Patrick Jermann

Patrick Jermann
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne | EPFL · Center for Digital Education

PhD

About

86
Publications
18,527
Reads
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3,582
Citations

Publications

Publications (86)
Conference Paper
When watching an educational video, our eyes look for relevant information related to the topic that is being explained at that particular moment. Studying the learners’ gaze behavior and particularly how it correlates with their performance, we have found a series of results, which converge to an understanding about learner behavior that is more a...
Conference Paper
The present paper compares Algo+, an assessment tool for computer programs, to an automatic grader used in a MOOC course at EPFL. This empirical study explores the practicability and the behaviour of Algo+ and analyses whether Algo+ can be used to evaluate a large scale of programs. Algo+ is a prototype based on a static analysis approach for autom...
Conference Paper
In the context of MOOCs, "With-me-ness" refers to the extent to which the learner succeeds in following the teacher, specifically in terms of looking at the area in the video that the teacher is explaining. In our previous works, we employed eye-tracking methods to quantify learners' With-me-ness and showed that it is positively correlated with the...
Article
Full-text available
Students of programming languages in massive on-line open courses (MOOCs) solve programming assignments in order to internalize the concepts. Programming assignments also constitute the assessment procedure for such courses. Depending on their motivation and learning styles, students pursue different strategies. We identify which approach to attemp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lecture videos are the major components in MOOCs. It is common for MOOC analytics researchers to model video behaviors in order to identify at-risk students. Much of the work emphasized prediction. However, we have little empirical understanding about these video interactions, especially at the click-level. For example, what kind of video interacti...
Article
Full-text available
Since 2011 the growth in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) has been so enormous that, according to the Economist magazine, “the ivory towers of academia have been shaken to their foundations” (2013). One proposed benefit of MOOCs is that they allow considerable flexibility in organizing learning. At the same time, there is evidence that learning...
Article
For MOOC learners, lecture video viewing is the central learning activity. This paper reports a large-scale analysis of in-video interactions. We categorize the video behaviors into patterns by employing a clustering methodology, based on the available types of interactions, namely, pausing, forward and backward seeking and speed changing. We focus...
Chapter
We present an eye-tracking study where we augment a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) video with the gaze information of the teacher. We tracked the gaze of a teacher while he was recording the content for a MOOC lecture. Our working hypothesis is that displaying the gaze of the teacher will act as cues in crucial moments of dyadic conversation, th...
Article
We report on the study of gazes, conducted on children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), by using a novel head-mounted eye-tracking device called the WearCam. Due to the portable nature of the WearCam, we are able to monitor naturalistic interactions between the children and adults. The study involved a group of 3- to 11-year-old childr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work, we explore video lecture interaction in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which is central to student learning experience on these educational platforms. As a research contribution, we operationalize video lecture clickstreams of students into cognitively plausible higher level behaviors, and construct a quantitative information pr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This work is an attempt to discover hidden structural configurations in learning activity sequences of students in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). Leveraging combined representations of video clickstream interactions and forum activities, we seek to fundamentally understand traits that are predictive of decreasing engagement over time. Grounde...
Article
Full-text available
In this work, we explore video lecture interaction in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs), which is central to student learning experience on these educational platforms. As a research contribution, we operationalize video lecture clickstreams of students into cognitively plausible higher level behaviors, and construct a quantitative information pr...
Article
We propose a gaze-based indicator of students' attention in a MOOC video lecture. We report the results from an eye-tracking study during a MOOC lecture. We define the gazebased indicator of students' attention as "with-me-ness". This answers a question from teachers' perspective "how much are the students with me?" With-me-ness is defined at two l...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates attention orienting to social stimuli in children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) during dyadic social interactions taking place in real-life settings. We study the effect of social cues that differ in complexity and distinguish between social cues produced by facial expressions of emotion and those produced during spe...
Conference Paper
In this paper we present the motivation, design, development, and initial evaluation of a time awareness technology for meetings. As part of improving meetings effectiveness using technology, we focus on the meeting time management, and the method relies on presenting real-time notifications of the progression of the meeting phases to the participa...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In co-located meetings, participants create and share content to establish a common understanding. In this paper, we present a collaborative environment that enables group members to create and share content simultaneously by providing them with different kinds of individual input devices and a shared workspace. We also report on an exploratory stu...
Article
We study the interaction of participants in a pair program comprehension task across different time scales in a dual eye-tracking setup. We identify four layers of interaction episodes at different time scales. Each layer spans across the whole interaction. The present study concerns the relationship between different layers at different time scale...
Chapter
Previous studies have shown that people tend to look at a visual referent just before saying the corresponding word, and similarly, listeners look at the referent right after hearing the name of the object. We first replicated these results in an ecologically valid situation in which collaborators are engaged in an unconstrained dialogue. Secondly,...
