Patrick Jern

Patrick Jern
Åbo Akademi University · Department of Psychology and Logopedics

Professor

About

119
Publications
43,428
Reads
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2,711
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - December 2018
Åbo Akademi University
Position
  • Professor, Head of Department
September 2014 - present
Åbo Akademi University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Description
  • Academy Researcher Fellowship (Academy of Finland).
January 2014 - August 2014
University of Turku
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Description
  • Senior Researcher Fellowship at the Turku Institute for Advanced Studies (TIAS).

Publications

Publications (119)
Preprint
Although many researchers have proposed that women will show stronger preferences for male facial masculinity when conception probability is high, empirical tests of this hypothesis have produced mixed results. One possible explanation for these inconsistent findings is that effects of conception probability on women’s preferences for facial mascul...
Preprint
Most Five-Factor Model questionnaire items contain unique variance that 1) is heritable, stable, and observable; 2) demonstrates consistent associations with age and sex, and 3) is predictive of life outcomes over and above higher-order factors. This is consistent with items indexing a unique level of the personality trait hierarchy—nuances. Extend...
Article
Background Sexual and relationship satisfaction are intimately connected and share many predictors. Aim The aim of the present study is to disentangle the relationship between sexual and relationship satisfaction, by exploring the connections to other relevant correlates. Methods Regularized mixed graphical model networks were estimated separatel...
Article
According to previous research, interest in BDSM (Bondage-Discipline, Dominance-Submission and Sadomasochism) activities is high in several European countries and various BDSM practices are not uncommon. There is a limited amount of research on the personalities of BDSM practitioners, but in previous research practitioners have been found to have b...
Article
Objectives: Risky sexual behavior among sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals) are partly attributed to mental health and other social disparities; but this may be confounded by correlated genetic and environmental influences. As preregistered, the present study investigated indirect associations between sexual minority status...
Article
Full-text available
The endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) system modulates a multitude of social and reward-related functions, and exogenous opiates also influence sex drive in humans and animals. Sex drive shows substantial variation across humans, and it is possible that individual differences in MOR availability underlie interindividual of variation in human sex...
Preprint
The endogenous mu-opioid receptor (MOR) system modulates a multitude of social and reward-related functions, and exogenous opiates also influence sex drive in humans and animals. Sex drive shows substantial variation across humans, and it is possible that individual differences in MOR availability underlie interindividual of variation in human sex...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, evolutionary psychologists have proposed that many moral stances function to promote self-interests. At the same time, behavioral geneticists have demonstrated that many moral stances have genetic bases. We integrated these perspectives by examining how moral condemnation of recreational drug use relates to sexual strategy (i....
Article
Background Evidence indicates that minority stress does not sufficiently explain mental health disparities in non-heterosexual compared to heterosexual individuals. We investigated alternative mechanisms whereby childhood factors (childhood gender nonconformity, early-life adversities and parent-child interactions) moderate the relationships betwee...
Preprint
People vary in the degree to which they enjoy eating meats versus plants. This paper examines the genetic and environmental roots of this variation, as well as the genetic and environmental roots of meat neophobia, plant neophobia, and vegetarianism/veganism. Using data from 9,319 adult Finnish twins and siblings of twins (551 MZ, 861 DZ complete;...
Article
People vary in the degree to which they enjoy eating meats versus plants. This paper examines the genetic and environmental roots of this variation, as well as the genetic and environmental roots of meat neophobia, plant neophobia, and vegetarianism/veganism. Using data from 9,319 adult Finnish twins and siblings of twins (551 MZ, 861 DZ complete;...
Article
Full-text available
Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual complaint among men, but its etiology is poorly understood. Previous studies on the dual control model of sexuality has revealed that propensities for sexual excitation and inhibition can contribute to sexual dysfunctions, but few studies have included a measure of premature ejaculation. We sought to ex...
Article
Full-text available
Research on romantic jealousy has traditionally focused on sex differences. We investigated why individuals vary in romantic jealousy, even within the sexes, using a genetically informed design of ~7700 Finnish twins and their siblings. First, we estimated genetic, shared environmental and nonshared environmental influences on jealousy, Second, we...
