Pau-Loke Show

Pau-Loke Show
University of Nottingham Malaysia · Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering

Ph.D in Bioprocess Engineering

About

617
Publications
210,558
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Introduction
Prof. Ir. Ts. Dr. Pau-Loke SHOW is director of sustainable food processing research center and co-director of Future Food Malaysia Beacon of Excellent in University of Nottingham. He is also a professor at Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham. He successful obtained his PhD in two years’ time after he graduated his bachelor’s degree from Universiti Putra Malaysia.

Publications

Publications (617)
Article
Fungi is a diverse group of microorganisms with over 1.5 million species worldwide. It lives in a variety of environments and develops a variety of survival mechanisms that allow it to manufacture a wide variety of chemicals, i.e., biomolecules. Organic acids, enzymes and secondary metabolites have been shown to be useful in the production of biomo...
Article
Model analysis for piperazine (PZ) activated sodium sarcosinate (Na-Sar) for CO2 capture and sequestration for environmental sustainability is challenging and required in-depth analysis. Here, we performed experiments and developed a model for correlating physical properties such as density, refractive index, surface tension, and viscosity of PZ ac...
Article
Currently, increasing energy demand due to overpopulation has provoked an urge for renewable energy sources like biodiesel. Biodiesel production from non-edible seed oils provides striking solution to the problems associated with the energy crisis. In this study, the potential of Citrus medica as a novel and non-edible seed oil (33% w/w) producing...
Article
Oxidative torrefaction is a promising way for biomass upgrading and solid biofuel production. Alkali metals are considered to be efficient activators for enhancing biofuel upgrading during the thermal reaction process. Herein, the microalga Nannochloropsis Oceanica is selected as the feedstock for assessing potassium carbonate activated effect on s...
Article
To analyze the influence of flow physics and operating parameters (i.e., injection pressure (2, 4, 6, and 8 bars), a simulation is performed on a scramjet combustor (modified) using the shear stress transport (SST) k- ω turbulence model and Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. Wall pressures, the pattern of shock-wave, and static tempe...
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Arthrospira platensis (A. platensis) aqueous extract has massive amounts of natural products that can be used as future drugs, such as C-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin, etc. This extract was chosen because of its high adaptability, which reflects its resolute genetic composition. The proactive roles of cyanobacteria, particularly in the medical field...
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Saccharides play a vital role in the human diet due to their beneficial biological and functional properties. The adverse limitations of conventional extraction methods for plant saccharides have led to the search for advanced, ecofriendly, and cost-effective extraction techniques. This review focuses on the five major emerging advanced non-convent...
Article
Waste generation from food manufacturing facilities poses a serious hazard like environmental degradation, water pollution, and land pollution due to its high nutrient composition. Specifically, solid waste (powder) disposal requires additional energy sources in terms of scientific treatment, structured collection, and disposal packaging according...
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The rise in petroleum demand may have aggravated recently as every industry heavily depends on petroleum as the primary energy source. Traditional oil recovery methods leave a large fraction of oil unrecovered in the inaccessible parts of reservoir. Hence, recovering the trapped oil using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods could be a solution to t...
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Short-chain olefins are the important feedstock for the chemical industries. The selection of a proper catalyst for oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reaction is critical. Here, the study summarized different catalysts by physicochemical techniques such as BET surface area, Raman spectroscopy, and temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The BET analy...
Article
Fossil fuels produce harmful gases that adversely affect the environment and human health. Although some sources of energy (e.g., solar, wind, and biofuels) are clean and renewable, substantial research is required to compete with fossil fuels. Several research studies are available on parabolic trough solar collectors, but process modeling and the...
Article
The optimal pre-treatment method and conditions depend on the types of lignocellulose present due to the complexity and the variability of biomass chemical structures. This study optimized subcritical water pre-treatment to ensure maximum methane production from pineapple waste prior to anaerobic co-digestion with cow dung using the response surfac...
