Patti M. Valkenburg

Patti M. Valkenburg
University of Amsterdam | UVA · Amsterdam School of Communications Research ASCoR

MSc, PhD

About

261
Publications
648,579
Reads
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22,338
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 1995 - present
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • University Distinguished Professor of Media Youth and Society
September 1990 - September 1995
Leiden University
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (261)
Preprint
Full-text available
The effect of social media use on well-being is among the hottest debates in academia and society at large. Adults and adolescents alike spend around 2-3 hours per day on social media, and they typically use five to seven different platforms in a complementary way, to chat with their friends, to browse others’ posts, and present themselves to their...
Article
Full-text available
Research agrees that self-reported measures of time spent with social media (TSM) show poor convergent validity, because they correlate modestly with equivalent objective digital trace measures. This experience sampling study among 159 adolescents (12,617 self-reports) extends this work by examining the comparative predictive validity of self-repor...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper is a reply to an unpublished critique by Johannes, Masur, Vuorre, & Przybylski (2021) of our newly introduced approach to investigate the effects of social media use on well-being (Beyens et al., 2020; Valkenburg, Beyens, et al., 2021). Using experience sampling methodology (ESM) studies among sizeable samples of respondents, our unified...
Article
Full-text available
A recurring claim in the literature is that active social media use (ASMU) leads to increases in well-being, whereas passive social media use (PSMU) leads to decreases in well-being. The aim of this review was to investigate the validity of this claim by comparing the operationalizations and results of studies into the association of ASMU and PSMU...
Article
This study investigated the effects of active private, passive private, and passive public social media use on adolescents’ affective well-being. Intensive longitudinal data (34,930 assessments in total) were collected through a preregistered three-week experience sampling method study among 387 adolescents. N = 1 time series were investigated, usi...
Preprint
Studies into the association of social media use with mental health are largely based on measures of time spent on social media. The small and inconsistent results in these studies may be due to a lack of explanatory power of time-based measures. Data Download Packages (DDPs), the archives of social media platforms that each user is allowed to down...
Article
Full-text available
Research into the impact of social media use (SMU) on well-being (e.g., happiness) and ill-being (e.g., depression) has exploded over the past few years. From 2019 to August 2021, 27 reviews have been published: nine meta-analyses, nine systematic reviews, and nine narrative reviews, which together included hundreds of empirical studies. The aim of...
Preprint
Full-text available
A recurring claim in the literature is that active social media use (ASMU) leads to increases in well-being, whereas passive social media use (PSMU) leads to decreases in well-being. The aim of this review was to investigate the validity of this claim by comparing the operationalizations and results of studies into the association of ASMU and PSMU...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research into the impact of social media use (SMU) on well-being (e.g., happiness) and ill-being (e.g., depression) has exploded over the past few years. From 2019 to August 2021, 27 reviews have been published: nine meta-analyses, nine systematic reviews, and nine narrative reviews, which together included hundreds of empirical studies. The aim of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social media are often believed to challenge adolescents’ ability to focus and sustain attention. While existing research has shown that some adolescents experience more social media-related distraction than others, the explanations for these differences remain largely unknown. The current study investigated two social connectivity factors (fear of...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research agrees that self-reported measures of time spent with social media (TSM) show poor convergent validity, because they correlate modestly with equivalent objective digital trace measures. This experience sampling study among 159 adolescents (12,617 self-reports) extends this work by examining the comparative predictive validity of self-repor...
Article
Full-text available
A recurring hypothesis in the literature is that “passive” social media use (browsing) leads to negative effects on well-being. This preregistered study investigated a rival hypothesis, which states that the effects of browsing on well-being depend on person-specific susceptibilities to envy, inspiration, and enjoyment. We conducted a three-week ex...
Article
Full-text available
Who benefits most from using social media is an important societal question that is centered around two opposing hypotheses: the rich-get-richer versus the poor-get-richer hypothesis. This study investigated the assumption that both hypotheses may be true, but only for some socially rich and some socially poor adolescents and across different time...
Preprint
Full-text available
Who benefits most from using social media is an important societal question that is centered around two opposing hypotheses: the rich-get-richer versus the poor-get-richer hypothesis. This study investigated the assumption that both hypotheses may be true, but only for some socially rich and some socially poor adolescents and across different time...
Article
Full-text available
A widespread concern in society is that adolescents experience an increased inability to concentrate and sustain attention because they are continuously distracted by social media. The current experience sampling method (ESM) study examined whether adolescents who use more social media than their peers experience more distraction (between-person as...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this preregistered study was to compare and explain the effects of (a) time spent on social media (SM) and (b) the valence (positivity or negativity) of SM experiences on adolescents’ self-esteem. We conducted a 3-week experience sampling (ESM) study among 300 adolescents (13–16 years; 126 assessments per adolescent; 21,970 assessments i...
