Patrick Bond

Patrick Bond
University of Johannesburg | uj · Department of Sociology

PhD

About

275
Publications
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4,471
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 2015 - January 2017
University of the Witwatersrand
Position
  • Distinguished Professor of Political Economy

Publications

Publications (275)
Article
Some of the most decisive moments in the neoliberal era were implanted first as major changes to the United States and world financial system during the early 1980s. As an inside observer at the Federal Reserve briefly during the time, learning a bourgeois mode of economic theory and description—especially applied to the global recession, financial...
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The Southern African Development Community countries are grappling with the complex problem of Chinese state and corporate involvement in divergent societies, politics, economies and ecologies. There is enormous concern rising now about these relationships, in part because of the continuation of the new Cold War between Beijing and Washington, leav...
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The development of contemporary South Africa political economy occurred within the context of a global capitalist order characterized by increasingly unequal political and economic relations between and within countries. Before liberation in 1994, many people across the world actively supported the struggle against apartheid, with South Africa’s ne...
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Within the international water sector, Durban's municipal practitioners have been widely celebrated, for innovations in retail pricing, new product development, creative service delivery and community participation. However, in a society as divided as South Africa, with a high degree of neoliberal public policy influence from international sources,...
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Illustrating inequality to a more general public – beyond those concerned purely with public policy and research – presents various challenges. Museums have often served a function of memorialising both the impressive steps forward and major barriers to social progress, as a form of remembrance and understanding, although the twentieth century form...
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In mid-2014, the New Development Bank and Contingent Reserve Arrangement were born at the Fortaleza summit of the Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa (BRICS) network. Frustrations had mounted with the Bretton Woods and related multilateral institutions responsible for both balance-of-payments support and project finance. The financing hopes of N...
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Critique du rôle subimpérial que l’Afrique du Sud joue dans la partie australe du continent1, l’auteur montre l’effroyable politique énergétique et extractiviste que l’État et les grandes entreprises internationales mènent dans la région. Parallèle à celle du Brésil, la courbe ascendante d’émission de CO2 de l’Afrique du Sud à croisé en 2003 celle...
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Hilferding’s theory of money, credit and capitalist crisis tendencies has never been more important to reconsider. Its strengths and weaknesses have been exposed to more than a century of testing. Similar to his era, today’s conjuncture combines financial power and vulnerability, and is popularly described as financialisation. Unearthing the laws o...
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The tendency of capital to ‘overaccumulate’ has on occasion been severe in post-apartheid South Africa, but has taken different forms. The neoliberal era since the early 1990s has witnessed overaccumulation-crisis displacement in a manner that exacerbates inequality. Such displacement includes financialisation (i.e. higher relative debt and share-p...
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The contradictory role of time in urban capital’s uneven development can be observed through the analytical lens of infrastructure investment. The two cases considered below are energy pipelines in Durban, South Africa. On the one hand, urgency is associated with greenhouse-gas emissions mitigation, to slow climate change that is already doing enor...
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The African borders established in Berlin in 1884–85, at the peak of Cecil John Rhodes’ South African ambitions, were functional to the main five colonial-imperial powers, but certainly not to African societies then, nor to future generations. The residues of Rhodes’ settler-colonial racism and extractive-oriented looting include major cities such...
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Patrick Bond provides a biography of Amin’s work as a global political thinker and leader on the left. From his early days building the Third World Forum and establishing “origins of a South-centric organic intelligentsia with global visions” to his work with the World Social Forum process, Amin dedicated his life to trying to lay the foundations f...
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What potentials exist for realizing a new internationalism consistent with the visions of Samir Amin, Africa’s greatest political economist and one of the leading Marxists of his generation? To answer requires tracing back several decades, to interpret Amin’s own strategy for establishing first, continental and then, global networks mixing radical...