Article
In recent years, biomass has been reported to obtain a wide range of value-added products. Biochar can be obtained by heating biomass, which aids in carbon sinks, soil amendments, resource recovery, and water retention. Microwave technology stands out among various biomass heating technologies not only for its effectiveness in biomass pyrolysis for...
Article
Microalgae biomass production with starch wastewater (SW) is a promising approach to realize waste recovery and cost reduction due to the inherent copious nutrients and nontoxic compounds in SW. However, the application of this technique is significantly hindered by low biomass production on account of the poor photosynthetic efficiency of microalg...
Article
In recent days, the existence of several food colorants has an impact on human health issue that may induce major carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the removal of food colorants must be made in accordance with the necessity of health awareness in life. Photocatalyst treatment using semiconductors shows a promising way to solve these issues. In this...
Article
The release of toxic dyes from different industries through industrial effluents cause hazardous effects to human and aquatic life. Therefore, the detoxification of such toxic pollutants is very important for a clean environment. In this regard, chitosan conjugated Mn-magnetic nano-biocomposite (Mn-CCMN) was synthesized, characterized, and applied...
Article
Microalgae cultivation in open ponds requires a large footprint, while most photobioreactors need improvement in the ratio of surface to volume and energy consumption. In this study, polyethersulfone (PES) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membranes with a large surface area were rearranged into open-ended and dead-ended configurati...
Article
Population inflation has led to the unprecedented increase in urbanization, thus causing negative impacts on environmental sustainability. Recently, there is an upsurge in the number of restaurants due to the changing lifestyles of the people. There were 167,490 food and beverage establishments in 2015, representing an annual growth rate of 5.1% si...
Article
The focus of this study is to enhance the protein fouling resistance, hydrophilicity, biocompatibility, hemocompatibility and ability of the membranes and to reduce health complications like chronic pulmonary disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease after dialysis, which are the great challenges in H...
Article
As a promising strategy of free energy storage carrier, the mostly ammonia (NH3) is produced through the Haber-Bosch process, having extensive requirement of the energy along with the emission of greenhouse gases. However, as a potential Haber-Bosch replacement, the advancement in photo/electrocatalytic nitrogen reduction process (NRR) is being inv...
Article
The objective of this study was to visualize trends and current research status of hydrothermal biochar research through a bibliometric analysis by using CiteSpace software. The original article data were collected from the Web of Science core database published between 2009 and 2020. A visual analysis network of national co-authored, institutional...
Article
In the present study FAMEs were analyzed qualitatively while growing microalgae mixotrophically in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate under two concentrations and compared with biodiesel international standards. Biodiesel produced from microalgal feedstocks has gained attraction these days and for its commercial acceptance it must have to comply with th...
Article
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of composite fish gelatin-chitosan edible coatings enriched with black tea extract on the physical, chemical, and fungal decay properties of minimally processed watermelons stored at ±4 °C for 13 days. In this study, tuna skin gelatin was extracted and used to prepare edible coating solutions...
Article
This work presents the enhancement of oil biodegradation in seawater using a mixture of oil and microorganisms. Retardation of crude oil biodegradation in seawater is hypothetically due to the inhibiting of metabolites produced by the oil bacterium which inhibit its enzymes. For this purpose, the bacteria consortium consisting of an active oil-oxid...
Article
The Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0) holds the opportunity to improve the efficiency of managing solid waste through digital and machinery applications, effectively eliminating, recovering, and repurposing waste. This research aims to discover and review the potential of current technologies encompassing innovative Industry 4.0 designs for solid...
Article
Exponential increase of greenhouse gases has raise a global concern. More than a quarter of the greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide) are released from the transportation sector driven by the burning of vehicle fuel. Biofuel was introduced to limit the emission of greenhouse gases due to its potential to cut the emissions by up to 86 %. Microalgae...
Article
Harvesting of microalgae biomass is identified as one of the bottlenecks in microalgae biofuel industry due to expensive and energy-intensive dewatering technologies. Alternatively, flocculation process using bioflocculants have given much attention in recent years as green substitutes over chemical flocculants. In this study, bioflocculant was ext...