Article
Full-text available
Literature reviews on how social media use affects adolescent mental health have accumulated at an unprecedented rate of late. Yet, a higher-level integration of the evidence is still lacking. We fill this gap with an up-to-date umbrella review, a review of reviews published between 2019 and mid 2021. Our search yielded 25 reviews: seven meta-analy...
Preprint
Full-text available
Literature reviews on how social media use affects adolescent mental health have accumulated at an unprecedented rate of late. Yet, a higher-level integration of the evidence is still lacking. We fill this gap with an up-to-date umbrella review, a review of reviews published between 2019 and mid 2021. Our search yielded 25 reviews: seven meta-analy...
Article
Full-text available
A growing number of studies have tried to assess the effects of social media on adolescents, who are among the most avid social media users. To establish the effects of social media use, we need accurate and valid instruments to measure adolescents’ time spent with these media. The aim of this preregistered study was to examine the accuracy and con...
Preprint
Full-text available
A growing number of studies have tried to assess the effects of social media on adolescents, who are among the most avid social media users. To establish the effects of social media use, we need accurate and valid instruments to measure adolescents’ time spent with these media. The aim of this preregistered study was to examine the accuracy and con...
Preprint
The aim of this preregistered study was to compare and explain the effects of (a) time spent on social media (SM), and (b) the valence (positivity or negativity) of SM experiences on adolescents’ self-esteem. We conducted a three-week experience sampling study among 300 adolescents (13-16 years; 126 assessments per adolescent; 21,970 assessments in...
Article
Full-text available
Eighteen earlier studies have investigated the associations between social media use (SMU) and adolescents’ self-esteem, finding weak effects and inconsistent results. A viable hypothesis for these mixed findings is that the effect of SMU differs from adolescent to adolescent. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a preregistered three-week experie...
Preprint
Full-text available
A recurring hypothesis in the literature is that “passive” social media use (browsing) leads to negative effects on well-being. This preregistered study investigated a rival hypothesis, which states that the effects of browsing on well-being depend on person-specific susceptibilities to envy, inspiration, and enjoyment. We conducted a three-week ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
One of the key challenges in adolescence is to develop the ability for self-control. The current experience sampling method (ESM) study examined whether adolescents who spend more time on social media than their peers are more inclined to fail at this ability (between-person association), whether social media use and self-control failure co-fluctua...
Preprint
This study investigated the effects of active private, passive private, and passive public social media use on adolescents’ well-being. Intensive longitudinal data (34,930 assessments in total) were collected through a preregistered three-week experience sampling study among 387 adolescents. Person-specific, N=1 time series were investigated, using...
Article
Full-text available
The formation and maintenance of friendship closeness is an important developmental task in adolescence. In order to obtain insight in real-time processes that may underly the development of friendship closeness in middle adolescence, this preregistered experience sampling study [ESM] investigated the effects of social media use on friendship close...
Article
Full-text available
Social competence refers to the ability to engage in meaningful interactions with others. It is a crucial skill potentially malleable to interventions. Nevertheless, it remains difficult to select which children, which periods in a child's life, and which underlying skills form optimal targets for interventions. Development of social competence is...
Article
Despite the crucial role of humor in t(w)eens’ media entertainment, we lack a theoretically informed approach to investigate the prevalence and co-occurrence of humor types in such entertainment. Therefore, this study tested a coding framework of humor in t(w)eens’ media entertainment by content-analyzing 107 television series (5,633 scenes) listed...
Article
Full-text available
The question whether social media use benefits or undermines adolescents’ well-being is an important societal concern. Previous empirical studies have mostly established across-the-board effects among (sub)populations of adolescents. As a result, it is still an open question whether the effects are unique for each individual adolescent. We sampled...
Research
Full-text available
Which social media are embraced by Dutch youth, how are these platforms used and what feelings does social media use brings about? This is report is a brief version of the original Dutch report, "Posten, scrollen, appen en snappen," published in December 2019. It presents social media use data based on a national representative survey among 1,000...
Book
Full-text available
Vrijwel niets is veranderlijker dan de online wereld, vooral de online wereld van jongeren. Op het gebied van social media is alles snel nieuw en snel oud. Platforms die een aantal jaren geleden nog razend populair waren, zijn anno 2019 op hun retour (gebruiken jongeren Facebook nog?) of kunnen we zelfs als antiek beschouwen (wie herinnert zich nog...
