Patrick A. Mello

Patrick A. Mello
Technische Universität München | TUM · Bavarian School of Public Policy

PD Dr.

About

90
Publications
107,717
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
484
Citations
Introduction
Patrick A. Mello is Privatdozent at the Technical University of Munich and Research Associate at the Chair of European and Global Governance of the Hochschule für Politik München. His research focuses on democracy and international security, the domestic sources of foreign policy, and comparative research methods, especially fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). For publications and preprints, see https://patrickmello.com
Additional affiliations
October 2021 - present
Technische Universität München
Position
  • Research Associate
October 2018 - September 2021
Universität Erfurt
Position
  • Visiting Scholar
October 2017 - September 2018
Universität Erfurt
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (90)
Book
Full-text available
When do democracies participate in military operations, and under which conditions do they abstain? Studies on the democratic peace have largely neglected the flipside of democratic participation in armed conflict. Moreover, whilst scholars have made the case that democracy needs to be unpacked to be meaningful, this is rarely done in international...
Chapter
Full-text available
Suppose you wanted to find out under what conditions non-state actors (NSAs) rebel against state authorities or to investigate what factors lead governments to contract private military and security companies (PMSCs). For these and similar research aims there will rarely be a single cause to account for the outcome. Instead, you might discover that...
Article
Full-text available
To which extent does political practice under the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition (2010-2015) reflect a ‘parliamentary prerogative’? From a formal-institutional point of view one should not expect substantial parliamentary influence in Britain. Yet, recent developments suggest the emergence of a new convention. Examining parliamentary debat...
Article
Full-text available
Since the 1990s, parliaments in many democracies have become more involved in the formulation and implementation of security policy. A growing number of studies in comparative politics and international relations address this phenomenon and examine the role of parliaments in decisions on war and peace, particularly on the deployment of military for...
Chapter
Full-text available
Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a set-theoretic comparative method that treats cases as configurations of conditions, aiming to identify those conditions and/or combinations that are necessary and/or sufficient for an outcome. This chapter opens with a review of how the method has been applied empirically in the fields of Foreign Policy A...
Article
Full-text available
Sanctions are widely used foreign policy tools in reaction to crises in world politics. Accordingly, literature on sanction effectiveness—their intended consequences—is abundant. Yet, fewer studies address the unintended consequences of restrictive measures. This is remarkable given that negative externalities are well documented. Our article explo...
Article
Full-text available
Since its inception in 1966, the United Nations Joint Inspection Unit (JIU) has prevailed in the face of significant existential challenges. Against this backdrop, we investigate how and why the JIU persisted over time. Combining delegation and historical institutionalist approaches, we posit that entrepreneurial agents and layering processes toget...
Article
Full-text available
Qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is a rapidly emerging method in the field of International Relations (IR). This raises questions about the strengths and pitfalls of QCA in IR research, established good practices, how IR performs against those standards, and which areas require further attention. After a general introduction to the method, we...
Article
Full-text available
In 2014, the United States initiated the formation of a multilateral military operation against Daesh in Syria and Iraq. Eventually, more than 70 states joined the anti-Daesh coalition. However, contributions to the military effort have been characterized by great variance, especially among EU member states. While some states took leading roles in...
Article
Full-text available
The fall of Kabul in August 2021 marked the end of 20 years of German civilian and military engagement in Afghanistan. Over this time, more than 90,000 Bundeswehr soldiers were deployed in Afghanistan, 59 of whom died there. At a cost of about EUR 12.3 bn, the engagement in the Afghanistan missions amounted to the largest and most costly military o...
Book
Full-text available
Social phenomena can rarely be attributed to single causes—instead, they typically stem from a myriad of interwoven factors that are often difficult to untangle. Drawing on set theory and the language of necessary and sufficient conditions, however, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) is ideally suited to capturing this causal complexity. A case...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter takes stock of Germany’s foreign policy since unification. Starting with the country’s general foreign policy orientation toward multilateralism, European integration, and transatlanticism, the chapter reviews developments in defense and security policy, development policy, bilateral relations, as well as EU, multilateral, and niche di...
Chapter
We agree with the critics … that case knowledge should play a central role in set-theoretic research; and that set calibration is both crucial and improvable. We disagree whenever matters of current QCA practice are confounded with the method's principles, and when statements about QCA's viability and quality are based on misunderstandings about it...
Article
Full-text available
Recent studies on political ideology suggest the existence of partisan divides on matters of foreign and security policy – challenging the notion that “politics stops at the water’s edge”. However, when taken as a whole, extant work provides decidedly mixed evidence of party-political differences outside domestic politics. This article first conduc...
Article
Full-text available
Despite widespread public opposition to the Iraq War, numerous democracies joined the U.S.-led multinational force. However, while some stayed until the end of coalition operations, and several increased their deployments over time, others left unilaterally. How to explain this variation? While some studies suggest that democratic defection from se...
