Paul Bikker

Paul Bikker
Wageningen University & Research | WUR · Livestock Research Group

About

143
Publications
24,927
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2,240
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
1206 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200
2017201820192020202120222023050100150200

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
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High calcium (Ca) intake and fine limestone reduces precaecal phosphorus (P) absorption independently of P solubility in broilers. This study aimed to determine whether dietary total Ca: total P ratio (Ca:P) and limestone particle size (LPS) affect gene expression of P transporters in the small intestine. A total of 384 one-day-old Ross 308 male br...
Article
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Expression levels of genes (RT-qPCR) related to Ca and P homeostasis (transporters and claudins (CLDN)) were determined in porcine jejunal and colonic mucosa. Forty growing pigs (BW 30.4±1.3 kg) received a low and high Ca content (2.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively) diet with or without microbial phytase (500 FTU/kg) for 21 days. Dietary Ca intake enha...
Article
Full-text available
Sixty growing male pigs were used to test the hypothesis that high dietary Ca content reduces P absorption to a greater extent in microbial phytase-supplemented diets via reducing inositol phosphate (IP) degradation and enhancing P precipitation. Pigs were equally allotted over diets with three Ca contents 2.0, 5.8 and 9.6 g/kg with or without micr...
Article
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The novel chelator, L-glutamic acid, N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA) can be used as a dietary ingredient to safely reduce Zn supplementation in complete feed, without compromising the Zn status of farm animals. The objective of this study was to study dietary tolerance, bioaccumulation, and evaluate the safety of GLDA when supplemented in broiler diets at...
Article
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The hypothesis that dietary inclusion of microbial phytase improves apparent calcium (Ca) digestibility thereby allowing a lower dietary Ca inclusion without compromising growth performance was tested. One-day-old male Ross 308 broilers (25 birds/pen, nine pens/treatment) were assigned to eight experimental diets containing one of four dietary Ca t...
Article
Full-text available
The use of seaweed as feed ingredient is gaining interest but the high ash content, low nutrient digestibility, short shelf life and poor economic feasibility hamper practical application. This study investigates the effect of washing, ensiling and extraction processes on the nutritional value of seaweed products for broilers, based on nutrient con...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Influence of high-protein rapeseed meal, feed pelleting conditions and exogenous enzymes on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of pigs. A process was developed to increase the protein content of rapeseed meal (RSM), which is more attractive for animal feeding in the European Union (EU), and the aim of the present study was to investigat...
Article
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The hypothesis was tested that an increased digestion of coarse compared with fine limestone can alleviate the negative effects of a low dietary Ca/P ratio on the growth performance and characteristics of tibia strength (CTS) in broilers. A total of 1,152 Ross 308 broiler chickens received a standard commercial starter feed from day 0 to 13. From d...
Article
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The increasing demand for animal protein by the growing world population intensifies the exploration of novel feed sources. This study evaluated the nutritional value of six intact seaweed species (i.e. the brown species Saccharina latissima, Laminaria digitata, and Ascophyllum nodossum, the red species Palmaria palmata, and Chondrus crispus and gr...
Article
In een onderzoek naar de voederwaarde en diervoedergrondstoffen, uitgevoerd door Wageningen Livestock Research in samenwerkin met Schothorst Feed Research, zijn een grote verschillen in verteerbaarheid van nutriënten gevonden tussen biologisch gehouden varkens te verbeteren kan intrinsiek fytase uit tarwe en tarwegries een uitkomst bieden.
Conference Paper
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The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different processes on the nutritional quality of expeller soybean meal (SBM). Extrusion or cooking processes in combination with dehulling and pressing were used to produce 4 partly defatted SBM with low residual trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity. European soybeans were ground using a rol...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this ring test was to investigate the prececal phosphorus (P) digestibility of soybean meal (SBM) in broiler chickens using the trial protocol proposed by the World's Poultry Science Association. It was hypothesized that prececal P digestibility of SBM determined in the collaborating stations is similar. Three diets with different...
Article
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Feed ingredients used in swine diets are often processed to improve nutritional value. However, (over-)processing may result in chemical reactions with amino acids (AAs) that decrease their ileal digestibility. This study aimed to determine effects of (over-)processing of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) on post-absorptive utilization of...
Article
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The growing world population demands an increase in animal protein production. Seaweed may be a valuable source of protein for animal feed. However, a biorefinery approach aimed at cascading valorisation of both protein and non-protein seaweed constituents is required to realise an economically feasible value chain. In this study, such a biorefiner...
Article
1. The aim of this study, comprising two experiments, was 1) to determine in Experiment 1 the relationship of incremental dietary P content on precaecal digestible P in male broilers and 2) to determine in Experiment 2 the precaecal P digestibility of various inorganic P sources at marginal levels of P supply. 2. In Experiment 1, a total of 260 mal...
