Patrick Dunleavy

Patrick Dunleavy
The London School of Economics and Political Science | LSE · Department of Government

D.Phil Political Science

About

357
Publications
108,088
Reads
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8,591
Citations
Citations since 2017
63 Research Items
3183 Citations
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Introduction
I am Emeritus Professor of Political Science and Public Policy in the Department of Government at the London School of Economics, and a Fellow of the British Academy and the Academy of Social Sciences.
Additional affiliations
October 1979 - present
The London School of Economics and Political Science
Position
  • Professor of Political Science and Public Policy
Education
October 1973 - April 1978
University of Oxford
Field of study
  • Political Science

Publications

Publications (357)
Article
Full-text available
Widespread use of the Internet and the Web has transformed the public management 'quasi-paradigm' in advanced industrial countries. The toolkit for public management reform has shifted away from a 'new public management' (NPM) approach stressing fragmentation, competition and incentivization and towards a 'digital-era governance' (DEG) one, focusin...
Article
Full-text available
The study of general election outcomes can be helped by finding better approaches for visualizing large quantities of information and asking questions about its patterning. We review the Nagayama or all possibilities' triangle display, and show that it can only legitimately be used to show an overall field' of results that is logically feasible, ca...
Book
Full-text available
Productivity is essentially the ratio of an organization’s outputs divided by its inputs. For many years it was treated as always being static in government agencies. In fact productivity in government services should be rising rapidly as a result of digital changes and new management approaches, and it has done so in some agencies. However, Dunlea...
Book
The impact agenda is set to shape the way in which social scientists prioritise the work they choose to pursue, the research methods they use and how they publish their findings over the coming decade, but how much is currently known about how social science research has made a mark on society? Based on a three year research project studying the...
Presentation
Full-text available
Alongside case studies and interviews, documentation analysis and review of varying kinds and levels of sophistication forms one of the top three parts of qualitative social science. In this session we focus on contemporary or fully publicly available document and text sources where access for replication purposes is feasible, and where a full set...
Presentation
Full-text available
Case studies form an important part of qualitative social science and are undertaken in diverse ways to meet different goals. Relatively numerous but shallow cases are used as ‘apt illustrations’ at one end of the spectrum. At the other end, one or a few ‘deep’ cases in ‘diagnostic’ mode often seek to show the holistic and necessary nature of causa...
Presentation
Full-text available
Re-analysing secondary data (collected by other researchers) to address new questions is a well-established, economical and time-saving research practice in the social sciences, that fits well with open science goals. Key types of data include consortium research projects using cross-national surveys, standardized data from international organizati...
Presentation
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A key aspect of encouraging and developing ‘open science’ modes of research in the modern social sciences centres on being explicit about decision-making about all stages of the research process. STEM science laboratories have well-developed lab handbooks that ensure lab members will follow the same processes in many repeating situations and decisi...
Presentation
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Implementing open social science (OSS) innovations focuses in large part on showing more of the concrete evidence that underpins analysis of findings and researchers’ conclusions and arguments. Many commentators have cast doubt on how far OSS approaches can be applied in qualitative research, suggesting that only limited openness can be achieved, e...
Chapter
Full-text available
The essential step involved in any organizational-level analysis of government sector productivity is to allow for the costs of different kinds of activities and services that a department or agency delivers. We use variations to ensure that the relative importance and the difficulties of producing different services can be taken account of when co...
Chapter
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This chapter introduces how the productivity of government agencies and public services has generally been neglected, and shows how some even recent research does not really crunch through from inputs or activities measurement to consider outputs.
Chapter
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Useful measures for measuring the productivity of national agencies must generate long run data (over 5 to 10 years) that is directly useful to managers within that department or agency in monitoring their progress over time. This chapter sets out how to do that at the level of individual agencies, and the methods used in Chapters 3 to 7.
Chapter
Full-text available
Tax-raising departments and agencies fulfil a unique role in any national or federal government by generating the inflow of financial resources upon which the work of every other department and policy sector depends (Osborne, 2002). So, maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of tax-raising agencies has been a high priority for all liberal demo...
Chapter
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Government agencies can achieve very rapid progress and productivity growth as this chapter shows by analysing the UK Customs agency, which introduced timely IT for handling imports and exports transactions and was able to handle sharply increased trade volumes with constant staff levels as a result.
