Patrick Mussel

Patrick Mussel
Freie Universität Berlin | FUB · Arbeitsbereich Persönlichkeitspsychologie und Psychologische Diagnostik

PhD

About

95
Publications
29,020
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1,465
Citations

Publications

Publications (95)
Article
The present article develops a theoretical framework for the structure of personality traits related to intellectual achievements. We postulate a 2-dimensional model, differentiating between 2 processes (Seek and Conquer) and 3 operations (Think, Learn, and Create). The framework was operationalized by a newly developed measure, which was validated...
Article
Full-text available
Theta oscillations in the EEG have been shown to reflect ongoing cognitive processes related to mental effort. Here, we show that the pattern of theta oscillation in response to varying cognitive demands reflects stable individual differences in the personality trait epistemic motivation: Individuals with high levels of epistemic motivation recruit...
Article
We investigated whether greed would predict risky decision-making and recorded neural responses during a monetary gambling task using the electroencephalogram. We found that individuals high in trait-greed took higher risks to maximize monetary outcome. Furthermore, this relation was moderated by state-greed; specifically, trait-greed had a stronge...
Article
Full-text available
Risk proneness and the lack of loss aversion are two different reasons to show varying degrees of risk-taking in decision situations. So far, little is known about the extent to which these two processes underly the influence of trait greed, trait anxiety, and age. The present study investigated risk- taking in decision making in these trait contex...
Article
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Misophonia is a clinical syndrome which is characterized by intense emotional and physical reactions to idiosyncratic sounds. However, its psychometric measurement is still in the early stages. This study describes the optimization of a self-report instrument, the Berlin Misophonia Questionnaire (BMQ), and addresses its strengths in comparison to e...
Article
Recent models of personality development have emphasized the role of the environment in terms of selection and socialization effects and their interaction. Our study provides partial evidence for these models and, crucially, extends these models by adding a person variable: Core beliefs, which are defined as mental representations of experiences th...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive ability and curiosity are significant predictors of academic achievement; yet the processes underlying these relations are not well understood. I drew on ideas from the environmental enrichment hypothesis and the differential preservation hypothesis and hypothesized that epistemic behavior acts as a mediator. Longitudinal data were collec...
Article
Previous EEG research only investigated one stage ultimatum games (UGs). We investigated the influence of a second bargaining stage in an UG concerning behavioral responses, electro-cortical correlates and their moderations by the traits altruism, anger, anxiety, and greed in 92 participants. We found that an additional stage led to more rejection...
Article
Full-text available
Costly punishment describes decisions of an interaction partner to punish an opponent for violating rules of fairness at the expense of personal costs. Here, we extend the interaction process by investigating the impact of a socio-emotional reaction of the opponent in response to the punishment that indicates whether punishment was successful or no...
Article
Full-text available
In response to recent calls to incorporate Implicit Trait Policies (ITPs) into personality research, the current study examined the construct-related validity of ITP measures. ITPs are defined as implicit beliefs about the effectiveness of behaviors that reflect a certain trait. They are assessed by utilizing the methodology of Situational Judgment...
Preprint
Two different reasons to show risky behavior have been identified: Risk proneness and the lack of loss aversion. So far, the number of empirical studies investigating the influence of trait greed, anxiety, and age on risky decision behavior, differentiating between risk sensitivity and loss aversion, is very limited and inconsistent findings exist....
Article
This paper focuses on the emergent importance of curiosity at work for individuals and organizations by reviewing management research on curiosity at work. We start by leveraging prior reviews on early and contemporary foundations of the curiosity construct in the larger psychological literature, with a focus on definitional clarity, dimen-sionalit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Misophonia is a syndrome which is characterized by intense emotional and physical reactions to idiosyncratic sounds. However, its psychometric measurement is still in the early stages. The study presents the development of a German self-report instrument, the Berlin Misophonia Questionnaire (BMQ), and integrates contemporary empirical findings and...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this study, we tested the influence of a second bargaining stage in an ultimatum game (UG) concerning behavioral responses, electro-cortical correlates and their moderations by the trait’s altruism, anger, anxiety and greed in 92 participants. We found that an additional stage led to more rejection in the 2-stage UG (2SUG) and that an increase i...