Article
Kaskikallio, A., Jern, P., & Westerlund, M. (2021). HEXACO-PI-R-persoonallisuuskyselyn suomenkielisen version psykometriset ominaisuudet: komponenttirakenne ja reliabiliteetit. Psykologia, 56(03).
Article
Existing work indicates that socio-political attitudes (or: ideology) are associated with personality, with Social Dominance Orientation and Right-Wing Authoritarianism relating most strongly to honesty-humility and openness to experience, the two value-related domains of the HEXACO framework. Using a sample of 7067 twins and siblings of twins (inc...
Preprint
Over the past decade, evolutionary psychologists have proposed that many moral stances function to promote self-interests, and behavioral geneticists have demonstrated that many moral stances have genetic bases. We integrate these perspectives by examining how moral condemnation of recreational drug use relates to sexual strategy (i.e., being more...
Article
Background The association between erectile dysfunction (ED), free testosterone (T), and androgenic genetic polymorphisms is still unclear. As most studies in the field have focused on older (>40 y.o.) men, data from young men is scarce. In addition, the clinically observed comorbidity between ED and premature ejaculation (PE) has not been explaine...
Article
Full-text available
Increased risky sexual behavior in sexual minorities relative to heterosexual individuals may be partly explained by mental health disparities, and both factors may be further jointly influenced by common genetic and environmental factors. However, these relationships have not been previously investigated. The objectives of the present study were t...
Article
Decades of research have shown that about half of individual differences in personality traits is heritable. Recent studies have reported that heritability is not fixed, but instead decreases across the life span. However, findings are inconsistent and it is yet unclear whether these trends are because of a waning importance of heritable tendencies...
Article
Full-text available
Dozens of studies have indicated that individuals more prone to experiencing disgust have stronger symptoms of anxiety disorders—especially contamination sensitivity. However, no work has informed the degree to which this relationship arises from genetic factors versus environmental factors. In the present study, we fill this gap by measuring disgu...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the mechanisms behind aggressive behavior (AGG) is vital so that effective prevention and intervention strategies can be developed. Maltreated children are hypothesized to be prone to social information processing biases, such as hostile attribution bias (HAB), which, in turn, may increase the likelihood of behaving aggressively. The...
Article
Full-text available
Premature ejaculation (PE) is associated with decreased quality of life, lower confidence and self-esteem, and higher levels of depression, anxiety, and interpersonal difficulties. Here we investigated the effectiveness of vibrator-assisted start-stop exercises for treatment of PE, and whether the treatment effect could be enhanced by an additional...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Crime linkage analysis (CLA) can be applied in the police investigation-phase to sift through a database to find behaviorally similar cases to the one under investigation and in the trial-phase to try to prove that the perpetrator of two or more offences is the same, by showing similarity and distinctiveness in the offences. Lately, resea...
Article
The present study investigated how women's sexual functioning and relationship satisfaction are associated with their partner's premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms, and whether prevalence rates of PE differ when women report on their male partners compared to male self-report. The sample comprised of responses from 1,779 Finnish women (mean age 33....
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated two treatment conditions for low sexual desire in women: one where participants were administered a mindfulness-based treatment protocol and another with exercises focusing on scheduled sex and motivations for sex in addition to the aforementioned protocol. Seventy women (Mage 39.2, SD = 9.8) with complaints of low sexual desire were r...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Problems related to low sexual desire in women are common clinical complaints, and the aetiology is poorly understood. We investigated predictors of change in levels of sexual desire using a novel network approach, which assumes that mental disorders arise from direct interactions between symptoms. Using population-based data from 1,449 Fi...
Article
Psychopathy is characterized by callous affect, interpersonal manipulation, a deviant lifestyle, and antisocial behavior. Previous research has linked psychopathic traits to childhood trauma, but also to the upstream variable number tandem repeat (uVNTR) polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene. An interaction between childhood trauma an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of the study was to develop the methodology of behavioral crime linkage towards an applicable tool for the police to be used in homicide investigations. Thus far behavioral crime linkage studies on homicide have used datasets consisting exclusively of serial homicides. The present study, therefore, included hard-to-solve one-off offen...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to investigate how women’s tendency to pretend orgasm during intercourse is associated with orgasm function and intercourse-related pain, using a longitudinal design where temporal stability and possible causal relationships could be modeled. The study sample consisted of 1421 Finnish women who had participated in l...