Article
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A study was conducted to compare protein digestibility of processed ingredients using 2 in vitro methods with known standardized ileal digestibility of CP (SIDCP) measured in growing pigs. The SIDCP in soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), and both ingredients retoasted in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and pro...
Article
Pharmacological levels of dietary copper (150–250 mg/kg) improve growth performance in pigs, but the majority of Cu is excreted in the manure and may contribute to accumulation in the soil. This experiment with 4 levels of dietary Cu supplementation (15, 80, 120, and 160 mg/kg) from weaning to d 56 after weaning was conducted to determine the dose-...
Conference Paper
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The objective of this paper is to discuss some aspects of modelling heat production and heat losses in growing-finishing pigs. The main formulas from an existing, continuously updated, model (Anipro) are compared with existing formulas given by the CIGR working group on Climatization of Animal Houses (2002) and other formulas described in literatur...
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at...
Conference Paper
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at...
Article
A qualitative spreadsheet model has been developed for ranking feed ingredients on the basis of the potential risk of exceeding existing guidance or maximum levels in the EU for a certain contaminant, and the potential consequence of the presence of this contaminant on the health of animals and/or humans. The approach was based on the general conce...
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were...
Article
An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, o-methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality wer...
Article
Feed production is responsible for the majority of the environmental impact of livestock production, especially for monogastric animals, such as pigs. Several studies demonstrated that replacing soybean meal (SBM) with alternative protein sources, such as locally produced peas or rapeseed meal, potentially reduces the environmental impact of pork p...
Article
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In 2000, the Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) projected that global demand for animal source food (ASF) would double by 2050 (Alexandratos and Bruinsma, 2012). Although these projections were revised slightly during recent years, they form the basis of many scientific and policy documents related to livestock production. Those projections,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the years to come global pressure on land use will intensify. Livestock production currently uses about 70% of the agricultural land, mainly for pasture and production of feed crops. Feeding nine billion people the required protein content of 57 g/day in 2050, is only possible when resources are used efficiently. From a land use perspective, thi...
Conference Paper
Broilers have the intrinsic capacity to degrade dietary phytate, thereby increasing precaecal phosphorus digestibility (pcdP). Insight in the extent and mechanism of phytate-P (PP) degradation is necessary to evaluate the contribution to the P-supply of the birds. An experiment was performed to determine the interaction of dietary PP and non-phytat...
Article
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The major impact of the livestock sector on the environment may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products to animals. Since the last decade, co-products from biodiesel production, such as rapeseed meal (RSM), became increasingly available in Europe. Consequently, an increase in RSM content in livestock diets was observed at the expense of soyb...
Article
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Purpose: The expected increase in demand for food raises concerns about the expansion of agricultural land worldwide. To avoid expansion, we need to focus on increasing land productivity, reducing waste, and shifting human diets. Studies exploring diet shifts so far have ignored competition for land between humans and animals. Our objective was to...
Article
The 'developmental origins of health and disease' hypothesis proposes not only that we are what we eat, but also that we could be what our parents ate. Here, we aimed to improve health and performance of young piglets via maternal diets based on the hypothesis that maternal nutritional interventions change metabolic programming in piglets, reflecte...
Article
A significant contribution to microbial colonization of piglets comes from the sow: via vertical transmission of vaginal flora during birth and transmission of mucosal immune memory and flora by feaces, colostrum and milk. In this study we determine the effect of an maternal nutritional intervention with an antibiotic on early microbial colonizatio...
Article
Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd om de invloed te bepalen van de hoogte (15-160 mg/kg voer) en duur (2- 8 weken) van gebruik van een kopersupplement in het voer van gespeende biggen op de groeiprestaties, mestconsistentie en expressie van genen gerelateerd aan de koperabsorptie vanuit verschillende segmenten van de dunne darm.
Article
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Background Maternal diet during pregnancy can modulate skeletal muscle development of the offspring. Previous studies in pigs have indicated that a fat supplemented diet during pregnancy can improve piglet outcome, however, this is in contrast to human studies suggesting adverse effects of saturated fats during pregnancy. This study aimed to invest...
Article
Piglet neonatal mortality rates are high (~20%), so nutritional strategies to reduce this are highly desirable. Maternal fat substitution (FS) may promote the preweaning survival of piglets by improving their energy status. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FS throughout pregnancy on offspring viability, toge...
Technical Report
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De Food en Veterinary Office van de EC heeft in 2010 geconstateerd dat de Nederlandse mengvoederindustrie niet voldoende deed om versleping te voorkomen. Dit heeft er toe geleid dat het Ministerie van EL&I behoefte had aan een inventarisatie van de huidige situatie m.b.t. versleping. In dit rapport worden de resultaten van deze inventarisatie gepre...