Article
Full-text available
Personality changes throughout the life course and change is often caused by environmental influences, such as critical life events. In the present study, we investigate personality trait development in emerging adulthood as a result of experiencing two major life events: graduating from school and moving away from home. Thereby, we examined the oc...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research challenges the importance of situation descriptions for Situational Judgment Test (SJT) performance. This study contributes to resolving the ongoing debate on whether or not SJTs are situational measures, by incorporating findings on person × situation interactions into SJT research. Specifically, across three studies (NTotal = 1,23...
Article
Full-text available
Background The influence of emotional feedback on social decision-making situations is an omnipresent part of social interaction. Complementing existing research on the impact of approach- and avoidance-related personality traits, we examined the role of sub-clinical depression and fear of negative social evaluation in a modified ultimatum game. M...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The symmetry principle and the frame‐of‐reference perspective have each made contributions to improving the measurement of personality. Although each perspective is valuable in its own right, we argue that even greater improvement can be achieved through the combination of both. Therefore, the goal of the current article was to show the v...
Article
Full-text available
This study extends prior research on the relationships between personality constructs and types of psychological contracts by exploring how the Big Five traits predict balanced psychological contracts. Further, we determine whether epistemic curiosity and rule‐following behavior are key mediators of the proposed relationships. We tested our propose...
Article
Despite the common belief that situation descriptions in SJTs are central to the measurement of targeted constructs, recent studies demonstrated that omitting situation descriptions had only minor effects on SJT performance and validity. However, these results might be due to the fact that traditional SJTs often fail to assess well-defined construc...
Article
Full-text available
Punishment in economic games has been interpreted as “altruistic.” However, it was shown that punishment is related to trait anger instead of trait altruism in a thirdparty dictator game if compensation is also available. Here, we investigated the influence of state anger on punishment and compensation in the third-party dictator game. Therefore, w...
Article
A crucial aspect of social decision-making is the ability to learn from the outcomes of preceding decisions. In particular, learning might be influenced by the expectedness of feedback and its valence. Expectedness has largely been operationalized as the frequency of stimulus occurrence and not in terms of its social context. Therefore, we investig...
Article
The unified theory of motivation, personality and development by Carol S. Dweck provides a comprehensive account of the processes that underly the development of personality traits. A key role in this process are attributed to beliefs which are conceptualized as mental representations of experiences that individuals make while pursuing need-fulfill...
Article
Emotional feedback is a crucial part of human social interaction, since it may indicate motivations, intentions, and thus, the future behavior of interaction partners. Nowadays, social interaction has been enriched by artificial emotional feedback provided by emojis, which are the means of transporting emotions in many mobile messengers. In this st...
Article
Full-text available
Recent theorizing and empirical evidence suggesting that situational judgment tests (SJTs) are more context-independent than previously thought has sparked a debate about the role of situation descriptions in SJTs. To contribute to this debate and add to our understanding of how SJTs work, this paper conceptually embeds SJT performance in a situati...
Presentation
The validity of SJTs has recently been described as “hot mess” (McDaniel et al., 2016, p. 47) in a debate about underlying psychological processes of these tests. One position in this debate was that SJTs may reflect measures of context-independent procedural knowledge, and more specifically as Implicit Trait Policies (ITPs). ITPs are defined as im...
Article
Full-text available
Depending on the point of view, conceptions of greed range from being a desirable and inevitable feature of a well-regulated, well-balanced economy to the root of all evil - radix omnium malorum avaritia (Tim 6.10). Regarding the latter, it has been proposed that greedy individuals strive for obtaining desired goods at all costs. Here, we show that...
Conference Paper
Impact of critical life events on personality and how critical life events are perceived
Article
Emojis are nowadays a common substitute for real facial expressions to integrate emotions in social interaction. In certain contexts, emojis possibly could also transport information beyond emotions, reflecting interindividual differences or social aspects. In this study, we investigated the influence of emojis as socioemotional feedback stimuli on...
Article
Altruistic punishment and altruistic compensation are important concepts that are used to investigate altruism. However, altruistic punishment has been found to be correlated with anger. We were interested whether altruistic punishment and altruistic compensation are both driven by trait altruism and trait anger or whether the influence of those tw...
