Patrick Smeets

Patrick Smeets
KWR Water Research Institute · Water quality and health

About

45
Publications
15,738
Reads
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726
Citations
Citations since 2017
14 Research Items
417 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080
2017201820192020202120222023020406080

Publications

Publications (45)
Article
Health risk assessment of environmental exposure to pathogens requires complete and up to date knowledge. With the rapid growth of scientific publications and the protocolization of literature reviews, an automated approach based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques could help extract meaningful information from the literature and make litera...
Article
Minimum treatment requirements are set in response to established or anticipated levels of enteric pathogens in the source water of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). For surface water, contamination can be determined directly by monitoring reference pathogens or indirectly by measuring fecal indicators such as Escherichia coli (E. coli). In...
Article
A monitoring strategy was implemented at two drinking water treatment plants in Quebec, Canada, to evaluate microbial reduction performances of full-scale treatment processes under different source water conditions. β-D-glucuronidase activity in source water was automatically monitored in near-real-time to establish baseline and event conditions at...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates short-term fluctuations in virus concentrations in source water and their removal by full-scale drinking water treatment processes under different source water conditions. Transient peaks in raw water faecal contamination were identified using in situ online β-D-glucuronidase activity monitoring at two urban drinking water t...
Article
Temporal variations in concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms in surface waters are well known to be influenced by hydrometeorological events. Reasonable methods for accounting for microbial peaks in the quantification of drinking water treatment requirements need to be addressed. Here, we applied a novel method for data collection and model v...
Article
The identification of appropriately conservative statistical distributions is needed to predict microbial peak events in drinking water sources explicitly. In this study, Poisson and mixed Poisson distributions with different upper tail behaviors were used for modeling source water Cryptosporidium and Giardia data from 30 drinking water treatment p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Over the last 30 years, constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used as an alternative, cost-efficient way of treating wastewater, often in combination with conventional wastewater technologies. When CWs are attached at the end of conventional wastewater treatment plants, they treat the effluent and thus provide a polishing step. However, recent studi...
Article
In several jurisdictions, the arithmetic mean of Escherichia coli concentrations in raw water serves as the metric to set minimal treatment requirements by drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). An accurate and precise estimation of this mean is therefore critical to define adequate requirements. Distributions of E. coli concentrations in surface...
Conference Paper
Microbial safety of drinking water is of utmost importance for health. In many regions of the world, water shortage leads to direct or indirect reuse of wastewater or use of other unsafe water sources. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) can be used to determine which combination of water treatment processes is needed to provide safe wate...
Chapter
Use of wastewater is increasingly gaining importance as a water supply. However, the acceptance of the final users is important for the success of such projects. The acceptability of the treated wastewater depends on the physical, chemical, and most importantly the microbiological quality of the water. Appropriately designed and operated Managed Aq...
Article
A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment model was developed to assess the infection risk due to faecal contamination events after repairs of drinking water mains. Ingress was modelled per section between isolation valves; transport of pathogens and consumed dose were modelled with a hydraulic network model and stochastic drinking water demand patt...
Article
Een groot deel van de wereld heeft geen toegang tot microbiologisch veilig drinkwater. Maar ook in landen met veilig drinkwater moeten we alert zijn op ziekteverwekkende virussen en bacteriën in water als dat wordt gebruikt voor recreatie, landbouw of als bron voor drinkwater. Naast de bekende microbiologische bedreigingen zijn er ook nieuwe bedrei...
Article
Household water treatment systems play an important role in safe drinking water supply in India as safety barrier at point of use and contribute to improved public health on short and medium term. In this study, three household water purifiers that based on different principles were investigated in order to determine whether and under which conditi...
Article
The need to improve the access to safe water is generally recognized for the benefit of public health in developing countries. This study's objective was to identify critical parameters which are essential for improving the performance of ceramic pot filters (CPFs) as a point-of-use water treatment system. Defining critical production parameters wa...
Chapter
Since the origin of cities, water has played an important role as a blessing and a threat to the city. Sufficient water of adequate quality is essential for the wellbeing of citizens and to promote socio economic activities in any city. However, too much water from rainfall or floods can cause damage and casualties. Too little water leads to loss o...
Chapter
In the face of growing water demand pressures, urbanisation, and climate change, freshwater resources are becoming scarcer and supply planners are turning to less traditional water sources, such as treated wastewater and urban run-off (stormwater), sources which may pose health risks to consumers. At the same time, traditional surface and groundwat...
Article
Full-text available
A Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) model was developed for contamination events after mains repairs. The sensitivity analysis showed that the contamination concentration is the most important parameter, next to the pathogen dose response relation. The time of opening valves and of consumption are also important parameters. The event lo...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) of contaminated drinking water usually assume the daily intake volume is consumed once a day. However, individuals could consume water at multiple time points over 1 day, so the objective was to determine if the number of consumption events per day impacted the risk of infection from Campylobacter jej...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sustainability studies entail the consideration of a plethora of factors including climate change, water and energy scarcity, rising energy costs, population growth, etc. All these factors put pressure on the management of water services, increasing their vulnerability and the level of risk. A risk assessment methodology to be applied at a strat...
