Patrick Mcknight

Patrick Mcknight
George Mason University | GMU · Department of Psychology

Ph.D.

About

105
Publications
156,535
Reads
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5,546
Citations
Introduction
I am a social scientist with a broad range of interests. Most of my work focuses on measurement and methods but those topics tend to get embedded into content areas such as anxiety, depression, and various debilitating illnesses.
Education
August 1992 - December 1997
The University of Arizona
Field of study
  • Psychology
September 1989 - December 1991
The University of Arizona
Field of study
  • Exercise and Sports Science
August 1984 - May 1988
University of Notre Dame
Field of study
  • Mechanical Engineering

Publications

Publications (105)
Article
Much has been discovered about well-being since 1998, when positive psychology entered the lexicon. Among the wide range of areas in positive psychology, in this commentary we discuss recent discoveries on (1) distinctions between meaning in life, a sense of purpose, and happiness, (2) psychological or personality strengths and the benefits of part...
Article
Approximately 15-20% of adult women in the United States have been sexually assaulted. Given the high prevalence of sexual assault, it becomes increasingly important to understand immediate responses to sexual assault. A lack of information prior to sexual assaults contributes to a literature that is unable to showcase the presence and amount of ch...
Article
Psychological flexibility (PF), defined as the ability to pursue valued life aims despite the presence of distress, is a fundamental contributor to health (Kashdan & Rottenberg, 2010). Existing measures of PF have failed to consider the valued goals that give context for why people are willing to manage distress. Using 4 independent samples and 3 f...
Article
Curiosity is a fundamental human motivation that influences learning, the acquisition of knowledge, and life fulfillment. Our ability to understand the benefits (and costs) of being a curious person hinges on adequate assessment. Synthesizing decades of prior research, our goal was to improve a well-validated, multi-dimensional measure of curiosity...
Article
Objectives: It has been recommended that clinical trials of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) would be more ecologically valid if its characteristic mode of diagnostic reasoning were integrated into their design. In that context, however, it is also widely held that demonstrating a high level of agreement on initial TCM diagnoses is necessary for...
Article
Background: The diagnostic framework and clinical reasoning process of Chinese medicine are central to the practice of acupuncture and other related disciplines. There is growing interest in integrating it into clinical trials of acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine to guide individualized treatment protocols and evaluate outcomes. Strategies th...
Article
Curiosity is a fundamental human motive that is beginning to garner closer attention by researchers and practitioners interested in workplace functioning. Recent work suggests that rather than designating someone as possessing curiosity or not, there is benefit in detailing the various elements of curiosity. To date, there is no research on how mul...
Preprint
Full-text available
Curiosity is a fundamental human motivation that influences learning, the acquisition of knowledge, and life fulfillment. Our ability to understand the benefits (and costs) of being a curious person hinges on adequate assessment. Synthesizing decades of prior research, our goal was to improve a well-validated, multi-dimensional measure of curiosity...
Preprint
Approximately 15-20% of adult women in the United States have been sexually assaulted. To our knowledge, there are no studies capturing prior functioning and near immediate psychological reactions of sexual assault survivors. In the present study, each night over the course of three weeks, we asked college students to report on their sexual activit...
Article
Full-text available
Despite growing research interest in distress tolerance (DT), studies have routinely neglected the role that DT plays in close, interpersonal relationships and how DT fluctuates from 1 day to the next. In addition, an understanding of DT hinges on the presence of distress, yet existing studies have failed to include distress in conceptual and analy...
Article
Evaluation of college instructors often centers on course ratings; however, there is little evidence that these ratings only reflect teaching. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative importance of three facets of course ratings: instructor, course and occasion. We sampled 2,459 fully-crossed dyads from a large university where two inst...
Article
Führungskräfte freuen sich über neugierige Mitarbeiter. Behaupten sie jedenfalls. In Wirklichkeit unterdrücken viele von ihnen die Wissbegier systematisch. Wie es besser geht, erfahren Sie im neuen Harvard Business Manager.
Article
Full-text available
Detecting a pattern within a sequence of ordered units, defined as patterning, is a cognitive ability that is important in learning mathematics and influential in learning to read. The present study was designed to examine relations between first-grade children’s executive functions, patterning, and reading abilities, and to examine whether these r...
Preprint
Full-text available
Curiosity is a fundamental human motive that is beginning to garner closer attention by researchers and practitioners interested in workplace functioning. Recent work suggests that rather than designating someone as possessing curiosity, there is benefit in detailing the various elements of curiosity. To date, there is no research on how multiple d...