Preprint
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The shift to ‘open’ working across the social sciences as a discipline group entails a welcome but demanding cultural change. Yet, Patrick Dunleavy argues that there have already been three false starts: focusing only on isolated bits of the open agenda in ways that don’t connect and so are not meaningful; loading researchers with off- putting, ext...
Preprint
Full-text available
The shift to ‘open’ working across the social sciences as a discipline group entails a welcome but demanding cultural change. Yet, Patrick Dunleavy argues that there have already been three false starts: focusing only on isolated bits of the open agenda in ways that don’t connect and so are not meaningful; loading researchers with off-putting, exte...
Presentation
Full-text available
This is the slide set for my PSA 2022 Conference paper, along with a video commentary from me explaining the slides.
Conference Paper
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In all bureaucracies how information is acquired, stored, re-accessed and analysed creates an 'information regime' of crucial importance for the rational or efficient conduct of business. Government departments and agencies use a wide range of information practices that can seem simply heterogenous, highly specific or hard to characterize. Yet an e...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper has six parts. The first recaps what public sector productivity is and what is not. Section 2 considers how the specific functions characteristic of the regional and local public sector condition productivity, and the foundation expectations we can formulate about productivity differences across tiers of government. In the third section I...
Preprint
Full-text available
Since the demise of the Royal Institute of Public Administration in 1992, the UK and its constituent nations have lacked a crucial venue for administrative and management practitioners to come together with academic and researchers to focus on enhancing robust knowledge of what works in public administration and public management. While universitie...
Article
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The unprecedented growth of public disquiet about sleaze in contemporary Britain can be interpreted in a number of different ways. Defenders of the status quo point to the relatively sudden and distinctive emergence of the sleaze issue as a concept in public debate, arguing that it is only (or primarily) a mass media creation, a spasm or temporary...
Chapter
From Turnbull to Morrison: Understanding the Trust Divide is the thirteenth volume of Australia's longest running study of Australian Commonwealth Government, started in 1983. Is trust between the government and Australians broken? The country's leading institutions have been ranked among the least trusted in the world at a time when the economy h...
Article
Full-text available
This is the UK’s biggest European regional constituency, returning ten MEPs. So it is the area where the most proportional results are feasible, and where smaller parties (those that can reach 6-8 per cent support) have the best chance of gaining a seat. Traditionally a Conservative stronghold in all other elections, UKIP none the less came first h...
Article
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“Collective consumption” involves people consuming (using up) services (and some goods) that are particularly subject to political and state influence because their costs are partly socialized through government subsidies; or their provision is specially regulated to foster social equality; or government agencies organize service provision. In the...
Article
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Within long-lived public sector bureaucracies the organizational cultures developed by administrative elites have strong filtering and focusing effects on the kinds of technological changes adopted, especially in the modern era. Normally seen as very slow-moving and hard to alter, senior officials’ attitudes towards digital changes have recently be...
Book
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The UK’s Changing Democracy presents a uniquely democratic perspective on all aspects of UK politics, at the centre in Westminster and Whitehall, and in all the devolved nations. The 2016 referendum vote to leave the EU marked a turning point in the UK’s political system. In the previous two decades, the country had undergone a series of democrati...
Article
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This article briefly introduces the concept of ‘micro-institutions’ into political science and makes two claims (in an exploratory way): 1. Micro-institutions are important in political life, yet their roles are little recognized. They deserve a lot more systematic study - although that is difficult to do (e.g. even counting them reliably is a chal...
Article
The two volume Oxford Handbook of Public Choice provides a comprehensive overview of the Public Choice literature. Volume 1 covers rational choice models of elections, interest groups, rent seeking, and public choice contributions to normative political economy. It begins with introductory chapters on rational choice politics, the founding of publi...
Book
Rational choice theories of bureaucratic interests started simple and have become somewhat more sophisticated over time. Early, “classical” models stressed either budget maximization or rent seeking as dominant motivations and predicted chronically unbalanced or dysfunctional outcomes—respectively, bureaucratic oversupply or radical undersupply (to...