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South Africa hosts Africa's most advanced form of the new Blue Economy, named 'Operation Phakisa: Oceans.' In 2014, the McKinsey-designed project was formally launched by now-disgraced President Jacob Zuma with vibrant state and corporate fanfare. Financially, its most important elements were anticipated to come from corporations promoting shipping...
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Gentrification literature often focuses on frictions between gentrifiers (often white) and those being displaced by the process (often low-income people of color). Far less attention is paid to a revealing place-marketing strategy that papers over race politics. Businesses in gentrifying neighborhoods appeal to their customers’ sense of nostalgia f...
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Business tycoon Cyril Ramaphosa, who, according to Forbes, was worth more than $450 million in 2015, has been the president of the ruling African National Congress since December 2017. Despite the change in ruling-party leadership, the residual old-guard politicians from the era of Jacob Zuma’s patrimonial, corrupt regime still retain enormous powe...
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The World Bank report Changing Wealth of Nations 2018 is only the most recent reminder of how much poorer Africa is becoming, losing more than US$100 billion annually from minerals, oil, and gas extraction, according to (quite conservatively framed) environmentally sensitive adjustments of wealth. With popular opposition to socioeconomic, political...
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OPEN ACCESS, Ecological Economics https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2018.11.007 Both environmental justice (EJ) and degrowth movements warn against increasing the physical size of the economy. They both oppose extractivism and debt-fuelled economies, as well as the untrammelled profit motive which fails to incorporate full environmental and soci...
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Post-apartheid Durban civil society politics reflects not only durable anti-racist activism, but primarily, Karl Polanyi’s pendulum of a ‘double movement’ of the market against people and environment on the one hand, and social backlashes against neoliberalism on the other. The most important movements and campaigns of a socioeconomic nature can be...
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Through all this political turmoil, grand claims have been offered about the way BRICS will rebalance the world and ensure good global governance. This essay considers the opposite, namely that a resurgent imperialism is being facilitated by BRICS politics. This functions in three ways. First, global capitalist crisis tendencies are amplified by ce...
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Chapter 18 claims that the BRICS network has been presented as an “alternative” to exploitative global multilateralism, whereas Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa are in fact junior partners in perpetuating the under-development of Africa. According to the author, the BRICS stand accused of under-developing Africa in several respects, a...
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This chapter summarizes a series of discussions at the 23rd Ernst Strüngmann Forum, which aimed at understanding how differences in framing environmental problems in the area of energy and climate change are driven by differences in normative and theoretical positions. Utilizing the diverse expertise of individual group members, twelve framings wer...
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Two leading critics of imperialism — John Smith and David Harvey — have engaged in a bitter dispute over how to interpret geographically-shifting processes of super-exploitation and power. Missing, though, is consideration of ‘subimperialism,’ a category drawn from Ruy Mauro Marini's 1960s-70s dependency theory, with its focus on Brazil's relations...
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This contribution incorporates core lessons of capitalist crisis formation as explained in Volume III of Capital, but also recognises gaps in how crisis tendencies are explained—gaps filled by Rosa Luxemburg’s insistence on the articulation between capitalist and non-capitalist relations, and by David Harvey’s addition of space, time and ‘accumulat...
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The emergence of distinct resource management narratives—based on principles, analysis, strategies, tactics and alliances—is a natural signal of a maturing field. The speed of this process has been hastened since the 1990s thanks to concern about climate change. What had existed as a relatively minor area of environmental economics that can be term...
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The essential dispute in global management of the Earth system is not whether planetary boundaries are being broached but whether it is appropriate to address these with managerialist strategies combining technical fixes and market mechanisms controlled by banks and corporations-as opposed to firm state regulatory mandates backed by tough civil soc...
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Review of: Jane Duncan, The rise of the securocrats, Johannesburg, Jacana Media, 2014 (ISBN-10: 1431410756) Jane Duncan, Protest nation: The right to protest in South Africa, Pietermaritzburg, University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, 2016 (ISBN-10: 186914323X)
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The neoliberal export-oriented strategy has done enormous damage to the Africa's human development, gender equity, and natural environment. Reversing this project is the major challenge for Africans who resist injustice, through which they can build solidarity with the rest of the world's oppressed peoples.Click here to purchase a PDF version of th...
