Patrick Grim

Patrick Grim
Stony Brook University | Stony Brook · Department of Philosophy

Doctor of Philosophy

About

111
Publications
5,305
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1,245
Citations
Citations since 2017
16 Research Items
465 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
Introduction
Computational Modeling in Philosophy: Social Epistemology, Philosophy of Science, Social Political Philosophy, Philosophy of Law

Publications

Publications (111)
Chapter
This chapter illustrates how philosophy and political science can inform one another by providing an overview of philosophical contributions the authors have made on the topic of political polarization. The authors outline three contributions they have made to understanding political polarization, particularly of the epistemic kind, discussing work...
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We motivate a picture of social epistemology that sees forgetting as subject to epistemic evaluation. Using computer simulations of a simple agent-based model, we show that how agents forget can have as large an impact on group epistemic outcomes as how they share information. But, how we forget, unlike how we form beliefs, isn’t typically taken to...
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Computational philosophy is the use of mechanized computational techniques to instantiate, extend, and amplify philosophical research. Computational philosophy is not philosophy of computers or computational techniques; it is rather philosophy using computers and computational techniques. The idea is simply to apply advances in computer technology...
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We model scientific theories as Bayesian networks. Nodes carry credences and function as abstract representations of propositions within the structure. Directed links carry conditional probabilities and represent connections between those propositions. Updating is Bayesian across the network as a whole. The impact of evidence at one point within a...
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Public discussions of political and social issues are often characterized by deep and persistent polarization. In social psychology, it’s standard to treat belief polarization as the product of epistemic irrationality. In contrast, we argue that the persistent disagreement that grounds political and social polarization can be produced by epistemica...
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In the original publication of the article, the Acknowledgement section was inadvertently not included. The Acknowledgement is given in this Correction.
Conference Paper
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What structure of scientific communication and cooperation, between what kinds of investigators, is best positioned to lead us to the truth? Against an outline of standard philosophical characteristics and a recent turn to social epistemology, this paper surveys highlights within two strands of computational philosophy of science that attempt to wo...
Article
This article aims to describe the last 10 years of the collaborative scientific endeavors on polarization in particular and collective problem-solving in general by our multidisciplinary research team. We describe the team's disciplinary composition-social psychology, political science, social philosophy/epistemology, and complex systems science-hi...
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Epistemic justifications for democracy have been offered in terms of two different forms of information aggregation and decision-making. The Condorcet Jury Theorem is appealed to as a justification in terms of votes, and the Hong–Page ‘diversity trumps ability’ result is appealed to as a justification in terms of deliberation in the form of collabo...
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The Hong and Page ‘diversity trumps ability’ result has been used to argue for the more general claim that a diverse set of agents is epistemically superior to a comparable group of experts. Here we extend Hong and Page’s model to landscapes of different degrees of randomness and demonstrate the sensitivity of the ‘diversity trumps ability’ result....
Article
Diversität und Demokratie: Agent-Based Modelling in der politischen Philosophie: Agent-based models have played a prominent role in recent debates about the merits of democracy. In particular, the formal model of Lu Hong and Scott Page and the associated "diversity trumps ability" result has typically been seen to support the epistemic virtues of d...
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This paper surveys our inescapable limits as cognitive agents with regard to a full world of fact: the well-known metamathematical limits of axiomatic systems, limitations of explanation that doom a principle of sufficient reason, limitations of expression across all possible languages, and a simple but powerful argument regarding the limits of con...
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Polarization is a topic of intense interest among social scientists, but there is significant disagreement regarding the character of the phenomenon and little understanding of underlying mechanics. A first problem, we argue, is that polarization appears in the literature as not one concept but many. In the first part of the article, we distinguish...
Article
Coherence and correspondence are classical contenders as theories of truth. In this paper we examine them instead as interacting factors in the dynamics of belief across epistemic networks. We construct an agent-based model of network contact in which agents are characterized not in terms of single beliefs but in terms of internal belief suites . I...
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This article distinguishes nine senses of polarization and provides formal measures for each one to refine the methodology used to describe polarization in distributions of attitudes. Each distinct concept is explained through a definition, formal measures, examples, and references. We then apply these measures to GSS data regarding political views...
