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Patrick Robert Zimmerman

Patrick Robert Zimmerman
C-Lock Incorporated · GreenFeed SmartFeed SmartScale and SuperSmartFeed

Ph.D.

About

131
Publications
17,016
Reads
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15,505
Citations
Introduction
We manufacture GreenFeed (GF), to unobtrusively monitor metabolic emissions of CH4, CO2, O2 and other gases for animal health, feed efficiency, genetic traits and CH4 reductions using a standardized, permanently-archived format. An online interface monitors and remotely operates each unit. Dairy, feedlot, pasture, small animal, milking robot and intake measurement units are available and operating in 35 countries logging millions of feeding periods for many thousands of animals. This technology is utilized in our SmartFeed line of intake monitoring, animal weight monitoring and precision supplement monitoring and control equipment.
Additional affiliations
March 2010 - September 2020
CEO/Founder C-Lock Inc.
Position
  • CEO
Description
  • C-Lock applies cutting-edge science and advanced technology for equipment to improve efficiency and reduce the environmental footprint of animal agriculture. Products include GreenFeed, SmartFeed, and Smart Scale. In 2020 our competitive global equipment grant program awarded seven grants worth up to $100k each for innovative projects addressing key animal agriculture advances. We have also acquired pasture facilities near our Rapid City South Dakota headquarters for product development.
May 1997 - September 2007
South Dakota School of Mines and Technology
May 1979 - May 1997
National Center for Atmospheric Research
Description
  • Senior Scientist, Section Head
Education
August 1982
Colorado State University
Field of study
  • Rangeland ecosystem science
May 1973 - May 1975
Washington State University
Field of study
  • Environmental Science
August 1968 - May 1970
Washington State University
Field of study
  • Enviromental Science

Publications

Publications (131)
Chapter
Methane arising from the enteric fermentation in ruminants is one of the major greenhouse gases (GHGs) and a key component as far as agricultural emission is concerned. Relative high global warming potential and biological energy loss from animal system makes methane (CH4) much more important than any other GHG. Researchers worldwide have attempted...
Article
Full-text available
Ruminant animals (domesticated or wild) emit methane (CH4) through enteric fermentation in their digestive tract and from decomposition of manure during storage. These processes are the major sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal production systems. Techniques for measuring enteric CH4 vary from direct measurements (respiration cham...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract Text: There are two new measurement techniques to measure emitted methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from cattle in production systems, the passive concentration measurement method (PCM) and the active gas capture method (AGC). Both systems estimate cattle muzzle CH4 and CO2emissions for short term periods (3-15 min) while cattle vis...
Patent
Full-text available
A method and apparatus for determining standardized environmental attributes is disclosed, including a method and apparatus for generating and quantifying standardized carbon emission reduction credits. General data and site-specific data, if available, are input into a suitable model to determine the approximate change in the environmental attribu...
Patent
Full-text available
A method for managing health of ruminants or other animals. The method includes providing a feed dispenser for feeding ruminants nutrient supplements, and the feed dispenser includes a gas analyzer where a ruminant places its head. The method includes determining a particular ruminant has accessed the feed dispenser such as by reading an identifier...
Article
The GreenCert™ system was developed to help farm and ranch owners to quantify, standardize, pool and market CO2 emissions offset (sequestration) credits derived from improved rangeland or cropland management. It combines a user-friendly interface with the CENTURY biogeochemical model, a GIS database of soil and climate parameters, and a Monte Carlo...
Article
A three-dimensional, Eulerian modeling system was used to study transport of chemical species from North America and Europe to the Atlantic Ocean. A mesoscale meteorological model simulated April 1982 with 10 consecutive 3-day runs. This simulated meteorology drove a chemical model with 24 predicted and transported species, and 11 non-transported (...
Article
Full-text available
An integrated monitoring system is proposed for India that will monitor terrestrial, coastal, and oceanic environments.
Article
We describe a new remote sensing system called the Short Wave Aerostat-Mounted Imager (SWAMI). The SWAMI is designed to acquire co-located video imagery and hyperspectral data to study basic remote sensing questions and to link landscape level trace gas fluxes with spatially and temporally appropriate spectral observations. The SWAMI can fly at alt...
Article
Studies of the isoprene emission rate in response to changes in photon-flux density and CO2 partial pressure were conducted using a recently developed on-line isoprene analyser combined with a gas exchange system and chlorophyll fluorometer. Upon darkening, the isoprene emission rate from leaves of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michaux.) began to decl...