Article
Whether studies should rely on parent or child reports of parental mediation remains a much-debated question. We investigated the agreement between parent and adolescent reports of the frequency and style (autonomy-supportive, controlling, inconsistent) of restrictive and active mediation, and their relative validity. Results revealed perceptual di...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents commonly use media and communication devices during academic activities, also referred to as academic-media multitasking. Although there is evidence for the short-term effect of academic-media multitasking on academic achievement, support for its long-term effect is lacking. Therefore, we investigated the long-term relationship between...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescents commonly use media and communication devices during academic activities, also referred to as academic-media multitasking. Although there is evidence for the short-term effect of academic-media multitasking on academic achievement, support for its long-term effect is lacking. Therefore, we investigated the long-term relationship between...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of teens’ exposure to televised aggression depends on the characteristics of the viewer and the portrayed aggression. However, few studies have investigated which teens prefer what forms of televised aggression. Therefore, this study investigated how teens’ trait aggression and sex guide their preferences for types (physical, verbal, and...
Article
This study investigated the longitudinal relationship between children’s digital game use and fluid and crystallized intelligence. Specifically, this study examined whether digital games affect children’s fluid and crystallized intelligence (an effects perspective), whether children with higher levels of fluid or crystallized intelligence are more...
Article
Despite a large body of literature on the opportunities of parental mediation to enhance positive and offset negative media effects, a long-term view as to the development of such mediation across childhood is lacking. The current study aimed to address this gap by presenting a developmental approach to parental mediation. Using an accelerated long...
Article
Full-text available
The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children and adolescents has increased considerably over the past decades. Scholars and health professionals alike have expressed concern about the role of screen media in the rise in ADHD diagnosis. However, the extent to which screen media use and ADHD are linked remains a poi...
Article
Full-text available
This longitudinal study investigated transactional relationships between violent media use and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)–related behaviors among young children (ages 4-8 years). To investigate study hypotheses, we employed a random intercept cross-lagged panel model (RI-CLPM) using structural equation modeling with panel data...
Article
Full-text available
When parents select apps for young children (3–7), they have particular needs. However, it is unclear how these needs might be fulfilled. Uses and gratifications theory predicts that specific features of apps can fulfill needs, but empirical evidence regarding the types of features that fulfill these needs is nonexistent. To address this gap, a mul...
Article
The increase in media multitasking among adolescents has raised concerns regarding its possible negative impact on sleep. Although cross-sectional studies have found a relationship between media multitasking and sleep problems, knowledge about the causal direction is lacking. In a first step to understand causality, we examined the longitudinal rel...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this article is to improve understanding of self-effects in social media, and to compare self-effects with reception effects. Self-effects are the effects of messages the cognitions, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors of the message creators/senders themselves. Four theories have tried to explain self-effects in offline environments: sel...
Article
Full-text available
The first aim of this study was to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between adolescents’ use of social network sites (SNSs) and their social self-esteem. The second aim was to investigate whether the valence of the feedback that adolescents receive on SNSs can explain these relationships. We conducted a three-wave panel stu...
Article
Full-text available
This introduction to the special issue describes the impetus for a review of the merger of mass and interpersonal communication processes in light of recent developments in communication technologies. It reviews historical arguments about the need for integration in theorizing about communication processes. Then, it discusses the potential for comm...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this study was to examine the norms of expressing emotions on social media. Specifically, the perceived appropriateness (i.e. injunctive norms) of expressing six discrete emotions (i.e. sadness, anger, disappointment, worry, joy, and pride) was investigated across four different social media platforms. Drawing on data collected in M...
Book
An illuminating study of the complex relationship between children and media in the digital age Now, as never before, young people are surrounded by media-thanks to the sophistication and portability of the technology that puts it literally in the palms of their hands. Drawing on data and empirical research that cross many fields and continents, au...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter highlights how children 5–12 years of age perceive the world—connecting this development with their media preferences. Since five-year-olds and nine-year-olds look at the world very differently, this age period is divided into two groups: young elementary schoolchildren (5–7 years old) and preadolescents (8–12). For both groups, the ch...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter begins with a brief review of the changes in the media landscape, including the development of new media, the repurposing of traditional media, and traditional TV advertising's loss of its dominant position. It then discusses the increased academic interest in youth and media. It details the evolution of interdisciplinary research on y...
Chapter
Full-text available
Hundreds, perhaps thousands of studies ask whether and how media affect children and teens. These studies show that media use can have a positive or negative influence on how children and teens think and behave. But media use does not occur in a vacuum. Many forces can influence media effects on children and teens, including their developmental lev...