Data
This is the Executive Summary for the open access textbook/ handbook "The UK's Changing Democracy: The Democratic Audit 2018". It gives a brief overview of the book's central findings across all topic areas in UK politics. The full text of the book is open access, so it can be downloaded free (and permanently) from https://doi.org/10.31389/book1
Book
Patrick Dunleavy examines a topic of foundational importance for any liberal democracy– how well does the electoral system (in this case the Westminster plurality rule, aka ‘first-past-the-post’) convert votes into seats? A sudden growth in two-party support in 2017 allowed the UK’s ancient voting system to work far more proportionately. But is thi...
Book
Citizens and civil society have most contact with the administrative apparatus of the UK state, whose operations can powerfully condition life chances and experiences. Patrick Dunleavy considers the responsiveness of traditionally dominant civil service headquartered in Whitehall, and the wider administration of key public services, notably the NHS...
Book
Patrick Dunleavy examines the proportional (PR) electoral system now used for smaller UK elections: the Northern Ireland Assembly, and Scottish and Northern Irish local councils. How has STV fared in converting votes into seats and fostering political legitimacy, under UK political conditions? An Annex also discusses the list PR system used to elec...
Book
In addition to their floor debates, a crucial role of legislatures is to scrutinise government law-making and policy implementation. The House of Commons looks at legislation via bill committees, and its select committees cover each of the Whitehall departments to scrutinise implementation. Patrick Dunleavy and the Democratic Audit team consider ho...
Book
Patrick Dunleavy looks at how well the dominant centre of power in the British state operates – spanning the Prime Minister, Cabinet, Cabinet committees, ministers and critical central departments. How accountable and responsive to Parliament and the public is this ‘core executive’? And how effective are these key centres of decision-making and the...
Book
Patrick Dunleavy and Sean Kippin examine how democratic the UK’s party system and political parties are. Parties often attract criticism from those outside their ranks, but they have multiple, complex roles to play in any liberal democratic society. The UK’s system has many strengths, but also key weaknesses, where meaningful reform could realistic...
Book
Devolution encompasses a range of quite different solutions in three countries (Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), plus markedly smaller delegations of powers to London and some English cities and regions. There remain important issues around the stability and effectiveness of these arrangements, which were designed to meet specific demands for...
Book
Patrick Dunleavy and the democratic audit team examine how well citizens are represented by the two main reformed electoral systems used in the UK – the ‘additional members system’ (AMS) and the ‘supplementary vote’ (SV). How successful have they been in showing the way for more modern electoral systems to work well under British political conditio...
Book
Patrick Dunleavy establishes the wider context for liberal democracy globally, where prospects have generally been deteriorating in recent times. The factors that are currently going wrong for democratic advance across the world mostly have their counterparts in modernisation changes within Britain itself. This introduction then sets out how the Au...
Book
Between elections, the interest group process (along with media and social media coverage) is a key way in which citizens can seek to communicate with their MPs and other representatives, and to influence government policy-makers. Patrick Dunleavy considers how far different social groups can gain access and influence decision-makers. How democrati...
Book
In the concluding part of the book, Patrick Dunleavy first gives an overall assessment of the UK’s changing liberal democracy, looking across all the areas covered in the preceding chapters. The second section involves standing back and drawing some wider-out implications – around the loss of a previously influential ‘Europeanisation’ narrative, th...
Book
How well does the House of Commons work via floor debates, questions to ministers and as a general means of scrutinising and passing legislation, and monitoring policy implementation? Has the return of a hung parliament since 2017 changed how the House of Commons functions as a legislature? Artemis Photiadou and Patrick Dunleavy consider if the tra...
Book
Devolved government in London – focusing on the executive mayor and London Assembly – started as a radical innovation in 2000. Its generally successful development has sparked a slow, ‘organic’ spread of executive mayors to other English cities and conurbations. Andrew Blick and Patrick Dunleavy explore how democratically and effectively the two Lo...
Chapter
Full-text available
I begin by briefly characterizing the precursor views of public administration that prevailed before public choice models were developed until the 1970s. Next I examine seven main public choice explanations of the bureaucracy as an interest group, beginning with the classical models that long-defined the field; moving on to revisionist models from...