Article
The growing human population has put significant pressure on the market for food sources and nutritional supplements, necessitating careful consideration of high costs, supply, and long-term sustainability. The same is true for the biorefinery of carotenoids where the high extraction costs significantly raise the end-product costs. Many brown seawe...
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The current study compares the biogas production via anaerobic co-digestion of pineapple waste and cow dung to mono digestion under mesophilic condition, with the goal of modifying the substrate ratio and increasing the system stability. Five diferent cow dung to pineapple waste ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1) were assessed based on volatile so...
Article
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Microbial biosensor which integrates different types of microorganisms, such as bacteria, microalgae, fungi, and virus have become suitable technologies to address limitations of conventional analytical methods. The main applications of biosensors include the detection of environmental pollutants, pathogenic bacteria and compounds related to illnes...
Article
Renewable energy sources such as biomass have been proven to be one of the promising sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. However, using biomass directly as a fuel is less attractive due to its high moisture content, poor grindability, low bulk density, and low energy density nature. Hence biomass can be converted into biochr to overcome these...
Article
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The present study evaluated the potential of biodegrading the toxic synthetic dye malachite green (MG) by an enzymatic approach. Extracellular laccase derived a fungal strain Fusarium oxysporum HUIB02 was used in the direct biodegradation of MG. Time-course study showed that the crude laccase successfully removed ≥ 80% MG after 20 h of treatment. T...
Article
The composite materials based on graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4) are remarkably better semiconductors, but the inherent photocatalytic performance in its generic synthesis form is not up to the mark. Eminence efforts have been made to improve its performance and photocatalytic efficiencies. Recently, extensive investigations have been performed...
Article
Microalgae have been a promising alternative source of high-value compounds to replace the non-sustainable fossil fuels resource. The recent research development of algae-based bioproducts has remarkable impact various industries section for its renewability, efficiency, and environmentally friendly crops over those synthetic-made product. However,...
Article
Bread is Europe's most wasted food, and the second most wasted food after potatoes in UK. Bread waste (BW) is a clean source of high-quality fermentable sugars. In this study, the potential of Enterobacter ludwigii to accumulate 2,3-butanediol (BDO) from BW was evaluated. Initially, the optimal inoculum size and yeast extract concentration were det...
Article
This review provides a quantitative description of the nano-adsorbent processing and its viability against wastewater detoxification by extracting heavy metal ions. The impact of nano-adsorbent functionalities on specific essential attributes such as the surface area, segregation, and adsorption capacity were comprehensively evaluated. A detailed a...
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The first part of the current review highlights the evolutionary nuances and research hotspots in the field of nanoparticles in low carbon fuels. Our findings reveal that contribution to the field is largely driven by researchers from Asia, mainly India. Of the three biofuels under review, biodiesel seems to be well studied and developed, whereas s...
Article
Herbal nanoparticles (HNPs) were introduced as a novel generation of antimicrobial nanoparticles. But in the battle against superbugs we need nanostructures with boosted antimicrobial potency. So in the current experiment, for the first time a green approach was developed for the silver functionalization of HNPs which were fabricated from an antimi...
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High energy demand from the market due to the rapid increment of the human population worldwide has urged society to explore alternatives to replace non-renewable energy. Renewable diesel produced from biomass could be the next potential energy source for its high stability, long-term storage, and comparable performance with diesel fuels. In produc...
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Biomass gasification technology has an ancient and well-established background. The technology has widely been used to produce H 2 and syngas which is subsequently upgraded to obtain valuable biofuels, Fischer-Tropsch chemicals and used in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. Abatement of tar-related complexes with an improved hydrogen content and...
Article
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The catalytic transformation (hydrolysis) of complex lignocellulosic polysaccharides into fermentable monosaccharides is crucial for producing bioethanol. Hydrolysis of various lignocellulosic biomasses can be achieved via traditional acid treatment (hydrochloric and sulfuric acid) and enzymatic catalysis. Considering the high specificity, selectiv...