Article
Expanded partnership with the medical community is a promising strategy for reducing disparities in dental caries among young children. However, no validated caries risk instrument exists for use in primary health care settings. To help resolve this gap, a 52-item caries risk questionnaire was developed and targeted to primary caregivers (PCGs) to...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The present study examined the proposition that patients need to focus on something beyond simply "getting better". In a sample of arthritis sufferers, we distinguished individuals by the goals that motivated them - moving toward aspirational goals and maximizing gains (promotion focus) rather than obligations and minimizing losses (pre...
Article
Recent changes to health care reimbursement and funding have made cost-effectiveness analyses more relevant for pediatric psychologists. Evaluating and presenting uncertainty around cost-effectiveness estimates is important for proper reporting of results and represents one area where pediatric psychologists may have limited training. This article...
Article
Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) have difficulty engaging in social situations because their actions are predicated on minimizing the subjectively biased high potential for rejection. That is, individuals with SAD frequently perceive social situations as challenging, and their performance as subpar. Yet when individuals perceive thems...
Article
Full-text available
Is gratitude developmentally related to improvements in social behavior? This study examined 566 adolescents (51.6% female, M age = 11.95 years at baseline, 68.0% White, 11.0% African-American, 9.9% Asian-American, 1.9% Hispanic, 8.8% ‘Other’) from middle school to high school for 4 years. Controlling for social desirability, age, SES, and gender,...
Article
Full-text available
Multiple informants - compared to single informants - better inform the clinical assessment and the diagnosis of psychopathology. The Operations Triad Model (OTM; De Los Reyes et al. 2013a) provides researchers with a conceptual framework for integrating information from multiple informants into research settings. We simplified this model by: 1) id...
Article
Since the origins of psychology, curiosity has occupied a pivotal position in the study of motivation, emotion, and cognition; and disciplines as far-ranging as biology, economics, robotics, and leadership. Theorists have disagreed about the basic tenets of curiosity; some researchers contend that the rewards arise when resolving ambiguity and unce...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring workload accurately is critical for human factors research and applications. However, if the instruments we use to measure workload are burdensome for participants to complete, we may find ourselves in the ironic position of increasing workload simply by measuring it. We present a pair of studies that suggest the NASA-TLX, a widely-used w...
Article
Sex is rarely discussed in theories of well-being and rarely empirically examined using methods other than cross-sectional surveys. In the present study, a daily diary approach was used (for 21 days with 152 adults) to explore the relationship between the presence and quality of sexual episodes and well-being (positive affect, negative affect, mean...
Article
Full-text available
A Target Animal Safety protocol was used to examine adverse events in male and female Fischer F344/NTac rats treated with increasing doses of a subcutaneous implant of a lipid suspension of buprenorphine. A single injection of 0.65 mg/kg afforded clinically significant blood levels of drug for 3 days. Chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urinaly...
Article
Three studies using samples of people in romantic relationships were conducted to create a new individual difference measure of partner strengths in couples. The 2 perceptions of partner strengths included (1) appreciation of their use and effectiveness and (2) recognition of costs associated with their use. Factor analyses supported 2-factors and...
Article
Full-text available
We interact daily with computers that appear and behave like humans. Some researchers propose that people apply the same social norms to computers as they do to humans, suggesting that social psychological knowledge can be applied to our interactions with computers. In contrast, theories of human-automation interaction postulate that humans respond...
Article
Full-text available
We take a look at crowdsourcing for subjective image quality evaluation using real image stimuli with nonsimulated distortions. Our aim is to scale the task of subjectively rating images while ensuring maximal data validity and accuracy. While previous work has begun to explore crowdsourcing for quality assessment, it has either used images that ar...
Article
Full-text available
Although a large body of research shows that general cognitive ability is heritable and stable in young adults, there is recent evidence that fluid intelligence can be heightened with cognitive training. Many researchers, however, have questioned the methodology of the cognitive-training studies reporting improvements in fluid intelligence: specifi...
Article
Full-text available
Extraversion—one of the Big 5 personality factors—correlates negatively with vigilance, but most studies focus on performance outcomes and not the performance process. Previous research has shown that transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD), which measures cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), can be used to examine resource allocation strategies duri...