Chapter
Full-text available
Not all youth are equally susceptible to the influence of media. Yet despite this truth, the idea that media and technology have large effects on all children and teens often prevails in contemporary discourse. This chapter reviews media effects theories from the early twentieth century onward. It clarifies what we do and do not know about the infl...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter presents the latest scientific research on the role of social media in teens' lives. Never before have the youth had so many opportunities to bring their self-presentation to perfection. They can, for example, endlessly edit their digital profiles and selfies before they post them on the Web or send them to friends. Does this ability m...
Chapter
Full-text available
Digital games were once considered the domain of a small, clearly defined demographic of young men. Today, however, they are a mainstream pastime for young and old, male and female. Why do we play digital games? What makes them deeply attractive and, for some, seriously addictive? How have games managed to occupy such a significant share of our lei...
Chapter
Full-text available
Media violence and its effects on aggression is one of the most heavily investigated topics in the field of communication. Every time a child or teenager committed an act of violence in recent years, the debate about the effects of media violence on aggression flared up again. Can children and teens indeed become aggressive, or even criminal, from...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses how media preferences evolve from birth through early childhood. The focus is on two age groups, infants and young toddlers (up to 2 years old) and older toddlers and preschoolers (2–5 years). For both age groups, it describes a number of specific developmental characteristics and predicts how they influence these young child...
Chapter
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In the past, children were not considered children in the sense they are today, and if they could read, they read books for adults. This changed gradually after the publication of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's influential book on child rearing, Émile, ou De l'éducation , in 1762. As society's ideas about childhood and parenting began to shift, so did our...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on the positive effects of educational media—media designed to support youth's development. Today, there are more platforms for educational media content than ever before. And while researchers have long identified the effectiveness of educational television, the potential for other educational platforms is still being understo...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter takes a look at how entertainment media can evoke powerful emotions in youth (as well as adults). How is it that entertainment media can make children and teens fearful, agitated, and even sad—all while they know they are seeing fictional content? And does the experience of emotion differ across childhood, or is it, perhaps, more unive...
Chapter
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This chapter begins with a discussion of the dynamics of our network society. The twenty-first century is, so far, the age of the network society, one that is supported by social media networks which have removed the spatial barriers that traditionally limited our communication, and have changed the world into a global village. The chapter then tur...
Chapter
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The spectacular changes in the human body and brain during the period of adolescence have a huge influence on adolescents' behavior and their interest in media. This chapter considers these developmental processes in order to understand how best to appeal to younger and older adolescents. What, for example, interests young teens (ages 12–15) and ho...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the research into the effects of sex and porn on adolescents' sexual beliefs, sexual attitudes, and sexual behavior. More than any other media format, the Internet has brought sexual media content to the masses in an affordable, accessible, and anonymous manner. It is no wonder that many teens, who are in the middle of develo...
Chapter
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This chapter discusses why youth are commercially interesting and why marketing seems to be targeting children at ever-younger ages. In particular, it shows how children represent three markets—a primary market, a market of influencers, and a future market—and discusses the implications of being a threefold market for children's socialization as co...
Chapter
The differential susceptibility to media effects model (DSMM) distinguishes three types of susceptibility to media effects: dispositional, developmental, and social susceptibility. The propositions of the DSMM help explain why some people are more susceptible to media effects than others, how and why media can affect those people, and how media eff...
Article
This two-wave survey study investigated the concurrent and longitudinal relationships between different styles of restrictive and active parental mediation (autonomy-supportive, controlling, or inconsistent), adolescents’ media violence exposure, and aggression. Our sample consisted of 1,029 adolescents (10 to 14 years; 49.8% girls). Results indica...
Article
Full-text available
Recently, concerns have been raised that adolescents’ prolific social media use may cause them to become less empathic. However, direct empirical evidence is missing and research suggests that social media use can also be beneficial for adolescents’ psychosocial development. The present study aims to investigate whether and how social media use inf...
Article
We examined the role of parental media mediation in the relationship between media violence and adolescents’ ADHD-related behaviors. Survey data from 1,017 adolescents (10–14 years) show that parents can play an important role in this relationship, depending on the media mediation strategies that they use (i.e., restrictive or active mediation) and...
Chapter
Developmental psychology is the scientific study of the life span of human beings. Communication scientists interested in the study of youth and media often use developmental psychology to help guide their understanding of how youth select, use, and experience media content. Grounded in developmental psychology, the moderate-discrepancy hypothesis...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing evidence that social media addiction is an evolving problem, particularly among adolescents. However, the absence of an instrument measuring social media addiction hinders further development of the research field. The present study, therefore, aimed to test the reliability and validity of a short and easy to administer Social Medi...