Article
This is the first study on air gasification of furniture waste (FW) over Ni-loaded ultra-stable Y-type zeolites (Ni-USY) to produce biohydrogen. Effects of SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of USY (5, 30, and 60), Ni loading (5, 10, 20, and 30 wt.%) onto the support, and reaction temperature (700, 750, and 800 °C) on catalytic air gasification were investigated. Th...
Article
Liquid biphasic system (LBS) is a promising green extraction technology for the valorization of β-amylase from sweet potato slurry. In the present study, β-amylase was purified from sweet potato slurry in a polyethylene glycol-citrate liquid biphasic system. Its processing factors require refinement, and its green processing elements need to be ass...
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Researchers worldwide are always in search of sustainable and clean energy to ensure the lowest environmental impact and continuous energy supply. The population increment, severe environmental pollution with the rapid depletion of fossil fuels, and the application of biodiesel as a fuel additive have urged the community to discover cleaner energy...
Article
Excessive of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission and water pollution have been identified as the two primary challenges to humans and environment. Hence, biological carbon sequestration by microalgae is recommended as an environmentally friendly approach to capture and convert this CO2 into value-added products. However, research related to the developme...
Article
Dihydrogen (H2), commonly named “hydrogen”, is attracting research interest due to potential applications in fuel cells, vehicles, pharmaceuticals and gas processing. As a consequence, the recent discoveries of natural gas reservoirs have prompted the development of technologies for methane conversion to hydrogen. In particular, the catalytic decom...
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The scarcity of water resources and environmental pollution have highlighted the need for sustainable wastewater treatment. Existing conventional treatment systems are energy-intensive and not always able to meet stringent disposal standards. Recently, algal-bacterial systems have emerged as environmentally friendly sustainable processes for wastew...
Article
The biocompatible calcium carbonate (CaCO3) dissociates at low pH, making it a safe pH-responsive building block. Many synthesis routes have been introduced to build CaCO3 based pH-responsive solutions, but there is a lack of detailed comparison. This review aims to compare synthesis routes and applications of pH-responsive CaCO3 based drug deliver...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of the pyrolytic temperature, torrefaction, and fractional condensation alongside the combined efficiency of torrefaction and fractional condensation on the production of high-quality bio-oil from woody sawdust (WS) pyrolysis for the first time. The proportion of acids decreased gradually with increasing temperature...
Preprint
Full-text available
Marine microalgae produce a number of valuable compounds that have significant roles in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, nutraceutical, and food industries. Although there are numerous microalgal germplasms available in the marine ecosystem, only a small number of strains have been recognized for their commercial potential. In this study, several in...
Article
In recent years, researchers have proven that the employment of natural green components in the biogenesis of nanoparticles from microalgae species is one of the ways to delight the global environment issues. The application of nanotechnology with the exploitation of phycochemical produced from algae species is known as ‘phyconanotechnology’. The u...
Article
Vast improvements in nanotechnology have led to the wide usage of nanomaterials (NMs) in daily products. This study reviews the interactions between NMs and microalgae in terms of impacts on growth and photosynthetic efficiency, and their toxicity on microalgae. All types of NMs such as carbon-based NMs (CNMs), metal oxide-based NMs (MONMs) and nob...
Article
Production of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is well documented in various studies for the bacteria that inhabit the rhizosphere of plants, but with roots of wet rice, the outstandings have been not yet elucidated. This study began with the isolation of bacteria type strain Azospirillum sp. and developed the investigation to a screening of their abilit...
Article
Biosurfactant is one of the emerging compounds in the industrial sector that behaves similarly with their synthetic counterparts, as they can reduce surface and interfacial tension between two fluids. Their unique properties also enable biosurfactant molecules to be able to clump together to form micelles that can capture targeted molecules within...
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In this investigation, we report the synthesis of various hematite nanostructures with four different morphologies using a one-step solvothermal method in the presence of oleyl amine, oleic acid, ethanol, and ethylenediamine. Magnetic measurements were used to investigate the magnetic properties of the produced nanostructures, revealing that the he...