Chapter
Full-text available
Politikwissenschaftliche Analysen der deutschen Außenpolitik haben sich seit der Wiedervereinigung vielfach damit auseinandergesetzt, inwiefern sich der rollentheoretische Idealtyp der "Zivilmacht" (Maull 1990a, 1990b) weiterhin für eine treffende Charakterisierung des deutschen Rollenverhaltens eignet. Der vorliegende Beitrag setzt sich zum Ziel,...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent studies on political ideology suggest the existence of partisan divides on matters of foreign and security policy-challenging the notion that "politics stops at the water's edge". However, when taken as a whole, extant work provides decidedly mixed evidence of party-political differences outside domestic politics. This article first conducts...
Data
Supplementary documentation and analysis to the article "Paths to Coalition Defection: Democracies and Withdrawal from the Iraq War", European Journal of International Security.
Conference Paper
In September 2014, the United States initiated the formation of a multilateral military operation (MMO) against Daesh (also IS, ISIS, or ISIL) in Syria and Iraq. Since then, more than 70 states have officially joined the coalition. However, actual contributions to the military effort have been characterized by great variance. While some states took...
Article
Full-text available
Recent scholarship in security studies has started to explore the causes and consequences of various forms of national restrictions in multinational military operations (MMOs). This article makes a conceptual contribution to this literature by developing a theoretical framework of national restrictions in MMOs that distinguishes between structural,...
Article
Today, few countries fight alone; most fight as allies or partners in multilateral campaigns. The end of the Cold War opened a window of opportunity for multinational military operations (MMOs). These have seen varying degrees of participation, enthusiasm, and success. This special forum is devoted to the politics of multilateral warfare including...
Chapter
Employing perspectives from the fields of political science and history, this interdisciplinary volume examines the explanatory power of the concept of ‘civilian power’ for the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany. Based on European and global topics, the volume examines whether the foreign behaviour of the Federal Republic before and...
Conference Paper
Recent scholarship in security studies has started to explore the causes and consequences of various forms of national restrictions in multinational military operations (MMOs). This paper aims to make a conceptual contribution to this literature by developing a theoretical framework of national restrictions on the use of military force that disting...
Article
Full-text available
This paper argues that there is a need to question whether parliamentary involvement actually leads to the intended effects of increased democratic deliberation and responsiveness. We compare the unintended consequences of parliamentary votes on the use of force in two ‘most-different cases’: Canada and Germany. Despite substantive differences in t...
Article
Full-text available
While parliaments have long been neglected actors in the analysis of security policy, recent studies indicate a slowly growing research literature on the subject. This introduction to a special issue on parliaments in security policy critically reviews this literature. It argues that current research is focused primarily on how parliaments, relying...
Chapter
Full-text available
Whether in multilateral negotiations or bilateral meetings, government leaders regularly engage in “two-level games” played simultaneously at the domestic and the international level. From the two-level-games perspective, executives are seen as “chief negotiators” that are involved in some form of international negotiations for which they ultimatel...
Conference Paper
Parliamentary influence on security policy has received increased attention in recent years. While a new strand of literature has shown that democracies are characterized by substantial variance in the formal-institutional legislative control and oversight of military deployments (parliamentary war powers), research also shows that security policy...
Chapter
Full-text available
Article
All Necessary Measures: The United Nations and Humanitarian Intervention. By Walling Carrie Booth . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013. 320p. $75.00. - Volume 14 Issue 1 - Patrick A. Mello
Conference Paper
To which extent has political practice under the recent coalition between Conservatives and Liberal Democrats (2010-2015) reflected the emergence of a new convention on parliamentary approval in the United Kingdom? From an institutional perspective one would not expect substantial parliamentary influence on decision-making in security policy. Yet,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When do democracies become ‘unreliable’ alliance partners? Existing studies make conflicting claims about the alliance behavior of democracies. Some argue that democratic leaders are hardly constrained by domestic considerations in their decision-making, even when the public is largely opposed to a military commitment. Others contest that domestic...
Chapter
Full-text available
Asymmetric warfare is commonly defined as a mode of combat where the aims, means, or methods of the conflict parties are substantively dissimilar. Most scholars further presume a gaping power disparity between the warring parties in asymmetric conflicts. However, a two-fold distinction can be made, separating asymmetry of strength from asymmetry of...
Article
When do democracies become ‘unreliable’ alliance partners? Existing studies make conflicting claims about the alliance behavior of democracies. Some argue that democratic leaders are hardly constrained by domestic considerations in their decision-making, even when the public is largely opposed to a military commitment. Others contest that domestic...
Chapter
Full-text available
The end of the Cold War did not abolish armed conflict, but it coincided with a substantial decline in the total number of violent outbreaks around the globe. At the same time, though, the number of internal wars increased substantially, making these the dominant form of conflict of the contemporary era. These empirical trends prompted a lively deb...
Conference Paper