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We are increasingly exposed to polarized media sources, with clear evidence that individuals choose those sources closest to their existing views. We also have a tradition of open face-to-face group discussion in town meetings, for example. There are a range of current proposals to revive the role of group meetings in democratic decision-making. He...
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Understanding the dynamics of information is crucial to many areas of research, both inside and outside of philosophy. Using computer simulations of three kinds of information, germs, genes, and memes, we show that the mechanism of information transfer often swamps network structure in terms of its effects on both the dynamics and the fitness of th...
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A scientific community can be modeled as a collection of epistemic agents attempting to answer questions, in part by communicating about their hypotheses and results. We can treat the pathways of scientific communication as a network. When we do, it becomes clear that the interaction between the structure of the network and the nature of the questi...
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Public health care interventions-regarding vaccination, obesity, and HIV, for example-standardly take the form of information dissemination across a community. But information networks can vary importantly between different ethnic communities, as can levels of trust in information from different sources. We use data from the Greater Pittsburgh Rand...
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Modeling and simulation clearly have an upside. My discussion here will deal with the inevitable downside of modeling — the sort of things that can go wrong. It will set out a taxonomy for the pathology of models — a catalogue of the various ways in which model contrivance can go awry. In the course of that discussion, I also call on some of my pas...
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‘The problem with simulations is that they are doomed to succeed.’ So runs a common criticism of simulations—that they can be used to ‘prove’ anything and are thus of little or no scientific value. While this particular objection represents a minority view, especially among those who work with simulations in a scientific context, it raises a diffic...
Chapter
How do conventions of communication emerge? How do sounds or gestures take on a semantic meaning, and how do pragmatic conventions emerge regarding the passing of adequate, reliable, and relevant information? My colleagues and I have attempted in earlier work to extend spatialized game theory to questions of semantics. Agent-based simulations indi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
How do conventions of communication emerge? How do sounds or gestures take on a semantic meaning, and how do pragmatic conventions emerge regarding the passing of adequate, reliable, and relevant information? My colleagues and I have attempted in earlier work to extend spatialized game theory to questions of semantics. Agent-based simulations indic...
Article
Beyond belief change and meme adoption, both genetics and infection have been spoken of in terms of information transfer. What we examine here, concentrating on the specific case of transfer between sub-networks, are the differences in network dynamics in these cases: the different network dynamics of germs, genes, and memes. Germs and memes, it tu...
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In order to understand the transmission of a disease across a population we will have to understand not only the dynamics of contact infection but the transfer of health-care beliefs and resulting health-care behaviors across that population. This paper is a first step in that direction, focusing on the contrasting role of linkage or isolation betw...
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In this paper we make a simple theoretical point using a practical issue as an example. The simple theoretical point is that robustness is not 'all or nothing': in asking whether a system is robust one has to ask 'robust with respect to what property?' and 'robust over what set of changes in the system?' The practical issue used to illustrate the p...
Conference Paper
This paper reviews and extends earlier work on the emergence of semantics in spatialized environments of wandering food sources and predators. Communication of any sophistication demands a semantic base, but also relies on conventions of information transfer, of truthfulness, and of relevance. These are pragmatic conventions, formulated in the ling...
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Robustness has long been recognized as an important parameter for evaluating game-theoretic results, but talk of 'robustness' generally remains vague. What we offer here is a graphic measure for a particular kind of robustness ('matrix robustness'), using a three-dimensional display of the universe of 2×2 game theory. In such a measure specific gam...
Chapter
Computer Models in the Sciences and Philosophy: Benefits and LimitationsLogicEpistemologyPhilosophy of Mind, Philosophy of Language, and Philosophy of BiologyEthics, Social and Political PhilosophyConclusion Acknowledgments
Chapter
A crucial question for artificial cognition systems is what meaning is and how it arises. In pursuit of that question, this paper extends earlier work in which we show the emergence of simple signaling in biologically inspired models using arrays of locally interactive agents. Communities of “communicators” develop in an environment of wandering fo...
Article
Is simulation some new kind of science? We argue that instead simulation fits smoothly into existing scientific practice, but does so in several importantly different ways. Simulations in general, and computer simulations in particular, ought to be understood as techniques which, like many scientific techniques, can be employed in the service of va...