Article
The urban water cycle (UWC) is often managed by several stakeholders dealing with specific components of the cycle such as water supply, wastewater systems and water bodies management. Therefore, risk management in the UWC benefits from an integrated approach to incorporate the interdependencies between elements. The water cycle safety plan (WCSP)...
Article
In 2012 more than 4 million people used a ceramic pot filter (CPF) as household water treatment system for their daily drinking water needs. In the normal production protocol most low cost filters are impregnated with a silver solution to enhance the microbial removal efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the role of silver during the...
Book
Full-text available
Potential effects of climate dynamics on the urban water cycle can involve the aggravation of existing conditions as well as occurrence of new hazards or risk factors. The risks associated with expected climate changes have to be dealt with by the society in general and by the water utilities and other stakeholders in particular. The challenges cre...
Article
Full-text available
Innovation in the water sector is at play when addressing the global water security challenge. This paper highlights an emerging role for Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) and health-based targets in the design and application of robust and flexible water quality regulation to protect public health. This role is especially critical as t...
Article
This study investigates the effects of very low concentrations of ClO(2) applied in drinking water practice on the inactivation of bacteriophage MS2. Concentrations of 0.5 mg/L, 0.1 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L ClO(2) inactivated at least 5 log units of MS2 after an exposure time of approximately 20, 50 and 300 min respectively. When the ClO(2) concentration...
Article
Full-text available
Safe drinking water is a basic need for all human beings. Preventing microbial contamination of drinking water is of primary concern since endemic illness and outbreaks of infectious diseases can have significant social and economic consequences. Confirming absence of indicators of faecal contamination by water analysis only provides a limited veri...
Article
The absence of indicator organisms in drinking water does not provide sufficient guarantee for microbial safety. Therefore the water utilities are implementing water safety plans (WSP) to safeguard drinking water quality. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can be used to provide objective quantitative input for the WSP. This study presen...
Article
Natural engineered systems for groundwater and surface water treatment have the potential to provide safe drinking water in the rural developing country context. A “natural” system treats the water through soil passage, utilizing the subsurface as a naturally available filter. (In)organic compounds are removed from the water by soil passage through...
Article
System assessment is the part of the Water Safety Plan that evaluates whether a water supply system is capable of producing drinking water that meets the health-based targets. System assessment can be done at increasing level of detail, requiring more site specific information as the level of detail increases. Four case studies are presented with i...
Article
Full-text available
The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not compromising microbial safety at the tap, can be summa...
Article
Wastewater reuse is becoming increasingly important for supplementing drinking water supply needs and/or to reduce costs in many communities around the world. However, wastewater reuse can result in a potential transmission route for infectious agents. Therefore, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium was assessed in a treatment plant geared for the pro...
Article
Full-text available
The Netherlands is one of the few countries where chlorine is not used at all, neither for primary disinfection nor to maintain a residual disinfectant in the distribution network. The Dutch approach that allows production and distribution of drinking water without the use of chlorine while not compromising microbial safety at the tap, can be summa...
Article
Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is increasingly applied to estimate drinking water safety. In QMRA the risk of infection is calculated from pathogen concentrations in drinking water, water consumption and dose response relations. Pathogen concentrations in drinking water are generally low and monitoring provides little information for...
Article
Ozonation experiments (2.5-5 m(3)h(-1)) were performed by dosing dissolved ozone in a continuous flow pilot-scale contactor consisting of a pipe with plug flow reactor (PFR) characteristics. In the PFR ozone, E. coli, bromate and AOC concentrations were measured from 1.3 to 1,460 seconds retention time during ozonation of natural water. The experim...
Article
Experimental research was carried out for calibration and validation of a model describing ozone decay and ozone exposure (CT), decrease in UV absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254), increase in assimilable organic carbon concentration and bromate formation. The model proved to be able to predict these parameters on the basis of the applied ozone dosage. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) is increasingly being used to complement traditional verification of drinking water safety through the absence of indicator bacteria. However, the full benefit of QMRA is often not achieved because of a lack of appropriate data on the fate and behaviour of pathogens. In the UK, statutory monitorin...
Article
To determine the disinfection efficacy of ozonation, water companies can apply several disinfection calculation methods. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of the T10 and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) method to extrapolate inactivation rates of ozone sensitive microorganisms observed in laboratory tests to full-scale ozonation...
Article
The treatment efficacy for reducing Campylobacter concentrations by a drinking water treatment plant was assessed using a stochastic Monte Carlo model. The goal of the study was to reduce uncertainty of the results by combining microbiological and non-microbiological data in an advanced treatment assessment. Combining raw water Campylobacter and E....
Article
Bromate formation experiments were carried out in a 100 l/h bench-scale dissolved ozone plug flow reactor (DOPFR) with natural filtered water from the drinking water treatment plant Leiduin of Amsterdam Water Supply at gross ozone dosages of 0.7–3.4 mg/l. In the DOPFR, ozone is dosed by intensively mixing a dissolved ozone water flow (side stream)...
Article
Assessment of treatment efficacy is a critical part of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) of drinking water. To develop a protocol for treatment assessment, historical data on treatment efficacy of 12 water treatment plants was collected in the MicroRisk project. By analyzing the data typical treatment efficacy was determined for s...