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The South African government’s mandate was to transform state social policy and correct historic class, racial, gendered and other injustices. The main design patterns of economic and social policy during the 1990s-2000s, however, can be characterised respectively as ‘neoliberal’ (insofar as they favour the market) and ‘tokenistic’ (insofar as that...
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Southern Africa is probably the most unevenly developed region on earth, combining the most modern technologies and an advanced working class with the world's extremes of inequality and social militancy. The two most extreme countries, both with settler–colonial populations and accumulation processes that created durable class/race/gender distortio...
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This forum examines a range of grounded struggles over efforts to materialize elements of a ‘postneoliberal’ agenda by social and political movements of the 2000s. Drawing from their research in Latin America and South Africa, the contributors ask when, where and why these experiments in realizing postneoliberalisms have prompted durable transforma...
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Funded at $100 billion each, the BRICS Contingent Reserve Arrangement (CRA) and New Development Bank (NDB) represent ‘sub-imperial’ finance, insofar as, by all indications, they fit into – instead of providing alternatives to – the prevailing world systems of sovereign debt and project credits. Balance of payments constraints for BRICS members will...
Chapter
Is there a coherent theoretical approach capable of incorporating into contemporary political economy the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) countries’ alliance? A more explicitly theoretical strategy is needed to contend with two kinds of normativities associated with the new industry of BRICS “think tank” cooperation, donor intere...
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p class="p1"> Abstract | The challenge of interdisciplinary intellectual and strategic work in the extractive industries is particularly acute at the interface of research and social activism. Numerous social movements which are dedicated to sustainability fail to ‘connect the dots’ between their campaigns and broader political-economic and politic...
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p class="p1"> Resumen | El reto de llevar a cabo trabajo intelectual y estratégico de tipo interdisciplinario frente a las industrias extractivas es particularmente agudo en la interfaz entre la investigación y el activismo social . Numerosos movimientos sociales dedicados a la sustentabilidad no logran “unir los puntos” entre sus campañas y las vi...
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Wagar is correct to heap scorn on the notion that "any movement in any degree of opposition to the capitalist world-system and/or its colluding dominant national states is somehow, almost mystically, a comrade-movement of all the others. The great question is whether antisystemic movements are really antisystemic." That is indeed a great question,...
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Any analysis of the erratic unfolding of global economic crisis is bound to be hotly contested. This is particularly so in mid-1999, amid claims from Washington that the past two years' dangers of financial meltdown and deflation were averted and finally extinguished through a combination of policy measures and good fortune: slightly looser Federal...
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In South Africa, at a time when National Health Insurance should be generously funded (7 years after its approval as public policy by the ruling party), state fiscal austerity appears certain to nip the initiative in the bud. The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund issued separate reports about South Africa in late 2014, following a new...
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The fast-reviving South African left is urgently coming to grips with the most acute national crises of structure and agency the country has experienced since the historic freeing of Nelson Mandela in February 1990 and the shift of the entire body politic in favor of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Communist Party (SACP).…...
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Half of the 20 million credit-active consumers in South Africa (out of 53 million residents) were, by the 2010s, experiencing over-indebtedness. ‘Impaired credit’ ratings soared to the point that ratings agencies were compelled to restore the borrowing capacity of 2.3 million (albeit without forgiving outstanding loans). The increase in the rate of...
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A long period of capitalist crisis has amplified uneven and combined development in most aspects of political economy and political ecology in most parts of the world, with a resulting increase in the eco-social metabolism of profit-seeking firms and their state supporters. This is especially with the revival of extraction-oriented corporations, es...
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South Africa's 1996 Constitution is widely lauded as the world's most liberal Constitution, yet the document was marred by its context: democratisation alongside the accumulation of excessive corporate power and the adoption of neoliberal public policy. The 1990s transition period generated, in turn, even worse inequality, poverty, unemployment and...