Article
The financial crisis in 2008 and 2009 has sparked considerable interest among researchers in individual differences in greed. Recently, five scales have been independently developed to assess the construct of trait greed. Definitions of greed underlying these scales have a lot in common, but also deviate regarding some important aspects. In the cur...
Article
Altruistic punishment is the attempt to penalize deviant behavior of another person even though it is accompanied by personal costs. Here, we investigated the influence of the reaction on the socioemotional level of the other person following altruistic punishment behavior on future decision making and neural responses. We used a modified ultimatum...
Article
Full-text available
The prosocial tendencies measure (PTM; Carlo and Randall, 2002) is a widely used measurement for prosocial tendencies in English speaking participants. This instrument distinguishes between six different types of prosocial tendencies that partly share some common basis, but also can be opposed to each other. To examine these constructs in Germany,...
Article
We echo Lievens’s call to incorporate measures developed in applied settings as valuable instruments for personality researchers. We highlight some striking findings that have challenged central assumptions about these measures and call for joint research efforts of personality and industrial and organizational psychologists to gain better understa...
Presentation
Full-text available
Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) wurden bisher hauptsächlich als low-fidelity Simulation, vorwiegend beruflicher Situationen, konzeptualisiert. Neuere theoretische Überlegungen gehen jedoch davon aus, dass auch generelle Dispositionen zu allgemeinen Verhaltensweisen durch SJTs gemessen werden (Lievens & Motowidlo, 2016). Tatsächlich legen empirisc...
Poster
Full-text available
The prosocial tendency measure (PTM, Carlo & Randall, 2002) is widely used in English speaking participants to assess prosocial tendencies. This instrument distinguishes between six different prosocial tendency types, partly sharing a common basis or even being opposed to each other, that define prosocial tendencies. In this work, the PTM was trans...
Article
Task motivation depends on what we did before. A recent theory differentiates between tasks that we want to do and tasks that we have to do. After a have-to task, motivation shifts towards a want-to task. We measured this shift of motivation via brain responses to monetary feedback in a risk game that was used as want-to task in our study. We teste...
Chapter
A psychometric assessment to evaluate individual Styles in Leadership in form of an SJT format is introduced.
Article
Hundreds of ERP studies have reported a midfrontal negative-going amplitude shift following negative compared with positive action outcomes. This feedback-related negativity (FRN) effect is typically thought to reflect an early and binary mechanism of action evaluation in the posterior midcingulate cortex. However, in prior research on the FRN effe...
Article
. Across many domains of applied psychology, personality traits are related to important outcomes such as well-being, psychological disorders, work performance, and academic achievement. However, self-reports, the most common approach to personality assessment, have certain limitations and disadvantages, such as being prone to faking. We investigat...
Article
Greed is a variable which might explain and predict a range of real-life criteria. Although often consulted as explanation in the public media, related scientific research has only recently begun. We approached greed from a personality psychology perspective regarding its nomological net and the prediction of theoretically related criteria. We foun...
Poster
The classical approach of Big Five Factors (e.g. NEO-PI-R) inventories states the existence of five facets underlying each Big Five factor, whereas DeYoung, Quilty, and Peterson (2007) postulate only two distinct aspects (BFAS) within each Big Five factor. Yet, a confirmatory factor analysis of the BFAS is still pending. Based on a German translati...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of...
Article
The present article provides an overview on personality assessment in basic research and applied areas of psychology. Both descriptive and explanatory models of personality and the derived methods of assessment are presented. Further personality assessment in the applied fields of psychology is introduced focusing on clinical psychology, and touchi...
Article
In many daily situations, the consequences of our actions are predicted by cues that are often social in nature. For instance, seeing the face of an evaluator (e.g., a supervisor at work) may activate certain evaluative expectancies, depending on the history of prior encounters with that particular person. We investigated how such face-induced expe...
Article
Full-text available
Explaining cognitive decline in late adulthood is a major research area. Models using personality traits as possible influential variables are rare. This study tested assumptions based on an adapted version of the Openness-Fluid-Crystallized-Intelligence (OFCI) model. The OFCI model adapted to late adulthood predicts that openness is related to the...