Article
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Populist surges, movements and parties often center around radically simplifying policy proposals, sometimes anti-statist in intent (e.g. fix a limit to state borrowing in cash terms), and at other times pushing naïve statist solutions (e.g. build a giant wall to keep out migrants; or tax companies activities in a given shed, not their profits). Mo...
Working Paper
Full-text available
Many current academic citation and referencing practices are out of date and dysfunctional, especially in leading only to closed-access and paywall sources, or in providing only details of ‘legacy’ print formats. The central principles of this Digital Style Guide are that: 1 All citations/ references should lead wherever possible to a digital te...
Article
Full-text available
Improving productivity at the organisational level offers the greatest immediate dividends and could successfully cover the largest departments and agencies at the central or national level. For many decades the measurement of government outputs in national statistics and economic accounts used inputs, which assumes that government productivity nei...
Article
Improving productivity at the organisational level offers the greatest immediate dividends and could successfully cover the largest departments and agencies at the central or national level. For many decades the measurement of government outputs in national statistics and economic accounts used inputs, which assumes that government productivity nei...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
From the late nineteenth century onwards, public bureaucracies rapidly differentiated in how they operated - yet they all handled information in essentially the same way, via ‘bureaucratic reductionism’. Digital changes now pose an existential threat to this fundamental organizational paradigm. Digital changes have unprecedented salience for all pu...
Presentation
Full-text available
Powerpoint Presentation at the book launch for Adam Oliver’s book, ’The Origins of Behavioural Public Policy’ (CUP, 2017), held at LSE, 31 May 2017
Chapter
This chapter applies Dowding’s analysis of power to the community power debate. It demonstrates the importance of the collective action problem to our understanding of power in society, showing that both pluralists and their radical critics misinterpret power in society by ignoring collective action problems. It demonstrates the nature of luck and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A convention has persisted for some eight decades now of measuring government outputs in national statistics and economic accounts using inputs. This is equivalent to assuming that government productivity neither grows nor falls over time. However, modern solutions now exist for cost-weighting outputs so as to generate empirically useful metrics of...
Chapter
Full-text available
I first define what the term ‘big data’ means and consider where it fits within the already established ‘tools of government’. Section two examines the varied and increasingly plentiful sources of big data, and considers how the phenomenon is linked with the digital revolution that is still working its way through many civil society institutions, e...
Chapter
This valuable book offers a distinct and critical showcase of emerging forms of discovery for policy-making, drawing on the insights of some of the world’s leading authorities in public policy analysis.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
It is now beyond any doubt that the age of states is not over, as some predicted. Nor are states marginalized from key international decision-making, as the least restrained globalization enthusiasts once argued. Instead the global financial crisis of 2008 and after has ushered in a period when how states operate has proved more crucial than ever b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Governments and citizens operate in a digital environment, leaving digital trails whatever they do and wherever they go. These trails generate huge quantities of information about themselves, each other and any interactions they have. In this context, the most important elements of an organization that deals with people are the information it can a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The contemporary state has been the focus of considerable controversy – about whether it exists and has ontological status (or not); about how it may be delineated; and about the sense in which it operates as a unity or some form of integrated agency in relation to civil society, and viz a viz other states. I argue that the modern state in liberal...
Article
This comment critiques the paper by Gaines and Taagepera (20137. Gaines, Brian J. & Taagepera, Rein (2013) How to operationalize “two partyness”, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties. Digital online version, available at <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17457289.2013.770398> (accessed 23 March 2013).View all references) outlining two new meas...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Abstract: The contemporary state has been the focus of considerable controversy – about whether it exists and has ontological status (or not); about how it may be delineated; and about the sense in which it operates as a unity or some form of integrated agency in relation to civil society, and viz a viz other states. I argue that the modern state i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Assessing the policy impacts of academic research has been plagued by unrealistic Platonic guardian images of the scope for influence, In more recent times case study approaches to assessing impact have been contaminated by the growth of what might be called ‘mini-leaderism’ images, a sort of minor key variant of neo-charismatic/ transformational ‘...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When in doubt, use a case study' has long been the motto of embattled social scientists asked to illuminate a social process that is either barely or inadequately studied, for which no metrics exist, or where a tangled complex of multi-causal influences clearly operates. Unsurprisingly then case studies have become the established currency for exam...