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Cited By

Projects

Projects (2)
Archived project
"The European Commission funded the Collaborative project ‘PREPARED Enabling Change’ (PREPARED) within the context of the Seventh Framework Programme 'Environment'. The PREPARED project originates from the WSSTP (Water Supply and Sanitation Technology Platform - www.WssTP.eu) thematic working group Sustainable Water Management in Urban areas. Over a period of five years, PREPARED work was carried out with a number of urban utilities in Europe and worldwide to develop advanced strategies to meet anticipated challenges in the water supply and sanitation sectors brought about by climate change. The project provides a framework that links comprehensive research with development programs in these utilities. The PREPARED vision provides significant synergistic opportunities that the utilities can utilize to improve their preparedness for the ongoing changes related to the provision of water supply and sanitation. The outcomes of the project can be used as input for the planning and rehabilitation programs of the participating cities. The ultimate objective is environmental-concern based rehabilitation and investment programs for water supply and sanitation systems (including storm water). The cities and utilities involved be better prepared and resilient to the impacts of climate change in the short and in the long-term." <http://www.prepared-fp7.eu/>
Archived project
"The central objective of the European project TRUST was to deliver co-produced knowledge to support Transitions to the Urban Water Services of Tomorrow, enabling communities to achieve a sustainable, low-carbon water future without compromising service quality. We will deliver this ambition through research driven innovations in governance, modelling concepts, technologies, decision support tools, and novel approaches to integrated water, energy, and infrastructure asset management. TRUST demonstrates and legitimizes these innovations by the implementation of the most promising interventions in the urban water system of the nine different participating city pilot regions." <http://www.trust-i.net>