The centrality of 'institutional constraints' as an important part of the explanation for the interdemocratic peace – and democratic conflict behavior more generally – has long been emphasized. Yet, albeit a few exceptions, the literature on democracy and conflict involvement has largely neglected this source of intrademocratic variation. This back...
Chapter
When President Barack H. Obama announced on August 31, 2010, that “Operation Iraqi Freedom” was officially over (US-WH, 2010), he put an end to what has arguably been the most controversial war democracies have fought in the post-Cold War era. During the past two decades democratic states have used substantial military force on a number of occasion...
Chapter
The empirical analysis of subsequent chapters in this book is based on fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA). This chapter introduces the methodological approach of fsQCA, placing emphasis on its core principles, specific terminology, and analytical procedures. In the first two sections, I justify the methodological choice of a set-the...
Chapter
On March 24, 1999, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) initiated air strikes against targets in the Kosovo province of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). This military operation was preceded by a long political crisis between Western governments and the Serbian political leadership under Slobodan Milošević — a conflict that had esc...
Chapter
This chapter traces the debate about democracy and war involvement.1 Prevailing explanations of democratic conflict behavior can be grouped along three broad categories that emphasize distinct causal factors: domestic institutional constraints, political preferences, and external constraints and inducements. The first section revisits arguments on...
Chapter
On December 5, 2011, international representatives returned to the Petersberg near Bonn to negotiate the terms of a continued commitment to Afghanistan. Ten years earlier, politicians, diplomats, and military leaders had convened in the same place to find a common ground for governance in Afghanistan after the ousting of the Taliban.1 As a result o...
Chapter
Based on the preceding discussion of democracy and war involvement, this chapter develops the theoretical framework and hypotheses to be tested in the comparative case studies of Chapters 5–7. The following sections elaborate on the theoretical expectations, whereas Table 3.1 provides a summary of the hypotheses advanced in each section.
Chapter
At the outset, this book asked under which conditions democracies participate in armed conflict. This research question emerged against the backdrop of a recent “democratic turn” in security studies (Geis and Wagner, 2011), which enlarged the scope of the democratic peace research program by focusing on democratic conflict involvement. While there...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Comparative researchers are increasingly turning to fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) as an analytic tool for social scientific inquiry. In line with its growing popularity, authors have begun to compile "good practices" of QCA usage to avoid methodological pitfalls due to insufficient attention to the underlying principles of the...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, comparative researchers have increasingly turned to Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) and fuzzy sets as analytic tools for social scientific inquiry. In this context, several publications have begun to address potential pitfalls in applying QCA when researchers are not paying attention to the underlying principles of the appro...
Article
Full-text available
This paper seeks to explain democracies’ military participation in the Iraq War. Prior studies have identified institutional and partisan differences as potential explanatory factors for the observed variance. The interaction of institutions and partisanship, however, has gone largely unobserved. I argue that these factors must be analysed in conju...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Während die etablierte Forschung zum Demokratischen Frieden sich fast ausschließlich auf potentiell friedensfördernde demokratische Institutionen und Normen konzentriert hat, betrachtet ein jüngerer Forschungsstrang die „Kehrseite” demokratischer Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik: die Beteiligung von Demokratien an Kriegen und militärischen Interventio...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study investigates why and under which conditions democracies decided to join the military intervention in Afghanistan that begun as “Operation Enduring Freedom” in 2001. The paper develops a concept of military participation and examines the extent to which thirty democratic governments decided to participate or abstain in the Afghanistan war...
Article
Full-text available
Essay Contribution to ‘”Boot Camp”: Ten Years of Qualitative and Multi-Method Research’, edited by Colin Elman, Newsletter of the American Political Science Association Organized Section for Qualitative & Multi-Method Research.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper seeks to identify sources of institutional and political variation among democracies to account for observable differences in conflict behavior. After briefly revisiting the debate on democracy and war, the paper provides a fuzzy-set analysis of thirty democracies’ military participation in the Iraq War. Prior studies have identified ins...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How do different configurations of democratic subtypes and government partisanship affect participation in armed conflict? In this paper I discuss the findings of recent studies and suggest an alternative theoretical approach that combines the analysis of institutional and partisan factors. The empirical part analyzes twenty-six democracies’ degree...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The attention devoted to the interdemocratic peace proposition stands in contrast to a lack of studies that comparatively investigate the use of military force by democracies against non-democratic regimes and non-state actors. Salient questions have remained unanswered: Under which conditions do democratic institutions serve as constraints on exec...
Article
Full-text available
This article examines the literature on ‘new wars’ as it evolved in Germany, Great Britain and the USA. In order to gain an overview of this heterogeneous field of research five hypotheses are derived concerning characteristics of ‘new wars’: (1) the erosion of the state’s monopoly on the use of force; (2) the political economy of ‘new wars’; (3) ‘...

