Patrick Swain

Patrick Swain
Northumbria University · Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences

PhD (Student)

About

12
Publications
1,569
Reads
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20
Citations
Introduction
Patrick Swain is a Ph.D. student within the Aerospace Medicine and Rehabilitation Laboratory (https://aerospacemed.rehab). His current research aims to (1) understand how the body adapts to low-gravity settings and (2) examine the effects of blood flow restriction exercise as a potential spaceflight countermeasure.

Publications

Publications (12)
Article
Full-text available
Background: Sprint interval training is a popular workout modality. Studies have eluded to a positive effect on maximal oxygen uptake, however little is known about the mechanistic basis of this adaptation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a short-term high-intensity sprint interval training (SIT) intervention o...
Article
Andrew Winnard has been leading systematic review methods for space medicine projects many years to facilitate high quality and transparent synthesis of primary data to enable evidence-based practice. You can find the most up to date methods here: https://sites.google.com/view/sr-methods/home This paper outlines evolution of space medicine synthesi...
Article
Background Exercise countermeasures are the main approach taken to protect astronauts from musculoskeletal deconditioning in microgravity (µg). Future exploration class missions will require astronauts to live on the surface of the Moon (0.16g) and Mars (0.38g) in hypogravity where the level of protection is assumed to be insufficient. However, it...
Article
Full-text available
Space agencies are planning to send humans back to the Lunar surface, in preparation for crewed exploration of Mars. However, the effect of hypogravity on human skeletal muscle is largely unknown. A recently established rodent partial weight-bearing model has been employed to mimic various levels of hypogravity loading and may provide valuable insi...
Article
Full-text available
Space agencies are preparing to send humans to the Moon (16% Earth's gravity) and Mars (38% Earth's gravity), however, there is limited evidence regarding the effects of hypogravity on the skeletal system. A novel rodent partial weight-bearing (PWB) model may provide insight into how human bone responds to hypogravity. The aim of this study was to...
Method
Full-text available
Background The rodent partial weight-bearing (PWB) model has been recently developed to enable full-body partial unloading of mice [1] and rats [2] whilst maintaining their ability to ambulate in a cage setting. The model has expanded understanding of how the musculoskeletal system adapts to various levels of PWB across the ‘gravity continuum’ [3]....
Article
This is a duplicate record, please see https://www.researchgate.net/publication/350278122_Developing_and_implementing_novel_techniques_during_primary_space_medicine_data_systematic_reviews for the original record. Andrew Winnard has been leading systematic review methods for space medicine projects many years to facilitate high quality and transpar...
Method
This tool provides a list of potentially relevant sources to find trials, qualitative data and grey literature relevant to aerospace medicine systematic reviews. It is not an exhaustive list and review authors should beware that data may well exist with agency databases or be classified. It is advised to search all data sources you think may be rel...
Article
Even pacing within the marathon has been associated with faster marathon performance times, however, little literature has investigated the association between pacing ability during a marathon and a recreational marathoner’s training characteristics and previous experiences. N = 139 participants completed an online questionnaire concerning training...
Presentation
Published: Graduate Journal of Sport, Exercise & Physical Education Research (2018) Vol. 8, Suppl.1: S1-S135 GJSEPER (2018), Vol. 8, Suppl. 1: S114 Title: The influence of protocol design on the plateau at V̇O2max Author(s): Swain, P., Potter, K. & Gordon, D. Institution: Department of Sport & Exercise Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology,...
Presentation
The use of imagery among athletes has been studied extensively (e.g., Bhasavanija et al., 2011). Findings pertaining to differences among skill level indicate that higher level athletes have better imagery ability skills than lower level athletes (Williams & Cumming, 2011). Surprisingly, scant research has been conducted on imagery use among coache...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
I am slightly confused on how to go about calculating a sample size for a research study.
There are 4 treatments that all participants will receive whilst measuring a continuous variable (oxygen consumption). For analysis, the sample will be split into categories (trained/untrained and males/females) for within-factor analysis but not between-factor analysis.
Do I just need to calculate the sample required for one group and then * 4 (as there are four categories) to test the null-hypothesis for each category?
More importantly - I am very confused about determining the within-participant correlation (or what it is) and how to use scaling factors correctly to calculate sample size. Any help would be great!

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Project
The purpose of this project is to investigate blood flow restriction exercise as a potential exercise countermeasure for spaceflight. This project will utilise the Variable Gravity Suspension System within the Aerospace Medicine and Rehabilitation Laboratory at Northumbria University. Initial project work will involve a series of studies investigating the effectiveness, feasibility and safety of performing blood flow restriction exercise in simulated microgravity and different levels of hypogravity.
Project
Quantify the effect of lockdown on a VI population. How does social distancing affect people with VI and their participation in physical activity?
Project
*Currently in submission for peer-review Investigating physical activity and sedentary behaviour before and during the UK lockdown in response to COVID-19.