Chapter
This chapter provides a detailed description of C-Lock, a patent-pending Web-based carbon sequestration accounting and marketing tool. C-Lock, developed by Dr. Zimmerman and his colleagues at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, aggregates carbon emission reduction offsets from individual land parcels and prepares certified units for sa...
Article
C-Lock (patent pending) is a system that has been designed to produce standardized carbon emission reduction credits (CERCs) that minimize litigation risks to purchasers and maximize the potential value to agricultural producers. C-Lock provides a web-based user interface linking producer-supplied, verifiable, management data, a detailed regional-s...
Article
Full-text available
The C-Lock system was developed to address the need for an improved method of quantifying and certifying project-level carbon emission reduction credits (CERC). It was designed to enable individual landowners to efficiently quantify, certify, pool, market and trade CERCs generated by agricultural management practices. We provide a general overview...
Article
A methodology of determining regional estimates of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) areas required to achieve a given percentage reduction of localized agricultural sediment yield is introduced. Using South Dakota as a test domain, a collection of regional-scale databases was used to compile a statewide erosion vulnerability map based on Universa...
Article
The Short-Wave Aerostat Mounted Imager (SWAMI) is a newly designed remote sensing platform attached to the tether line of a 3500 m3 research balloon. We are using the SWAMI to study terrestrial ecosystems by bridging the spatial gap between radiometric measurements collected near the surface and those collected by other aircraft or satellite. Prima...
Article
Full-text available
During the summer season of 2002, emissions of volatile organic compounds were firstly measured by a static enclosure technique at a grassland site in the Inner Mongolia grassland. The parameters including solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity were also measured in the same time period. The results showed that isoprene was the main...
Article
We describe an experimental system and techniques for use in simultaneous pollutant exposure experiments and gaseous flux determinations. The system uses flexible Teflon bag-like chambers to enclose entire individual branches of young trees. Five gaseous fluxes (CO2, H2O, SO2, O3, and H2O2) are measured once per hour for each of two branches. Techn...
Article
We report on the 3-week exposure of a branch of a forest-grown red spruce (Picea rubens) sapling to the combination of gaseous hydrogen peroxide, ozone, and sulphur dioxide. The exposure was conducted continuously using concentrations of H2O2, O3, and SO2 that have been observed during the summertime on the summit of Whiteface Mountain, New York. F...
Article
The flux of volatile organic chemicals from natural vegetation influences various atmospheric properties including oxidation state of the troposphere via the hydroxyl radical (OH), photochemical haze production and the concentration of greenhouse gases (CH4, H2O, CO). Because the Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) flux in the present-day world varies...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an overview of the Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidents (EXPRESSO) including the objectives of the project, a detailed description of the characteristics of the experimental region and of field instrumentation deployed, and a summary of the main results of all components of the experiment. EXPRESSO is an interna...
Article
Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions strongly influence the chemical composition of the troposphere. Thus, variations in emissions of these compounds are expected to cause changes in concentrations of important atmospheric trace gases. Here, we assess the relative magnitude of potential changes in NMHC (e.g., isoprene and monoterpene)...
Article
Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regions of the world to understand regional and global impacts and to imple...
Article
Vegetation composition and biomass were surveyed for three specific sites in Atlanta, GA; near Rhinelander, WI; and near Hayden, CO. At each research site emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the dominant vegetation species were sampled by enclosing branches in bag enclosure systems and sampling the equilibrium head space o...
Article
Landscape flux potentials for biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were derived for three ecosystems in the continental U.S. (Fernbank Forest, Atlanta, GA; Willow Creek, Rhinelander, WI; Temple Ridge, CO). Analytical data from branch enclosure measurements were combined with ecological survey data for plant species composition and biomass. O...
Article
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) were measured on tethered balloon platforms in 11 deployments between 1985 and 1996. A series of balloon sampling packages have been used to describe boundary layer dynamics, BVOC distribution, chemical transformations of BVOCs, and to estimate BVOC emission rates from terrestrial vegetation. Measurements...
Article
Full-text available
Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and their role in atmospheric oxidant formation were investigated at a forest site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as part of the Nashville Southern Oxidants Study (SOS) in July 1995. Of 98 VOCs detected, a major fraction were anthropogenic VOCs such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), alkanes, alkenes and aromatic...