Article
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A number of recent studies have implicated that incongruent use of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) negatively affects various aspects of women's romantic relationships. It has been suggested that women with incongruent HC use (a discrepancy in HC use status between when they first met their current partner and the time of study participation) report...
Article
Background: Studies have suggested that dopamine plays a role in the neurobiological mechanism that triggers ejaculation, leading scientists to hypothesize that dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms could contribute to symptoms of premature ejaculation (PE). Aim: To investigate associations between dopamine receptor and catechol-O-methyltransfera...
Article
Serotonin has long been implicated in the regulation of the processes that trigger the ejaculatory reflex. Most evidence of serotonergic involvement is, however, indirect, stemming either from studies on rodents or clinical trials investigating effects of serotonergic drugs. In the past decade, emerging evidence for heritability (i.e., genetic effe...
Article
Full-text available
Using a sample of 757 British individuals, Pearce et al. (1) tested 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for association with eight social behavior traits. For each SNP for each trait, five geno-typic model tests were reported (except the androgen receptor gene, for which two model tests were reported), resulting in 936...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood maltreatment increases the risk of subsequent depression, anxiety and alcohol abuse, but the rate of resilient victims is unknown. Here, we investigated the rate of victims that do not suffer from clinical levels of these problems after severe maltreatment in a population based sample of 10980 adult participants. Compared to men, women re...
Data
SPSS sheet containing severe experiences of childhood maltreatment and depression, anxiety and alcohol abuse data. Please refer to the SPSS variable list for variable descriptions. (SAV)
Article
Full-text available
Pheromones regulate social and reproductive behavior in most mammalian species. These effects are mediated by the vomeronasal and main olfactory systems. Effects of putative pheromones on human neuroendocrine activity, brain activity and attractiveness ratings suggest that humans may communicate via similar chemosignaling. Here we studied two sampl...
Article
Premature ejaculation (PE) is one of the most common male sexual complaints, but its etiology is unclear. Psychological problems, such as symptoms of anxiety and depression, have traditionally been seen as causal or maintaining etiological components of PE, and previous cross-sectional studies have found weak positive associations between them. The...
Article
Background Most studies examining female sexual functions (FSFs) have used cross-sectional designs, not allowing for studying temporal stability and possible relationships between different FSFs over time. Our aim was to study these relationships using a longitudinal approach. Method The study sample consisted of 2173 Finnish women from two large-...
Article
Introduction: Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual problem in men, but its etiology remains uncertain. Lifestyle factors have long been hypothesized to be associated with sexual problems in general and have been proposed as risk factors for PE. Aim: To explore associations among physical exercise, alcohol use, body mass index, PE, and e...
Article
Full-text available
Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) affects about 70 % of all expectant mothers and commonly impacts their physical health and psychosocial functioning. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of the presence, duration and severity of NVP. The sample consisted of 1723 women (M age = 41.78, SD = 11.67) including twins in both c...
Article
Objective: To examine associations between symptoms of premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction and the lifestyle factors alcohol use and physical exercise. Design and Method: An invitation to an online survey was sent out to a population-based sample of Finnish twins and siblings of twins in 2012. Of the 2559 individuals invited, 1054 respon...
Article
Objective: Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs; difficulties related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain) are prevalent and associated with both relationship quality and overall wellbeing. Psychobehavioral interventions are widely used to treat FSDs; however, little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions. Our objective was to...
Data
Table S1 Associations between investigated SNPs, AUDIT scores and smoking.
Article
Why was the cohort consortium set up? Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP), commonly known as morning sickness, is very common and is typically self-limiting. However, more severe forms and the development of hyperemesis gravidarum (HG), defined as persistent and excessive vomiting, with dehydration, keto-nuria and >5% bodyweight loss, 1 may...
Article
Full-text available
Premature ejaculation (PE) is divided into acquired and lifelong subtypes, with the implication that the latter is chronic. This longitudinal study included data for untreated respondents from a population-based sample (sample 1) and a sample of patients diagnosed with lifelong PE (sample 2). About half of the respondents who at time 1 fulfilled th...