Questions

Questions (4)
Question
I am looking for concise introductory texts on "internet governance", preferably from an international relations / political science angle.
Ideally these would be texts from 2016 or 2017, to take into account recent developments.
What do you recommend?
Best,
Patrick
Question
For an upcoming roundtable at ISA Baltimore, I’d be happy to hear any predictions and ideas you might have about the future relationship between Canada and the United States under a Trump Administration.
Relatedly, how does this affect the relationship between Europe and Canada - will it lead to more or less cooperation in economic, security and other policy areas?
Question
I want to explore 10-15 years of media coverage data for several countries (including the US, UK, Germany, and several other countries). I'm mostly interested in the number of newspaper articles that mention certain keywords. LexisNexis is one option, but the database does not seem to include several high-profile newspapers for the time-period I'm interested in (2000-2017).
I'd be happy to hear your suggestions!

Network

Cited By

Projects

Projects (7)
Project
The Handbook offers 36 concise chapters from a diverse international group of contributors, covering the full range of new and established methods and approaches of foreign policy analysis. Each chapter follows the same structured approach, discussing strengths, requirements, and limitations, while illustrating the respective method or approach with examples from empirical research.
Project
Qualitative Comparative Analysis: An Introduction to Research Design and Application is a comprehensive guide to the method of QCA and its successful empirical application. As QCA becomes increasingly popular in the social sciences, this book provides step-by-step guidance on how to turn a research project into a QCA study, and how to interpret and present analytical findings in publications. Following an ideal-typical research cycle, the book’s ten chapters cover the methodological basis and analytical routine of QCA, as well as matters of research design, causation and causal complexity, QCA variants, and an up-to-date account of the method’s reception in the social sciences. A comprehensive glossary helps to clarify the meaning of frequently used terms. The book is complemented by an accessible R Manual to enable new users to implement the analytical steps with their own data and to practice on sample data.
Project
Foreign policy (making) has changed dramatically since the end of the Cold War. While a number of evolutions, like European integration and enlargement, have affected a large number of countries in a very similar way, there have also been a number of very country-specific evolutions or dynamics like, for example, the consecutive institutional reforms in Belgium, or the 'Brexit' of the United Kingdom from the EU. Similarly, focusing events like the attacks on the World Trade Center and the financial crisis have forced themselves onto the political agenda of many countries, while terrorist attacks in Madrid, London, Paris and Brussels occurred in a very different (international and domestic) contexts and affected these countries in very different ways. No previous work has examined foreign policy change across a large number of countries in a systematic and comparative way. The goal of this project is twofold. First, we aim to assess and understand the major foreign policy changes that have occurred in a wide range of countries. Second, we aim to look at the differences and similarities among the dynamics of change to come to a better understanding of why and how countries reorient their foreign policy focus. The innovative aspect of this project is that it provides a unique opportunity to discern patterns in the dynamics of change trough systematic comparison; what are the drivers and inhibitors of change? We aim to do so by examining “European” countries. While this limits us to the strict European context, this also provides the advantage of comparability and coherence. The goal is to qualitatively assess and describe the evolutions that have occurred in specific countries, supported by empirical evidence wherever possible. Finally, we believe there is both an academic and practitioner’s need for such a project. On the one hand, academia has, so far, not been very successful in explaining foreign policy change, as most theories focus on the stability of the international system. On the other hand, practitioners and scholars currently lack decent scientific work on the (recent) evolutions in foreign policy in specific countries, on the drivers of change, the impact of external and domestic events, as well as on the role of political actors and institutions.