Patrick I. Mclaughlin

Patrick I. Mclaughlin
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign | UIUC

Ph. D.

About

93
Publications
19,834
Reads
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1,396
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Introduction
My research focus is chronostratigraphically constrained Earth systems science—integrating facies analysis, stable isotope geochemistry, lithogeochemistry, tephrochronology, taphonomy, and paleoecology within a sequence stratigraphic framework to recover a comprehensive understanding of Earth history and the processes that govern the evolution of life on the planet over a range of time scales. Studies with my students and collaborators span Paleoproterozoic to Pliocene records on three continents.
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - present
Indiana University Bloomington
Position
  • Researcher
September 2015 - March 2019
Indiana University Bloomington
Position
  • Researcher
July 2007 - August 2015
University of Wisconsin–Madison
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
This study characterizes Pennsylvanian paleosols from coal-bearing strata in Indiana, with the main emphasis on the abundance and distribution of rare earth elements (REE) and lithium (Li). Eleven locations in southwest Indiana were selected for this study, targeting paleosols of both the Carbondale Group and Raccoon Creek Group. Most paleosols wer...
Article
Full-text available
Paleozoic astrochronologies are limited by uncertainties in past astronomical configurations and the availability of complete stratigraphic sections with precise, independent age control. We show it is possible to reconstruct a robust Paleozoic ~104-yr-resolution astrochronology in the well-preserved and thick Upper Ordovician reference record of A...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Wabash #1 well, drilled for the Carbon Safe Wabash Project and located in West Terre Haute, Vigo County, Indiana, was drilled in early 2020 as a stratigraphic test well to characterize and evaluate the basal Cambrian Mt. Simon Sandstone for carbon dioxide storage (TD=8750 ft). The Wabash #1 well is located along the eastern flank of a newly def...
Article
The objective of this study was to evaluate rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) concentrations in Pennsylvanian coal-bearing strata in the eastern part of the Illinois Basin (Indiana), specifically targeting coals and marine shales associated with the coals. Samples were collected from several coal mines and three boreholes. In total, 105 samples...
Article
Integration of sedimentologic, chemostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and geochronologic data identifies the profound influence that sudden bursts of carbonate sedimentation, sea-level oscillation, and hypersalinity, associated with Ireviken and Mulde carbon cycle perturbations, had on the evolution of the Michigan Basin during the Silurian. Conodon...
Article
Thermal maturation of organic matter in sedimentary rocks is a complex process controlled by multiple parameters. In this study, we examined the thermal history of one location in the Indiana part of the Illinois Basin. A total of 21 samples spanning the time interval from the Ordovician to the Mississippian were selected for maturity assessment an...
Article
The principal purpose of this research is to investigate whether elemental chemistry obtained by a portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) analyzer can aid in correlating lithostratigraphic units within the Pennsylvanian coal-bearing sequence of the eastern part of the Illinois Basin in Indiana. The study is based on data collected from four boreholes: I...
Article
The Upper Ordovician Cincinnatian Series is a critical upper Katian reference succession. Previously, six 3rd-order depositional sequences (C1 to C6) have been recognized and frequently used as regional time slices. Recent research, however, indicates a need for revision and additions, including the recognition of additional 3rd- and 4th-order sequ...
Article
Full-text available
The first appearance of pinnacle reef tracts, composed of hundreds to thousands of localized biogenic structures protruding tens to hundreds of meters above the surrounding mid-Silurian seafloor, represents a step change in the evolution of the marine biosphere. This change in seafloor morphology opened a host of new ecological niches that served a...
Article
Pinnacle reef tracts are geomorphic features of carbonate systems that originated in the early Silurian and display an episodic distribution into the Cenozoic. Detailed study of Silurian pinnacle reefs of the United States midcontinent demonstrates repeated motifs, but most enigmatic is the coincidence of carbonate carbon isotope (δ ¹³ C carb ) exc...