Article
Response sensitivity to common disgust elicitors varies considerably among individuals. The sources of these individual differences are largely unknown. In the current study, we use a large sample of female identical and nonidentical twins (N = 1,041 individuals) and their siblings (N = 170) to estimate the proportion of variation due to genetic ef...
Article
Full-text available
Women's preferences for masculine versus feminine male faces are highly variable. According to a dominant theory in evolutionary psychology, this variability results from adaptations that optimize preferences by calibrating them to certain contextual factors, including women's self-perceived attractiveness, short- versus long-term relationship orie...
Article
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The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover,...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: One of the never-ending debates in the developing field of sexual medicine is the extent to which genetics and experiences (i.e., "nature and nurture") contribute to sexuality. The debate continues despite the fact that these two sides have different abilities to create a scientific environment to support their cause. Contemporary ge...
Article
Introduction: Female sexual desire and arousal problems have been shown to have a heritable component of moderate size. Previous molecular genetic studies on sexual desire have mainly focused on genes associated with neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe that hormones with more specific function...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to investigate prevalence of and reasons for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) discontinuation, and compare the two most common SSRIs used in premature ejaculation (PE) treatment, in naturalistic settings (that is, outside clinical trials). The sample consisted of 132 Finnish men with a mean age of 42.5 years (s....
Article
As in other socially monogamous species, pair-bonded humans commonly engage in sex with a partner other than their primary mate. For men, extrapair mating is straightforwardly explained from an adaptive perspective in terms of the reproductive benefits of multiple mates. For women, whose reproductive output is limited by their reproductive biology...
Article
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Alcohol intoxication, sexual arousal and negative emotional states have been found to precede certain sexual behaviors. Using data from an online self-report survey distributed to adults (N = 717; 423 men and 304 women), we compared adults with adult online sexual interactions (n = 640; 89.3%) to adults with interactions with a child or an adolesce...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionRecently, testosterone (T) has been shown to be associated with premature ejaculation (PE) symptoms in the literature. Furthermore, studies suggest that the etiology of PE is partly under genetic control.AimThe aim of this study was to reassess findings suggesting an association between testosterone (T) and a key symptom of PE, ejaculat...
Article
Full-text available
There is a lack of knowledge about effects of behaviors during online sexual solicitations. Our aims were to explore the prevalence of identity deception and wanting to keep the interaction a secret, and how these behaviors relate to the outcome of sexual interactions online. The participants were adults who self-reported online sexual interactions...
Article
Full-text available
Background. Previous research has supported gender-specific aetiological factors in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). The aims of this study were to identify gender-specific associations between the behavioural problems–ODD/CD-like problems–and the neurodevelopmental disorders–attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (A...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of not reporting sexual attraction in the past year and its associations with factors related to partner relations as well as sexuality-related characteristics in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. The present study was based on a total of 3,540 participants (1,304 men and 2,23...
Article
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We employed a quasi-experimental design, with researchers impersonating children and adolescents in online chat rooms. One was directed towards homosexual men, while the others were unspecified in this aspect. We investigated whether male chat room visitors would initiate a sexual conversation with children and adolescents, and whether they would s...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate whether a simple, 1-week physical–environment–task–timing–learning–emotion–perspective (PETTLEP)-based imagery task would improve penalty taking ability in junior soccer players. Four measures were assessed in order to examine potential moderating variables that could affect the intervention. The interventio...
Article
Full-text available
Premature ejaculation is usually considered to be the most common male sexual complaint. Psychosocial treatment interventions have been recommended by clinicians since the 1950s, but concerns have been raised regarding their efficacy, especially so since the introduction of pharmaceutical treatment interventions. However, as noted in reviews and me...
Article
Full-text available
To validate three early ejaculation diagnostic tools, and propose a new tool for diagnosis in line with proposed changes to diagnostic criteria. Significant changes to diagnostic criteria are expected in the near future. Available screening tools do not necessarily reflect proposed changes. Data from 148 diagnosed early ejaculation patients (M age...
Article
Recently, investigators have put increasing efforts into understanding the genetic etiology of premature ejaculation. The quantitative genetic approach, in which twin and/or family data is used to measure heritability, has yielded results suggesting a heritable component accounting for around 30 % of the variance in premature ejaculation. Quantitat...