Article
Groundwater is considered as the primary source of water for the majority of the world's population. The preponderance of the nation's drinking water, as well as agricultural and industrial water, comes from groundwater. Groundwater level is becoming increasingly challenging to replenish due to climate change. Fertilizer application and improper pr...
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Raw mushroom waste has been an enormous solid waste, not only causing a huge cut on profit margin of mushroom industries but also leading to environmental pollution. Unfortunately, the current utilization methods, such as pharmaceutical extractions, are unable to keep up with the waste generation rate due to the large-scale mushroom production. Yet...
Article
Ultrasound is efficient to enhance various mass transfer processes. This study demonstrates that both ultrasound pretreatment and ultrasonication during adsorption promote the physisorption of polyphenols. The time to reach the adsorption equilibrium was shortened by more than 90% when the resin diameter decreased from 592 μm to 60.23 μm in the int...
Article
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A wide variety of electrocatalysts has been evolved for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and it is reasonable to carry out HER with low cost electrocatalyst and a good efficiency. In this study, Cu3N was synthesized by nitridation of Cu2O and further utilized as an electrocatalyst towards HER. The developed Cu3N electrocatalyst was tested and resu...
Article
A R T I C L E I N F O Keywords: Microalgae biomass Net-energy ratio Culture medium Continuous photo-bioreactor Bio-energy production A B S T R A C T Microalgae are promising sustainable energy sources for biodiesel production due to their rapid photosynthesis growth rate and capacity to be cultivated in wastewater, seawater, or freshwater. Moreover...
Article
Traditionally existing 2D culture scaffold has been inappropriately validated due to the failure in generating the precise therapeutic response. Therefore, this leads to the fabrication of 3D culture scaffold resolving the limitations in the in vivo environment. In recent years, tissue engineering played an important role in the field of bio-medica...
Article
Background The current study was designed to calculate the approximate energy potential of combustible fraction shared in the overall domestic solid waste stream generated from Faisalabad, the 3rd largest city and an industrial hub of Pakistan through ASTM standards. Methods Characterization of samples were collected during the rainy season from J...
Article
Electropermeabilization-assisted liquid biphasic flotation (LBF) system is an emerging extraction system facilitated by the adsorptive bubble separation and the electroporation in an aqueous two-phase medium. This integrative extraction system is well suited for the direct recovery of intracellular biocompounds from cells without the needs of discr...
Article
Agriculture farms such as crop, aquaculture and livestock have begun the implementation of Internet of Things (IoT) and artificial intelligence (AI) technology in improving their productivity and product quality. However, microalgae farming which requires precise monitoring, controlling and predicting the growth of microalgae biomass has yet to inc...
Article
The advancement of recombinant virus‐like particle‐based vaccines has attracted global attention owing to substantially safety and high efficacy in provoking a protective immunity against various chronic and infectious diseases in humans and animals. A robust, low‐cost and scalability separation and purification technology is of utmost importance i...
Article
The interest in the production of sustainable hydrocarbon-like biofuel is increasing due to the environmental issues such as global warming and uncertainty of crude oil prices. A series of Fe catalysts (5, 10, 40, and 100 wt% Fe) supported on the hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS) were successfully prepared for the production of biofuel via deoxygen...
Article
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The existence of continually increasing concentrations of antibiotics in the environment is a serious potential hazard due to their toxicity and persistence. Unfortunately, conventional treatment techniques, such as those utilized in wastewater treatment plants, are not efficient for the treatment of wastewater containing antibiotic. Recently, alga...
Article
The adaptation of algae and microalgae as a renewable source in green cities will contribute to the overall environmental management. The cycle of microalgae growth reduces the carbon level, bioremediates wastewater and the final biomass can be transformed into important functional biomolecules. This perspective address the needs, benefits and chal...
Article
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The utilization of fossil fuel has increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations drastically over the last few decades. This leads to global warming and climate change, increasing the occurrence of more severe weather around the world. One promising solution to reduce anthropogenic CO 2 emissions is methanation. Many researchers and i...