other aspects...
Article
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This paper explores five main questions regarding the gender distribution of work, primarily in the context of couples with young children. These are: how much total paid and unpaid work is carried out in New Zealand?; how is this work shared between women and men?; how does this compare with other countries?; how might the mix of unpaid and paid w...
Article
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Parental leave is a complex area of public policy. Concerns include health protection for working mothers, equal employment opportunities for women, access to adequate antenatal and birthing care, maternal recovery, optimal nutrition for infants, and gender equality within families. Given this complexity, the design of parental leave schemes, inclu...
Article
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Internationally, there is much research interest in the potential challenges associated with overwork within households, particularly for parents raising children. New Zealand census data show that, when individuals are considered, average hours of paid work for employed women and men changed very little between 1986 and 2001. Yet, in this time per...
Article
Abstract This paper explores the thesis that as household inequalities widen, both ends of the resulting income ,distribution experience ,increased ,levels of spatial segregation. Spatial segregation is of policy relevance if it perpetuates or encourages further polarization in ways that counter public initiatives aimed at
Article
If income support for a period of parental leave is viewed as societal recognition of parents' lost income from employment in order to care for children, then there is some justification for linking eligibility for payment to a parent's eligibility for job protection. This argument is substantially undermined, however, when a significant number of...
Article
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The home and the workplace have often been portrayed as 'separate spheres'. In this paper we explore the way that New Zealand workers blend paid work undertaken at home with work undertaken in the workplace, drawing on data from New Zealand's first Time Use Survey. The most typical pattern for non-agricultural workers who are involved in home work...
Article
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Lilla (1998), in A Tale of Two Reactions, outlines a polarisation in concern about changes in work and family life in the United States. He argues that the political left is generally concerned about the excesses of capitalism, such as the increasing gap between the rich and the poor, the loss of jobs for low skilled people and the growth of low pa...
Chapter
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Article
Defining the ethnicity of an individual presents problems. These problems are heightened when trying to define the ethnicity of couples and other family groups. In addition, with changing patterns of participation in paid work by men and women. the analysis of paid work by couples is also becoming more complex. Data from the 1991 census indicate th...
Article
This study examines the connections between work, families, and early childhood education, and analyzes international trends and perspectives on parental leave. Chapter 1, "Introduction," shows that the increase in paid work by mothers makes families, work, and education important research and policy issues, and surveys reasons for this increase. C...
Article
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While ethnicity, as collected in surveys in New Zealand, is a personal attribute not a group measure, there is some demand from the policy community and researchers for measures of family ethnicity. Yet both ethnicity and family are "woolly" concepts. The paper explores the uses made of ethnic family measures in research and policy making in New Ze...
Article
Full-text available
Ethnicity is a key variable in social science research and policy making. Yet, for many individuals in New Zealand society ethnicity is a fluid characteristic. Against a backdrop of historical debates about the measurement of ethnicity, this paper initially explores some of the recent changes that have taken place in the recording of ethnicity in t...
Article
Full-text available
While overall tertiary education participation has been rising, some groups are lagging. Men, and particularly Maori and Pacific men, are increasingly under represented in many education institutions, especially at higher levels of education. For example, in 1994 in the under 30 age group and when foreign students are excluded there were 13% more w...