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Philosophical work on free will is inevitably framed by the problem of free will and determinism. This paper offers an overview of the current state of the philosophical art. Early sections focus on quantum indeterminism, an outline of the most influential logical argument for incompatibilism between free will and determinism, and telling problems...
Chapter
A crucial question for artificial cognition systems is what meaning is and how it arises. In pursuit of that question, this paper extends earlier work in which we show the emergence of simple signaling in biologically inspired models using arrays of locally interactive agents. Communities of “communicators” develop in an environment of wandering fo...
Article
Among the most telling atheistic arguments are those to the effect that the existence of any being that meets standard divine specifications is impossible - that there not only is not but could not be any such being. All such arguments depend crucially on sets of divine specifications. A core traditional notion of God is one that specifies him as n...
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Most current modeling for evolution of communication still underplays or ignores the role of local action in spatialized environments: the fact that it is immediate neighbors with which one tends to communicate, and from whom one learns strategies or conventions of communication. Only now are the lessons of spatialization being learned in a related...
Article
A crucial question for artificial cognition systems is what meaning is and how it arises. In pursuit of that question, this paper extends earlier work in which we show the emergence of simple signaling in biologically inspired models using arrays of locally interactive agents. Communities of "communicators" develop in an environment of wandering fo...
Chapter
Full-text available
Self-reference and paradox introduce a spectrum of nonlinear phenomena in fuzzy logic. Working from the example of the Liar paradox, and using iterated functions to model self-reference, sentences can be constructed with the dynamical semantics of fixed-point attractors, fixed-point repellors, and full chaos on the [0,1] interval. The paper also ex...
Article
The Law of Non-Contradiction holds that both sides of a contradiction cannot be true. Dialetheism is the view that there are contradictions both sides of which are true. Crucial to the dispute, then, is the central notion of contradiction. My first step here is to work toward clarification of that simple and central notion: Just what is a contradic...
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What is it for a sound or gesture to have a meaning, and how does it come to have one? In this paper, a range of simulations are used to extend the tradition of theories of meaning as use. The authors work throughout with large spatialized arrays of sessile individuals in an environment of wandering food sources and predators. Individuals gain poin...
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The goal of philosophy of information is to understand what information is, how it operates, and how to put it to work. But unlike information in the technical sense of information theory, what we are interested in is meaningful information. To understand the nature and dynamics of information in this sense we have to understand meaning. What we of...
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Environmental variability has been proposed as an important mechanism in behavioral psychology, in ecology and evolution, and in cultural anthropology. Here we demonstrate its importance in simulational studies as well. In earlier work we have shown the emergence of communication in a spatialized environment of wandering food sources and predators,...
Article
Philosophical modeling has a long and distinguished history, but the computer offers new and powerful prospects for the creation and manipulation of models. It seems inevitable that the computer will become a major tool in future philosophical research. Here I offer an overview of explorations in philosophical computer modeling that we in the Group...
Article
Any behavior belongs to innumerable overlapping types. Any adequate theory of emergence and retention of behavior, whether psychological or biological, must give us not only a general mechanism – reinforcement or selection, for example – but a reason why that mechanism applies to a particular behavior in terms of one of its types rather than others...
Article
We work with a large spatialized array of individuals in an environment of drifting food sources and predators. The behavior of each individual is generated by its simple neural net; individuals arecapable of making one of two sounds and are capable of responding to sounds from their immediate neighbors by opening their mouths or hiding. An individ...
Article
We work with a large spatialized array of individuals in an environment of drifting food sources and predators. The behavior of each individual is generated by its simple neural net; individuals arecapable of making one of two sounds and are capable of responding to sounds from their immediate neighbors by opening their mouths or hiding. An individ...
Article
We extend previous work on cooperation to some related questions regarding the evolution of simple forms of communication. The evolution of cooperation within the iterated Prisoner's Dilemma has been shown to follow different patterns, with significantly different outcomes, depending on whether the features of the model are classically perfect or s...
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We extend previous work by modeling evolution of communication using a spatialized genetic algorithm which recombines strategies purely locally. Here cellular automata are used as a spatialized environment in which individuals gain points by feeding from drifting food sources and are 'harmed' if they fail to hide from migrating predators. Our indiv...
Book