Article
Full-text available
Relationships between Interest (I) and Deprivation (D) type epistemic curiosity (EC) and self-regulation were evaluated in two studies. In Study 1 (Italians, N = 151), I-type EC correlated positively with positive outcome-expectancies and risk-taking, but negatively with thinking about negative outcomes. D-type EC correlated positively with emotion...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates how the construct intellect, according to the Theoretical Intellect Framework (TIF), predicts creativity. The TIF is a theoretical model describing the structure of the construct intellect, a sub-dimension of the Big Five domain openness to experience. People (N = 2709) from two sub-samples (undergraduate students and...
Article
We applied trait activation theory to investigate the situational properties that moderate the correlation of intellect, a sub-dimension of the Big Five factor openness to experience, with work-related criteria. We collected data from a sample of 185 employees from diverse organizations and positions. Results from moderated hierarchical regression...
Article
Facial expressions are an important aspect of social interaction, conveying not only information regarding emotional states, but also regarding intentions, personality, and complex social characteristics. The present research investigates how a smiling, compared to a nonsmiling, expression impacts decision making and underlying cognitive and emotio...
Article
Recent studies have identified several factors, such as negative affect or fairness concerns, that contribute to explaining the seemingly irrational behavior of receivers in the ultimatum game, namely rejecting unfair offers despite the corresponding personal loss. The opposite behavior, accepting offers, has often been attributed to rational decis...
Article
Full-text available
Three studies were conducted to evaluate the validity of the interest (I) and deprivation (D) type epistemic curiosity (EC) distinction in three German samples. In Study 1 (N = 395) and Study 2 (N = 191), responses to German translations of the Epistemic Curiosity Scale and the Curiosity as a Feeling-of-Deprivation Scale were submitted to confirmat...
Article
In social interaction, the facial expression of an opponent contains information that may influence the interaction. We asked whether facial expression affects decision-making in the ultimatum game. In this two-person game, the proposer divides a sum of money into two parts, one for each player, and then the responder decides whether to accept the...
Article
The present paper provides a conceptual and empirical examination regarding the relevance of the construct curiosity for work-related outcomes. Based on a review and integration of the literature regarding the construct itself, the construct is conceptually linked with performance in the work context. Using a confirmatory research strategy, a sampl...
Article
In social interaction, the facial expression of an opponent contains information that may influence the interaction. We asked whether facial expression affects decision-making in the ultimatum game. In this two-person game, the proposer divides a sum of money into two parts, one for each player, and then the responder decides whether to accept the...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has shown that receiving an unfair monetary offer in economic bargaining elicits also-called feedback negativity (FN). This scalp-recorded brain potential probably reflects a bad-vs-good evaluation in the medial frontal cortex and has been linked to fundamental processes of reinforcement learning. In the present study, we investig...
Article
Theories of an optimal level of arousal suggest that underaroused humans seek stimulation to enhance their arousal. One way to increase arousal is risky behavior during gambling. In the current study, we show that the lower the participants' resting arousal, measured via resting heart rate, the riskier they acted in a gamble and the faster they res...
Article
Full-text available
Curiosity, a personality trait underlying behavioral tendencies related to knowledge acquisition, learning, and thinking, can be expected to be of high relevance in the world of work. There is, however, to date no work-related curiosity measure. The present article reports results regarding the development and validation of the new 10-item Work-Rel...
Article
The feedback negativity (FN) has been repeatedly linked to expectancies about decision outcomes. Sequential outcome order is likely to influence such expectancies but has been widely disregarded. We therefore investigated whether the three-trial order of decision outcomes in a gambling task influences the FN as well as the P200 and P300. All three...
Article
Research findings show that proposers make surprisingly fair offers in the ultimatum and dictator games, an observation that contradicts predictions of classical game theory. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examines brain activities of proposers that contribute to fair and unfair behaviors. We hypothesized that egoist...
Chapter
Ein Teil der Dauerarbeitslosigkeit älterer Personen ist auf die mangelnde Berücksichtigung ihrer spezifischen Fähigkeiten zurückzuführen. Mithilfe der Methode des Berufsprofilings können Merkmalsausprägungen diagnostiziert und mit den Berufsanforderungen abgeglichen werden. Aus der Ermittlung der Altersabhängigkeit von Eignungsmerkmalen und deren R...