Article
Full-text available
Extended-release buprenorphine is an effective analgesic in laboratory animals, and its safety has been established in mice but not in rats. The authors used a target animal safety trial to evaluate the safety of extended-release buprenorphine in rats. Fischer 344 rats received post-surgical subcutaneous injections of 1.3 mg, 3.9 mg or 6.5 mg bupre...
Article
Researchers and clinicians assume a strong, positive correlation between anxiety symptoms and functional impairment. That assumption may be well-justified since diagnostic criteria typically include functional impairment. Still, the relationship remains largely unavailable in any systematic review. Our aim with this paper was to provide empirical e...
Article
Full-text available
This study developed and evaluated a brief training program for grant reviewers that aimed to increase inter-rater reliability, rating scale knowledge, and effort to read the grant review criteria. Enhancing reviewer training may improve the reliability and accuracy of research grant proposal scoring and funding recommendations. Seventy-five Public...
Article
Are all bullies unhappy and socially disconnected? The majority of theorists argue that bullies are a homogeneous group, such that their aggression is linked to less happiness and a greater probability of social exclusion. Recent findings, however, indicate some bullies obtain social benefits from the act of bullying, increasing their happiness. We...
Article
Being able to carefully perceive and distinguish the rich complexity in emotional experiences is a key component of psychological interventions. We review research in clinical, social, and health psychology that offers insights into the adaptive value of putting feelings into words with a high degree of complexity (i.e., emotion differentiation or...
Article
Full-text available
Big data sets can be cumbersome and difficult to understand. User-centered and interactive graphical displays help communicate messages from large and complex data as well as provide a new method to identify data trends outside of tabular or statistical analysis. Human factors researchers can utilize data visuals to not only develop but also answer...
Article
Disruptions to daily living, inflammation, and astrogliosis are characteristics of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, circadian rhythms, nest construction, IL-1β and TNF-α, and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were examined in a mouse model developed to model late-onset Alzheimer's disease-the most common form of the disease. Mice carrying both the m...
Article
Prior research suggests that laughter is correlated with resilience and well-being. To date, there is little research on the subsequent social benefits following laughter with another person. We hypothesized that laughing with another person would be associated with greater social rewards in subsequent social interactions. Using a two-week daily di...
Conference Paper
Expanded partnership with the medical community is a promising and necessary strategy for reducing disparities in dental caries among young children. Objective: To develop a self-administered, simple-to-score caries risk tool to identify toddlers at risk of developing caries through medical settings. Methods: A psychometrically defensible, 52-item...
Article
Nonsuicidal self-injury is especially common in adolescents and young adults. Self-injury may be related to shame or guilt-two moral emotions-as these differentially predict other maladaptive behaviors. Using a college sample, we examined not only how shame-proneness, guilt-proneness, and internalizing emotional tendencies related to self-injury, b...
Article
Full-text available
Research Findings: In each of 16 public school classrooms serving multiethnic low-income neighborhoods, 2 first graders were assigned to be taught patterning, 2 to be taught reading, 2 to be taught mathematics, and 2 to be taught social studies for 15-min sessions 3 days per week for 6 months. Assignment within each classroom was randomized. The ch...
Article
This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal,...
Article
Although automated systems have decreased the information-processing load on workers and have increased productivity, studies have shown that automation can have serious drawbacks, such as reductions in operator vigilance that can lead to decreased detection of critical events. Transcranial Doppler sonography (TCD) is a tool used to measure cerebra...
Article
A growing literature attests to deficits in social and romantic life quality in people with elevated social anxiety, but no research to date has explored how intense intimate encounters influence social anxiety symptoms. This study investigated whether the presence and quality of sexual activity on a given day predicted less social anxiety and nega...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the increased attention that researchers have paid to social anxiety disorder (SAD), compared with other anxiety and mood disorders, relatively little is known about the emotional and social factors that distinguish individuals who meet diagnostic criteria from those who do not. In this study, participants with and without a diagnosis of SA...
Article
Recent acceptance- and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral interventions explicitly target the clarification and commitment to a purpose in life. Yet, scant empirical evidence exists on the value of purpose as a mechanism relevant to psychopathology or well-being. The present research explored daily (within-person) fluctuations in purposeful pur...
Article
Full-text available
Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples...
Data
Full-text available
Diminished positive experiences and events might be part of the phenomenology of social anxiety; however, much of this research is cross-sectional by design, limiting our understanding of the everyday lives of socially anxious people. Sexuality is a primary source of positive experiences. We theorized that people with elevated social anxiety would...