Conference Paper
Paper interfaces merge the advantages of the digital and physical world. They can be created using normal paper augmented by a camera+projector system. They are particularly promising for applications in education, because paper is already fully integrated in the classroom, and computers can augment them with a dynamic display. However, people most...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present the results of group dynamics and their effect on success in problem solving/decision making meetings. We use a novel multiple input environment for collaboration and data collection, and a hidden profile task given to groups, whose goals are to find the correct solution. We observe that groups elect 0, 1 or 2 leaders, and the best resul...
Conference Paper
Orchestration refers to the real-time classroom management of multiple activities and multiple constraints conducted by teachers. Orchestration emphasizes the classroom constraints, integrative scenarios, and the role of teachers in managing these technology-enhanced classrooms. Supporting orchestration is becoming increasingly important due to the...
Conference Paper
Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) have been the focus of much attention recently in the HCI and learning communities. Although TUIs seem to intuitively offer potential to increase the learning experience, there have been questions about whether they actually impact learning positively. TUIs offer new ways of interactions and it is essential to unders...
Conference Paper
We present the design and evaluation of an iPad application that will be used to operate the modular robots “Roombots”. Roombots are the building blocks for adaptive pieces of furniture. The application allows a user to arrange adaptive furniture within a room. We conducted a user study with 24 participants to evaluate our approach and to freely ex...
Article
Full-text available
In co-located meetings, content creation is often distributed among the group members and sharing requires transfer of content artifacts, which impedes collaboration. In this paper, we present the design of a collaborative environment to support this activity in meetings for small groups. The system consists of a shared wall-mounted workspace where...
Conference Paper
We present a dual eye-tracking study that demonstrates the effect of sharing selection among collaborators in a remote pair-programming scenario. Forty pairs of engineering students completed several program understanding tasks while their gaze was synchronously recorded. The coupling of the programmers' focus of attention was measured by a cross-r...
Conference Paper
Dual eye-tracking (DUET) is a promising methodology to study and support collaborative work. The method consists of simultaneously recording the gaze of two collaborators working on a common task. The main themes addressed in the workshop are eye-tracking methodology (how to translate gaze measures into descriptions of joint action, how to measure...
Conference Paper
This paper exploits the personal aspects of an individual's eye-movements in dynamic Tetris-playing environments. Effective features representing the players' eye-moving characteristics are extracted, and they are shown to be different across difference players. Delta features are also calculated to present the dynamic changes of the static feature...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the role that tangibility plays in a problem-solving task by observing logistic apprentices using either a multitouch or a tangible interface. Results showed that tangibility helped them perform the task better and achieve a higher learning gain. In addition, groups using the tangible interface collaborated better, explored more alt...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze classroom orchestration as a question of usability in which the classroom is the user. Our experiments revealed design features that reduce the global orchestration load. According to our studies in vocational schools, paper-based interfaces have the potential of making educational workflows tangible, i.e. both visible and manipulable. O...
Article
We present an extension of cross-recurrence analysis for dual gaze analysis which is suited for complex situations where for instance the objects of interest are not all visible at all times or when stimulus exploration is not homogeneous. The typicical situation is a visual stimulus that is scrolled or that is explored sequentially. We use a recur...
Article
Full-text available
One difficulty with the Swiss dual system is the gap between the practical work in the company and the theoretical teaching at school. In this article, we examine the case of carpenters. We observe that the school-workplace gap exists and materializes through the importance given to drawing classes at school, while carpenters almost never draw at t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) offer the potential to facilitate collaborative learning in new ways. This paper presents an empirical study that investigated the effects of a TUI in a classroom setting on task performance and learning outcomes. In the tangible condition, apprentices worked together around an interactive tabletop warehouse simulati...
Article
Full-text available
We use different criteria to judge teaching methods and learning environments as researchers and teachers. As researchers, we tend to rely on learning gains measured in controlled conditions. As teacher, the skilled management of classroom constraints results in the impression that a specific design “works well”. We describe fourteen design factors...
Article
Full-text available
Tabletop systems have become quite popular in recent years, during which there was considerable enthusiasm for the development of new interfaces. In this paper, we establish a comparison between touch and tangible interfaces. We set up an experiment involving several actions like translation and rotation. We recruited 40 participants to take part i...
Conference Paper
Paper is not dead. Despite the progress of e-ink screens, smartphones and tablet interfaces, printed paper stays a convenient, versatile and familiar support for reading and writing. Books, magazines and other printed materials can now be connected to the digital world, enriched with additional content and even transformed into interactive interfac...
Article
The use of dual eye-tracking is investigated in a collabora- tive game setting. The automatic collection of information about partner’s gaze will eventually serve to build adaptive interfaces. Following this agenda, and in order to identify stable gaze patterns, we investigate the impact of social and task related context upon individual gaze and a...
Article