Article
The Cincinnati Arch region of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana is an icon of North American Paleozoic stratigraphy, as it exposes strata ranging from Ordovician to Pennsylvanian in age. In particular, the highly fossiliferous Ordovician, Silurian, and Middle Devonian successions have been extensively studied since the nineteenth century, and continue to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Kinderhookian Borden Formation is an extensive clastic body that occurs at the base of the Mississippian section in the Illinois Basin. It consists primarily of siltstone with lesser amounts of shale, sandstone and limestone. Elemental analysis (pXRF) of a new core from Morgan County, Indiana revealed zirconium peaks associated with sandy inter...
Article
Revised time-scales for the Devonian Period have highlighted major discrepancies in the frequency of evolutionary, eustatic, carbon cycle, and biotic events. The number of conodont biozones per million years shows strong variation among stages. Using two alternative time scales, the lowest values are in the Emsian and highest in the Givetian, Frasn...
Article
This study uses detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from shallow-water carbonates of the Bighorn Dolomite in Wyoming, USA, to provide robust evidence for long-distance eolian sediment transport during the Ordovician. The Bighorn Dolomite was deposited in a shallow-water carbonate platform that developed approximately 107 south of the Ordovician pale...
Article
New and published data are integrated herein to resolve the age and stratigraphic relationships for problematic strata of the Aeronian and Telychian (Llandovery; Silurian) in Ohio and Kentucky (USA). At least two major depositional sequences were traced along the eastern flank of the Cincinnati Arch; these are separated by a regionally angular unco...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study utilizes detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology from shallow-water carbonates of the Bighorn Dolomite in Wyoming, USA to provide robust evidence for long-distance eolian sediment transport during the Ordovician. The Bighorn Dolomite was deposited in a shallow water carbonate platform that developed approximately 10 degrees south of the Ordov...
Article
New high-resolution chemostratigraphy, in combination with updated biostratigraphy, refines the chronostratigraphic resolution of the nearly 2 kmthick Ordovician section below Anticosti Island. A total of 1414 horizons, spaced at 1.0–1.5m intervals, were sampled from the New Associated Consolidated Paper (NACP) drill core and analyzed for major and...
Article
Constraining the age of strata is a fundamental source of uncertainty in the study of sedimentary rocks, particularly in restricted basins that generally lack index fossils. An illustrative example of this is the evaporite-bearing Salina Group in the Michigan Basin. Our integrated study of facies, paleontology, and stable isotope geochemistry from...
Article
Full-text available
Facies and carbon isotope analysis of a series of four drill cores from Cincinnati, Ohio provide an opportunity to assess Late Ordovician paleoenvironmental variability along the margin of the Sebree Trough, an intracratonic basin associated with Taconian far-field tectonics. The cores provide stratigraphic data for an approximately 50km long NE-SW...
Article
A restudy of the palynology of the Whirlpool Formation and Power Glen Formation in New York (USA) yielded a diverse fossil assemblage with cryptospores, glomalean fungi, acritarchs, chitinozoans, scolecodonts, and small carbonaceous fossils. These new data, and particularly the presence of the chitinozoan index fossil Hercochitina crickmayi, combin...
Conference Paper
The “Utica Formation” and “Point Pleasant" (mixed shale and thin limestones) of driller’s terminology is a major target for unconventional oil and gas development in eastern Ohio, and is the largest producing unit in the state of Ohio. Despite major production yields from this unit, the paleoenvironmental interpretations, stratigraphic nomenclature...
Conference Paper
Our evaluation of the worlds sedimentary phosphate deposits suggests that each year an estimated 56,000 metric tons (t) of rare earth elements (REEs), including 23,000 t of heavy REEs (HREEs), are mined, beneficiated, and put into solution, but not recovered, by operations associated with the global phosphate fertilizer industry. Leaching experimen...
Article
Full-text available
The early Late Ordovician sedimentary rocks of eastern North America contain a relatively large number (>100) of widespread heavily altered tephra layers (K-bentonites). These beds represent an intense period of subaerial volcanism that occurred from ca. 455 to 449 Ma. The sedimentary rocks that contain these K-bentonites display complex regional l...