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have assumed a dichotomy between human-human trust (HHT) and human-automation trust (HAT). With the advent of cognitive agents, entities that are neither machine nor human, it is important to revisit this theory. Some claim that HHT and HAT are the same concept and propose that people respond socially to more human automation. Others sa...
Article
Prior research suggests that rumination and chronic negative emotions serve to maintain emotional disorders. However, some evidence suggests that pondering the nature and meaning of negative experiences can be adaptive. To better understand the function of this dimension of rumination, we studied the use of this strategy in response to negative emo...
Article
Curious people seek knowledge and new experiences. In 3 studies, we examined whether, when, and how curiosity contributes to positive social outcomes between unacquainted strangers. Study 1 (98 college students) showed that curious people expect to generate closeness during intimate conversations but not during small talk; less curious people antic...
Article
Several self-report scales of marital satisfaction exist, but many are too lengthy for research protocols, and none allow for parallel assessment of satisfaction in non-romantic relationships. This paper presents results from the assessment of satisfaction in multiple types of close relationships with slight adaptations to the wording of the seven-...
Article
As technology develops, social robots and synthetic avatars might begin to play more of a role in our lives. An influential theory of the perception of synthetic agents states that as they begin to look and move in a more human-like way, they elicit profound discomfort in the observer--an effect known as the Uncanny Valley. Previous attempts to exa...
Article
Our present social sciences are at risk of losing sight of their primary purpose: the goal of reducing uncertainty. For years social scientists have drifted slowly toward the routine of employing of accepted methodological, conceptual, and analytical tools rather than engaging in problem oriented inquiry. Scientific contributions are reviewed in ac...
Article
Our present social sciences are at risk of losing sight of their primary purpose: the goal of reducing uncertainty. For years social scientists have drifted slowly toward the routine of employing of accepted methodological, conceptual, and analytical tools rather than engaging in problem oriented inquiry. Scientific contributions are reviewed in ac...
Article
This special issue of Journal of Personality, composed of eight original articles, attends to the intersection of intrapersonal and interpersonal processes. Articles adopt a contextual approach to personality with attention to the need to belong (and the lack thereof), self-presentation concerns and styles, sexuality, curiosity, self-regulatory str...
Article
Diminished positive experiences and events might be part of the phenomenology of social anxiety; however, much of this research is cross-sectional by design, limiting our understanding of the everyday lives of socially anxious people. Sexuality is a primary source of positive experiences. We theorized that people with elevated social anxiety would...
Article
The use of latent curve models (LCMs) has increased almost exponentially during the last decade. Oftentimes, researchers regard LCM as a "new" method to analyze change with little attention paid to the fact that the technique was originally introduced as an "alternative to standard repeated measures ANOVA and first-order auto-regressive methods" (M...
Article
Interruptions are a disruptive force in both our professional and personal lives. In order to develop the most comprehensive mitigation strategies, it is essential to gain insight into what factors affect the disruptiveness of interruptions. Although a significant body of research has approached this problem from the systems and tasks sides, the ro...
Article
Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) Modeling and Simulation Division (MSD) sensor models, such as NV Therm IP, are developed through perception experiments that investigate phenomena associated with sensor performance (e.g. sampling, noise, sensitivity). A standardized laboratory perception testing method developed in the mid-19...
Article
The majority of definitions, research studies, and treatment programs that focus on social anxiety characterize the prototypical person with the disorder as shy, submissive, inhibited, and risk averse. This stereotype, however, has been challenged recently. Specifically, a subset of people with social anxiety who are aggressive, impulsive novelty s...
Article
Full-text available
Prescription of resistance training (RT) exercises is an essential aspect of management for knee osteoarthritis (OA). However, whether patients with knee OA who are randomly assigned to receive RT simply substitute RT for other modes of physical activity remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a structured RT intervent...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess the relative effects of coping self-efficacy and catastrophizing on physical functioning. Over a 9-month period, studying changes in self-efficacy as possible mediator between catastrophizing changes and physical functioning changes might provide evidence for the most promising treatment target. Data came fro...
Chapter
The Mann-Whitney U test, which is also known as the Wilcoxon rank sum test, tests for differences between two groups on a single, ordinal variable with no specific distribution (Mann & Whitney, 1947; Wilcoxon, 1945). In contrast, the independent samples t-test, which is also a test of two groups, requires the single variable to be measured at the i...