The use of dual eye-tracking is investigated in a collabora- tive game setting. Social context influences individual gaze and action during a collaborative Tetris game: results show that experts as well as novices adapt their playing style when interacting in mixed ability pairs. The long term goal of our work is to design adaptive gaze awareness t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We describe a tangible tabletop simulation, the Tinker Table, which is designed to train logistics apprentices in Switzerland. Vocational training is organized following a dual model which combines practice on the workplace and theory in the professional school. Two groups of learners were observed during an activity which consists of optimizing th...
Conference Paper
Using as data videotapes of archaeologists working to see and map structure in the dirt they are excavating, meaning-making in the home of a man with severe aphasia, and sequences of actual talk-in-interaction, this talk will investigate action, cognition, ...
Conference Paper
This study aims to explore the possibility of using machine learning techniques to build predictive models of performance in collaborative induction tasks. More specifically, we explored how signal-level data, like eye-gaze data and raw speech may be used to build such models. The results show that such low level features have effectively some pote...
Article
Full-text available
This paper describes TinkerSheets, a paper-based interface to tangible simulations. The proposed interface combines the advantages of form-based input and paper. Form-based input allows to set an arbitrary number of parameters. Using paper as a medium for the interface keeps the interaction modality consistently physical. TinkerSheets are also used...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to explore the possibility of using machine learning techniques to build predictive models of performance in collaborative induction tasks. More specifically, we explored how signal-level data, like eye-gaze data and raw speech may be used to build such models. The results show that such low level features have effectively some pote...
Article
Full-text available
We describe a pedagogical approach supporting the acquisition of abstraction skills by apprentices in logistics. Apprentices start with a concrete representation in the form of a small-scale model which aims at engaging them in learning activities. Multiple External Representations are used to progressively introduce more abstract representations d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The articulation of practice and theory is a central problematic in a dual apprenticeship system that combines working in a company and attending courses at school. Design problems are proposed by teachers as a way to address theoretical concepts in a practical context. The difficulties encountered by apprentices while creating paper based sketches...
Article
Two experimental studies test the effect of group mirrors upon quantitative and qualitative aspects of participation in collaborative problem solving. Mirroring tools consist of a graphical representation of the group’s actions which is dynamically updated and displayed to the collaborators. In addition, metacognitive tools display a standard for d...
Article
We describe a tabletop environment used in vocational schools to teach theoretical concepts to apprentices in lo gistics through the use of a small-scale model of a ware house. It provides a Tangible User Interface in the form of wooden shelves, metallic pillars and carboard docks, and gives feedback through an Augmented Reality technique that proj...
Article
Full-text available
Supply chain management (SCM), due to the large scale and wide scope of the multi-partner supply networks and to the high complexity of the dynamically occuring phenomena, is a difficult topic to teach. Conventional teaching approaches do not allow the students to sufficiently grasp neither the interrelationships between the elements of such a comp...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper reports a study about memorization of online chat interaction, Results show that subjects are very good at recognizing who produced a given utterance, especially if they produced the utterance themselves. Performances was much weaker when subjects recelled who produced the utterance immediately following the given utterance. We investiga...
Chapter
Scripts structure the collaborative learning process by constraining interactions, defining a sequence of activities and specifying individual roles. Scripts aim at increasing the probability that collaboration triggers knowledge generative interactions such as conflict resolution, explanation or mutual regulation. Integrative scripts are not bound...
Article
Full-text available
This contribution is an attempt to systematise our approach to the design of a virtual campus. Activities in the recently started TECFA virtual campus rely on Internet tools, but they concern both distance teaching and presential interactions. Designing learning activities is relatively easy when the learning goal is an activity in itself. In this...
Article
Full-text available
The document concerns Computer Based Interaction Analysis that could support technology based learning activities' participants (e.g. students, teachers) or observers (e.g. teachers, researchers). The underlying considerations and analyses focus on interactions that occur via technology based Learning Environments, designed for stand alone use or c...
Article
Full-text available
We review systems that support the management of collaborative interaction, and propose a classification framework built on a simple model of coaching. Our framework distinguishes between mirroring systems, which display basic actions to collaborators, metacognitive tools, which represent the state of interaction via a set of key indicators, and co...
Article
Full-text available
We review a representative selection of systems that support the management of collaborative learning interaction, and characterize them within a simple classification framework. The framework distinguishes between mirroring systems, which display basic actions to collaborators, metacognitive tools, which represent the state of interaction via a se...
Conference Paper
During collaborative learning activities, factors such as students’ prior knowledge, motivation,roles, language, behavior and interaction dynamics interact with each other in unpredictable ways, making it very difficult to predict and measure learning effects. This may be one reason why the focus of collaborative learning research shifted in the ni...
Article
Full-text available
In this chapter, we discuss two approaches to supporting collaborative learning activities in higher education through technological means: structuring and regulating collaboration. Structuring approaches aim to create favorable conditions for learning by designing and scripting the situation before the interaction begins. They attempt to define th...
Article
Full-text available
The CSCL community faces two main challenges with respect to learning and argumentation. The scientific challenge is to understand how argumentation produces learning, that is to discover which cognitive mechanisms, triggered by argumentative interactions, generate new knowledge and in which conditions. The engineering challenge is to determine how...