Article
Methyl bromide is the single largest contributor of stratospheric Br and an important contributor to stratospheric ozone depletion. Soils have recently been identified as a significant sink of methyl bromide (Shorter et al., 1995, Nature 377 (6551), 717–719). As is the case for other trace gases, methyl bromide deposition rates vary for different e...
Article
Full-text available
In temperate regions the chemistry of the lower troposphere is known to be significantly affected by biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants, The chemistry of the lower troposphere over the tropics, however, is poorly understood, in part because of the considerable uncertainties in VOC emissions from tropical ecosystems. Presen...
Article
Full-text available
In summer 1992, isoprene emission was measured on intact leaves and branches of Quercus alba (L.) at two heights in a forest canopy. Isoprene emission capacity (measured at 30 degrees C and a photosynthetic photon flux density of 1000 micro mol m(-2) s(-1)) was significantly higher in sun leaves than in shade leaves when expressed on a leaf area ba...
Article
Nests of a fungus-growing termite Macrotermes jeanneli discharge all their metabolic gases through a single outlet to the atmosphere. This made it possible to measure the production of metabolic gases, and the rates of water loss, for intact nests in the field. Rates of production of carbon dioxide and methane from isolated nest components (differe...
Article
Full-text available
Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) emissions were investigated at two field sites in the Republic of South Africa that include five important southern African savanna landscapes. Tropical savannas are a globally important biome with a high potential for biogenic emissions but no NMHC emission measurements in these regions or in any part of Afri...
Article
Full-text available
During the summer of 1992, isoprene emissions were measured in a mixed deciduous forest near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Measurements were aimed at the experimental scale-up of emissions from the leaf level to the forest canopy to the mixed layer. Results from the scale-up study are compared to different canopy models for determining the leaf microclimat...
Article
Full-text available
Isoprene fluxes were estimated using eight different measurement techniques at a forested site near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during July and August 1992. Fluxes from individual leaves and entire branches were estimated with four enclosure systems, including one system that controls leaf temperature and light. Variations in isoprene emission with chang...
Article
A global three-dimensional atmospheric tracer transport model is used to study the sources End sinks of atmospheric carbon monoxide (GO). Source functions are included for the release of CO from the oxidation of methane, technological sources, biomass burning, the oxidation of hydrocarbons and the oceans. The removal of CO from the atmosphere is as...
Article
Measurements of carbon monoxide and nonmethane hydrocarbons were made in situ at the Mauna Loa Observatory from September 1991 through August 1992. A distinct seasonal cycle in concentrations was observed for CO and most NMHCs, with higher average concentra- tions from January through April and much lower average concentrations from mid-May through...
Article
Volatile organic trace gases in the remote troposphere at the Mauna Loa Observatory were identified in July and August 1992 during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemical Experiment (MLOPEX 2) using an in situ fully automated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) instrument. Identification was obtained for 65 organic compounds, 7 additional c...
Article
Full-text available
Natural volatile organic compound (VOC) fluxes were measured in three U.S. woodlands in summer 1993. Fluxes from individual leaves and branches were estimated with enclosure techniques and used to initialize and evaluate VOC emission model estimates. Ambient measurements were used to estimate above canopy fluxes for entire stands and landscapes. Th...
Article
Full-text available
In June 1993, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance and isoprene emission rates of sweetgum leaves (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at the top of the forest canopy (sun leaves) and within the canopy at a height of 8–10 m above ground level (shade leaves). Large differences in net photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance were...
Article
Full-text available
Natural volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were investigated at two forested sites in the southeastern United States. A variety of VOC compounds including methanol, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, isoprene and 15 monoterpenes were emitted from vegetation at these sites. Diurnal variations in VOC emissions were observed and re...
Article
A new, integrated methodology to locate and measure methane emissions from natural gas systems has been developed. Atmospheric methane sources are identified by elevated ambient CH{sub 4} concentrations meaured with a mobile laser-based methane analyzer. The total methane emission rate from a source is obtained by simulating the source with a sulfu...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical assessments of global air quality and potential changes in atmospheric chemical constituents require estimates of the surface fluxes of a variety of trace gas species. We have developed a global model to estimate emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural sources (NVOC). Methane is not considered here and has been reviewed in de...