Article
Full-text available
New and published stratigraphic data are integrated herein to resolve the age and correlation of the Waco Member (Alger Shale Formation), a problematic Telychian lithostratigraphic unit exposed in east-central Kentucky (United States). This interval is correlated with strata presently assigned to the Dayton Member of the Drowning Creek Formation in...
Article
Full-text available
The critical role of rare earth elements (REEs), particularly heavy REEs (HREEs), in high-tech industries has created a surge in demand that is quickly outstripping known global supply and has triggered a worldwide scramble to discover new sources. The chemical analysis of 23 sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) in the United States demons...
Poster
Full-text available
The uppermost Silurian unit in Wisconsin is the Waubakee Formation, a finely-laminated dolostone deposited in restricted, hypersaline environments. Although its upper contact is clearly marked by a major unconformity below mid-Devonian strata, the lower boundary is lithologically cryptic, even with high-resolution elemental geochemistry generated u...
Article
The Ordovician–Silurian contact in parts of the Cincinnati Arch region is an irregularly pitted erosion surface reflecting karstic weathering during a lower-mid Silurian (Aeronian) lowstand, superimposed on the Hirnantian–Rhuddanian Cherokee Unconformity. This irregular unconformity is overlain by a unit termed the “golden Brassfield”, which grades...
Article
Full-text available
The exact age of Silurian rocks in eastern Wisconsin is uncertain; biostratigraphic precision here approximates +/- 2 million years. Much of this ambiguity stems from limited surface exposure, poor biostratigraphic control, and prominent facies changes north of the well-studied sections in southeastern Wisconsin. The primary objective of this study...
Conference Paper
Phosphate particles in the Upper Ordovician (Cincinnatian) of the Cincinnati region are common, originate as <0.5 mm pore fillings in bioclasts, and are visibly concentrated in some grainstones. These grainstones developed as shells accumulated during periods of low sediment input, episodic winnowing, and obrution. This suggests that an organism in...
Article
Episodes of instability in the global climato-oceanic system have become the hallmark of the Silurian Period. These events are marked by six large positive carbon isotope excursions associated with major extinctions. The widespread environmental consequences of these perturbations of the global carbon cycle remain poorly documented. A high-resoluti...
Article
Full-text available
The term “time-specific facies” (TSF) was introduced to the scientific community by the late Otto H. Walliser to refer to unique facies typical of particular narrow intervals, some of which were related to bioevents. In some senses, however, the concept was recognized much earlier and is even engrained in the very names of some geologic periods. Th...
Article
Recent detailed studies of the physical, bio-, and chemostratigraphy of upper Llandovery to middle Wenlock strata of the Cincinnati Arch area, primarily SW Ohio and SE Indiana and to a lesser extent west-central Kentucky, indicate a regionally extensive pattern of units, correlatable in detail over more than 30,000 sq. km. This relatively simple st...
Chapter
Full-text available
The fossiliferous and oolitic ironstones of the Clinton Group (Silurian, late Llandovery to early Wenlock) in central New York have inspired considerable interest since the early surveys of Eaton in the 1820s. Although these ores have never been mined on industrial scales, they were processed extensively up to the mid 1900s for oxides used in red p...
Article
Full-text available
New data and review of classic sections from the Middle and Upper Ordovician North American Midcontinent in the Upper Mississippi Valley provide a refined picture of the age, stable isotope geochemistry, faunal composition, and—ultimately— origin of this epeiric ramp succession. Sequence stratigraphic analysis reveals a series of unconformity-bound...
Article
Cramer, B.D., Brett, C.E., Melchin, M.J., Männik, P., Kleffner, M.A., McLaughlin, P.I., Loydell, D.K., Munnecke, A., Jeppsson, L., Corradini, C., Brunton, F.R. & Saltzman, M.R. 2011: Revised correlation of Silurian Provincial Series of North America with global and regional chronostratigraphic units and δ13Ccarb chemostratigraphy. Lethaia, Vol. 44,...