Article
Er is geconstateerd dat de samenstelling van de mest die de Werkgroep Uniformering berekening Mest en Mineralen (WUM) en de werkgroep National Emission Model Agriculture (NEMA) berekenen anders is dan die gemeten is in de monsters van getransporteerde mest die door de Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland (RVO) is geregistreerd. Deze studie analys...
Article
In deze studie is de chemische samenstelling en de in vitro organische stof- en stikstofverteerbaarheid van gedroogde algen bepaald. Het betrof een drietal algenproducten, namelijk algen gedroogd bij 700C, algen samen met een hulpstof gedroogd met een innovatieve techniek en algen samen met rijst gedroogd bij 700C. Als referentiegrondstoffen zijn i...
Article
In opdracht van PPO (PPS Kleinschalige Bioraffinage) is de in vitro verteerbaarheid van gewelde maïs en van het maïsbijproduct na fermentatie bepaald. Als referentiegrondstoffen zijn in deze studie sojaschroot en kuilgras meegenomen. Tevens is in deze studie de in vivo verteerbaarheid van het maïsbijproduct bij varkens onderzocht. Dit rapport besch...
Article
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The livestock sector is searching for alternative protein sources, because of the expected increase in demand for animal products. Insects are such a protein source. Use of insects may reduce environmental impact as they have potential to turn organic waste into high quality insect-based feed products. The aim of this study was to explore the envir...
Article
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In this study, organically raised pigs received an increasing proportion of grass silage up to 10 and 20% dry matter in the daily ration in the grower and finisher period, respectively, to determine the effects of grass silage on feed intake and growth performance. The pigs receiving a mixture of grass silage and compound feed ingested 0.3 kg DM/d...
Article
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Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of...
Article
Abstract Three in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the effect of temperature, moisture content, duration of incubation, Ca level, soaking with water or citric acid onphytate degradation in a wheat–barley–rye–soybean meal-based broiler diet. In experiment 1, phytase activity of individual feed ingredients and 4 low-P broiler diets, c...
Article
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The present study evaluated the dose response of Buttiauxella phytase on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, Ca, and P in weaned pigs at 2 locations. Experimental diets fed to weaned pigs were a positive control (PC), a negative control (NC), and NC supplemented with increasing levels of Buttiauxella phytase. In Trial A, ATTD of P was...
Article
Full-text available
A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of microbial phytase in pig diets on digestibility and bioavailability of Cu and Zn. Studies (n = 22) into effects of microbial phytase on digestibility and plasma levels of Cu and Zn were included in a dataset and regression analysis was performed to quantify the effect of Aspergillus niger der...
Article
Complexation of dietary phytate with cations is a major cause of reduced bioavailability of Zn and possibly Cu in pig diets. We conducted 2 studies with 2 treatments in young growing pigs (8 to 40 kg) to estimate potential contributions of phytase to availability and supply of Zn and Cu, respectively. Each treatment comprised 10 pens with 8 pigs ea...
Book
Full-text available
Dit onderzoek richt zich op het potentieel van zeewier productie in de Noordzee, als een duurzaam uitgangsmateriaal voor productie in diervoeders en andere non-food toepassingen. Zeewier kan geteeld worden in zogenaamde multi-use platforms at sea (MUPS). Het onderzoek geeft een overzicht van kennis over zeewier productie en toepassingen. Resultaten...
Article
Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested for 20 to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase derived from E. coli and produced by the yeast Pichia...
Article
In dit werkdocument wordt de excretie van stikstof en fosfaat van biologisch gehouden varkens-, pluimvee en melkvee berekend en vergeleken met gangbaar gehouden dieren. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd onder de verantwoordelijkheid van de Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet in opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken
Article
De ammoniak emissie in de veehouderij wordt in belangrijke mate bepaald door de excretie van total ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in de urine. In dit rapport wordt besproken welke data nodig zijn om de TAN-excretie te berekenen en hoe deze op varkens-, pluimvee- en melkveebedrijven kunnen worden verzameld.
Article
In dit rapport is de behoefte van verschillende micronutriënten voor rundvee, varkens en pluimvee samengevat. Daarnaast is het mondiale diervoederverbruik van deze micronutriënten berekend en vergeleken met het totale mondiale verbruik voor alle doeleinden. Het doel van dit rapport is om na te gaan in hoeverre het verbruik van mineralen via het vee...
Article
Full-text available
Feed ingredients, e.g. oil seed by-products, generally have undergone several processing steps before inclusion in animal diets. Processing of feed ingredients and diets can result in conformational changes of protein structure, the formation of Maillard reaction products and cross-links between amino acids (Bender, 1972). These changes affect prot...