Article
Isoprene is a non-methane hydrocarbon that is emitted by certain plant species. This compound affects the chemistry of the troposphere because it is oxidized by the hydroxyl radical and its oxidation products are precursors for the photochemical production of ozone. In 1992, we conducted a study on the controls of isoprene emission from a temperate...
Article
Full-text available
A new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry...
Article
Full-text available
Isoprene is a non-methane hydrocarbon that is emitted by certain plant species. This compound affects the chemistry of the troposphere because it is oxidized by the hydroxyl radical and its oxidation products are precursors for the photochemical production of ozone. In 1992, we conducted a study on the controls of isoprene emission from a temperate...
Article
Isoprene emission from plants represents one of the principal biospheric controls over the oxidative capacity of the continental troposphere. In the study reported here, the seasonal pattern of isoprene emission, and its underlying determinants, were studied for aspen trees growing in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. The springtime onset of isopren...
Article
A completely automated gas chromatography-flame ionization detector system with cryogenic sample freeze-out for measuring atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons was deployed at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii during the MLOPEX II experiment, September 1991 through August 1992. The system was designed to (1) rapidly trap air samples of up to 4 litre...
Article
Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate factors are estimated for 49 tree genera based on a review of foliar emission rate measurements. Foliar VOC emissions are grouped into three categories: isoprene, monoterpenes and other VOCs. Typical emission rates at a leaf temperature of 30°C and a light intensity of 1000 μmol m⁻² s⁻¹ range from <0.1...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for determining methane emission factors for cattle. The technique involves the direct measurement of methane emissions from livestock in their natural environment. A small permeation tube containing SF[sub 6] is placed in the cow's rumen, and SF[sub 6] and CH[sub 4] concentrations are measured near...
Article
Full-text available
Patterns and controls of carbon trace gas emissions from wetlands may vary depending upon the spatial and temporal scale being examined. The factors affecting these emissions are thought to be hierarchically related according to their respective scales of importance. A hierarchical model of processes controlling methane emissions from wetlands is p...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to describe a method for determining methane emission factors for cattle. The technique involves the direct measurement of methane emissions from livestock in their natural environment. A small permeation tube containing SF[sub 6] is placed in the cow's rumen, and SF[sub 6] and CH[sub 4] concentrations are measured near...
Article
An analysis is presented of vertical profiles of isoprene concentration and meteorological parameters measured in the boundary layer (BL) during the daylight hours at a rural site in Alabama and an urban site in Atlanta, Georgia, during the summer of 1990, as part of the Southern Oxidants Study. Of the 37 isoprene profiles recorded at the sites, 16...
Patent
Full-text available
This is a system to measure metabolic gas emissions from animals. This invention provides a controlled release of a tracer gas within the animal’s stomach and gas sample collection near the animal’s mouth. Because the tracer gas flux is known, the metabolic gas flux can be readily calculated by comparing the mixing ratios of the tracer and species...
Article
Isoprene, a biogenic hydrocarbon emitted from vegetation, has been detected at sub-ppb levels, using a commercially available reduction gas detector (RGD) with an isothermal, portable gas chromatograph. For 1 ml samples, a detection limit of 300–500 parts per trillion (over an order of magnitude less than the traditional gas chromatography-flame io...
Article
Full-text available
The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from plants is influenced by light and leaf temperature, which account for almost all short-term variations (minutes to days) and a large part of spatial and long-term variations. The temperature dependence of monoterpene emission varies among monoterpenes, plant species, and other factors, but a simple exp...
Article
Full-text available
The exchange of various trace species and energy at the earth's surface plays an important role in climate, ecology, and human health and welfare. Surface exchange measurements can be difficult to obtain yet are important to understand physical processes, assess environmental and global change impacts, and develop robust parameterizations of atmosp...
Chapter
Nonmethane hydrocarbons are important participants in the atmospheric chemical reactions that cause photochemical smog, acid deposition, and greenhouse gases. In order to understand their involvement in these processes, researchers are using sophisticated air-quality simulation models. In most cases, these models require individual species informat...
Article
Methane emissions were measured during manure incubations in the laboratory simulating field depositions and by placing enclosures over feedlot sites. Results indicate a great deal of variation in manure methane production, both under feedlot conditions and under simulated grazing conditions. The variables which contributed most to the differences...
Article
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer was used in a series of the experiments to simulate emissions of benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from a refinery wastewater basin. The ratio of the measured tracer release to the ambient tracer concentration established a dilution factor which was then used to calculate the mass flux of BTEX from...