The authors present a series of exploratory examples of computer modeling, using a range of computational techniques to illuminate a variety of questions in philosophy and philosophical logic. Topics include self-reference and paradox in fuzzy logics, varieties of epistemic chaos, fractal images of formal systems, and cellular automata models in ga...
Article
Formal systems are standardly envisaged in terms of a grammar specifying well-formed formulae together with a set of axioms and rules. Derivations are ordered lists of formulae each of which is either an axiom or is generated from earlier items on the list by means of the rules of the system; the theorems of a formal system are simply those formula...
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In the spatialized Prisoner''s Dilemma, players compete against their immediate neighbors and adopt a neighbor''s strategy should it prove locally superior. Fields of strategies evolve in the manner of cellular automata (Nowak and May, 1993; Mar and St. Denis, 1993a,b; Grim 1995, 1996). Often a question arises as to what the eventual outcome of an...
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The iterated Prisoner's Dilemma has become the standard model for the evolution of cooperative behavior within a community of egoistic agents, frequently cited for implications in both sociology and biology. Due primarily to the work of Axelrod (1980a, 1980b, 1984, 1985), a strategy of tit for tat (TFT) has established a reputation as being particu...
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Full-text available
The iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma is the standard model for the evolution of cooperative behavior in a community of egoistic agents. Within that model, a strategy of “tit-for-tat” has established a reputation for being particularly robust. Nowak and Sigmund have shown that in a world of imperfect information it is not tit-for-tat that finally triumph...
Article
Comments on the article on out-of-body experiences (OBEs) in which M. B. Woodhouse (see record 1994-36114-001) claims (1) that the case for Internalism has not been made, (2) that the case for Externalism can be made, and (3) that Externalism does not entail Cartesian Dualism. Grim argues that each claim can be accepted only with serious qualifica...
Conference Paper
Summary form only given. The iterated prisoner's dilemma has become the standard model of evolution in a community of egoistic agents, often cited for implications in biology and aspects of sociology. The technical core of this paper is presentation of a formal undecidability result for an instantiation of the prisoner's dilemma in the spatial form...
Article
Full-text available
Self-reference and paradox introduce a spectrum of nonlinear phenomena in fuzzy logic. Working from the example of the Liar paradox, and using iterated functions to model self-reference, sentences can be constructed with the dynamical semantics of fixed-point attractors, fixed-point repellors, and full chaos on the [0,1] interval. The paper also ex...
Article
This chapter focuses on variations of the Dualist conceived in an infinite-valued logic, in which sentences are allowed to take on any real truth-value in the [0, 1] interval. The dynamical semantics of self-reference can be mapped using iterated algorithms. The Liar paradox is a familiar sentence that asserts its own falsehood. The Dualist (slight...
Article
Predicates are term-to-sentence devices, and operators are sentence-to-sentence devices. What Kaplan and Montague's Paradox of the Knower demonstrates is that necessity and other modalities cannot be treated as predicates, consistent with arithmetic; they must be treated as operators instead. Such is the current wisdom. A number of previous pieces...
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L'A. propose une analyse mathematique, faisant appel aux theories du chaos et aux fractales, des patterns semantiques du Paradoxe du menteur et de ses variantes, ainsi que d'autres paradoxes semantiques
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L'A. examine la question de savoir si les resultats de la logique mathematique peuvent justifier des conclusions philosophiques portant sur les limites du savoir et de la verite. Analysant en particulier le theoreme de Godel et des versions non constructives des resultats d'incompletude, il conclut que l'idee d'une omniscience est impossible
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Let us sum up.The paradox of the Knower poses a direct and formal challenge to the coherence of common notions of knowledge and truth. We've considered a number of ways one might try to meet that challenge: propositional views of truth and knowledge, redundancy or operator views, and appeal to hierarchy of various sorts. Mere appeal to propositions...
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Replies to critiques by R. Rosenthal (1984) and J. Beloff (1984) of the author's paper on the relationship between psi phenomena and the Rosenthal effect. Further meta-analyses of this issue are recommended in social psychology and parapsychology. In addition, an experimental test of the Rosenthal effect in which inanimate objects are used as Ss is...
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In the John Locke Lectures, included in Meaning and the Moral Sciences, Hilary Putnam argues that "the 'softness' of social facts may affect the 'hard' notions of truth and reference" ([19] *, p. 46). Without fully endorsing Putnam's argument, I hope to show that a similar argument could be constructed for a slightly different conclusion: that the...
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Gaunilo's reply to Anselm's argument for the existence of God was a similar argument for the existence of the lost island, 'more excellent than all other countries' ([2] :1 1). Ansehn's God has done fairly well since that time; He has walked with Bonaventure and Descartes, with Leibniz and with Barth. Noteworthy among recent and not-quite-so-recent...

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Project
Studying the dynamics of updating in Bayesian nets as models of scientific change