Article
In dit rapport wordt op basis van wetenschappelijke literatuur de behoefte aan koper en zink van groeiende varkens, fokzeugen en –beren besproken en een voorstel tot normstelling gedaan.
Article
The standard Ca/aP ratio (2.2) can be recommended for application in practical diets. Based on the results of this experiment, no proof was found for our hypothesis that the development of the skeleton in fast growing broilers could not keep pace with the gain of the soft tissues. This experiment showed that the P requirement was not fulfilled with...
Article
Dit rapport beschrijft een dosis-respons studie bij vleesvarkens waarin de invloed van het Pgehalte in het voer op de groeiprestaties en de P-retentie in het dier zijn bepaald.
Article
Dit rapport beschrijft de voorwaarden voor een succesvolle teelt, verwerking en toepassing van alternatieve eiwitbronnen in (biologische) varkens- en pluimveerantsoenen onder Europese klimaatcondities. Hierbij wordt rekening gehouden met duurzaamheidsaspecten en wetgeving.
Article
Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of temperature (T), pH, time of incubation and pepsin on the stability of intrinsic phytase of different cereals. Experiment one was conducted as a 3×4×3×3 factorial arrangement with three feed ingredients (rye, wheat and barley), four T (20, 38, 55 and 80 °C), three pH levels (3.0, 5.5 and 8...
Article
This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodi...
Article
In deze studie worden de mogelijkheden geïnventariseerd, inclusief effecten en kosten, om de ammoniakemissie uit zeugenstallen te reduceren via voermaatregelen.
Article
Het verstrekken van een gemengd rantsoen van kuilgras en krachtvoer resulteerde in een lagere groei en voerbenutting bij biologisch gehouden vleesvarkens. Verdere ontwikkeling van het voersysteem is nodig om een wezenlijke verlaging van de voerkosten te kunnen realiseren.
Article
Deze literatuurstudie is uitgevoerd om na te gaan of het verstrekken van brijvoer met bijproducten kan resulteren in een hogere fosforretentie bij vleesvarkens. Hiervoor zijn de belangrijkste factoren, die de vertering en retentie van fosfor beïnvloeden, beschreven en gerelateerd aan specifieke kenmerken van brijvoer.
Article
Dit rapport gaat in op de speiding in ruwvoeropname tussen individuele dragende zeugen aan de hand van een beknopte literatuurstudie en vijf bezoeken aan biologische varkensbedrijven.
Article
Full-text available
The consequences of sub-optimal nutrition through alterations in the macronutrient content of the maternal diet will not simply be reflected in altered neonatal body composition and increased mortality, but are likely to continue into adulthood and confer greater risk of metabolic disease. One mechanism linking manipulations of the maternal environ...
Article
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The EC has introduced maximum inclusion levels of copper and zinc salts in animal diets from 1970 onwards and reduced these levels in recent years. In this report historical values are used to give insight into trends in levels of copper and zinc in compound feeds for animals in the Netherlands. The results of these analyses will enable the nVWA (D...
Article
De ammoniakemissie vanuit de veehouderij wordt momenteel berekend op basis van de excretie van ruw eiwit (stikstof) in de mest, zonder onderscheid te maken tussen stikstof in feces en urine. Met behulp van de TAN-excretie (totaal ammoniakaal stikstof) kan een betere inschatting gemaakt worden van de emissie omdat hierbij rekening gehouden wordt met...
Article
Full-text available
In dit onderzoek is nagegaan of bij dragende zeugen een deel van het krachtvoer door graskuil of mengkuil met CCM of gerst kan worden vervangen.
Article
Deze studie toonde een duidelijk optimum van ongeveer 150 mg toegevoegd Cu per kg voer op groeiresultaten bij varkens van 5 tot 25 kg. Vermindering van een hoge naar een lage Cu dosis kan leiden tot een lagere groeiresultaat dan de negatieve controlegroep.
Article
This paper deals with non-classical aspects of feed value and their inclusion in feed evaluation. Common feed ingredients not only contribute to the energy and amino acids supply of farm animals, but have a number of additional effects. The use of these properties of feed ingredients would allow optimising diets that contribute to animal health and...
Article
Full-text available
Low birth weight piglets have a reduced viability because of a low colostrum immunoglobulin (Ig) and energy intake. Additional supply of energy and Ig may improve their survival and immuno-competence. This study was conducted to determine the absorption of IgG from oral supplements containing IgG from porcine plasma and an additional energy substra...
Article
Organic acids in pig diets in some cases enhance growth performance, regulate microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and reduce the occurrence of post-weaning diarrhoea. Organic acids may also increase nutrient digestibility by reducing gastric pH, increasing pepsin activity and reducing stomach passage rate. The objective of this study wa...