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In their own battles and strategy meetings since the early 1980s, EJOs (environmental justice organizations) and their networks have introduced several concepts to political ecology that have also been taken up by academics and policy makers. In this paper, we explain the contexts in which such notions have arisen, providing definitions of a wide a...
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The myth that Africa is rising has become widespread as a result of the commodity boom that began in 2002 (although with interruptions in 2008 and 2013). But, the context is a long (40-year) global economic slump in which stagnation tendencies were only temporarily displaced through finance and globalization. Indeed, in Africa, a far-reaching resou...
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The African National Congress (ANC), led during the 1990s by the late Nelson Mandela, is projected to be reelected in South Africa’s May 7, 2014 national election by a wide margin, probably with between 50 and 60 percent of the vote. But underneath the ruling party’s apparent popularity, the society is seething with fury, partly at the mismanagemen...
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Full-text available
In their own battles and strategy meetings since the early 1980s, EJOs (environmental justice organizations) and their networks have introduced several concepts to political ecology that have also been taken up by academics and policy makers. In this paper, we explain the contexts in which such notions have arisen, providing definitions of a wide a...
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Full-text available
South Africa’s welfare state expansion is said to be one of the leading ‘social democratic’ achievements of the post-apartheid era. However, overwhelmingly tokenistic features – including a neoliberal (fiscally-austere) context, the extension (not transformation) of apartheid’s inheritance, and commercialisation of state services – mean the deeper...
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In Durban, South Africa, the risks associated with economic planning errors - especially the city's growing herd of white elephant construction projects - combine with ecological dangers and social upheaval to generate a potentially explosive situation in coming years. As the South Durban port's $25 billion expansion gathers momentum and container...
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The power, vulnerability and destructiveness of financial markets are out of control in South Africa, now among the most unequal, economically volatile and protest-intensive countries worldwide. While debt made itself felt in many sites, of interest in both criticising and promoting solutions is the ‘scale jumping’ required from South Africa’s nati...
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The Marikana Massacre of August 2012 exposed the most unstable configuration of forces in post-apartheid South Africa, forged through entrenched social and economic inequalities, ecological degradation, indebtedness and corruption. Dissent against prevailing power relations had arisen over many years, with impoverished communities registering thous...
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Robin Hahnel is an important blueprinter of post-capitalist 'Parecon' participatory economics and will always be regarded fondly along with those who have tackled conceptual problems of future democracy and genuine participation within complex economic systems. Since the late 1980s, the prevailing balance of forces, heavily influenced by multinatio...
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South Africa’s role in global economy and geopolitics was, during the apartheid era, explicitly sub-imperialist, as the West’s ‘deputy sheriff’ in a tough neighbourhood But, with democracy in 1994, there arose a debate surrounding the difference between the liberation government’s (leftist) foreign policy rhetoric and its practice. Defining the sub...
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The central problem of Varieties of Capitalism analysis is its failure to assess dynamics of capital accumulation associated with finance and uneven and combined development. This is an especially critical shortcoming in what is probably the capitalist world's most extreme example of these phenomena, dating back at least two centuries. In reviewing...
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Foreword Maude Barlow 1. The Right to Water: Possibilities and Prospects Farhana Sultana and Alex Loftus 2. The 'Commons' Versus the 'Commodity': Alter -globalization, Anti-privatization and the Human Right to Water in the Global South Karen Bakker 3. The Human Right to What? Water, Rights, Humans and the Relation of Things Jamie Linton 4. A Right...
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The 'climate debt' that the industries and over-consumers of the Global North owe Africans and other victims of climate change not responsible for causing the problem has accrued by virtue of the North's excessive dumping of greenhouse gas emissions into the collective environmental space. Damage is being accounted for, including the more constrain...
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Since the December 2011 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties 17 in Durban and the Rio+20 Summit on Sustainable Development, attention has turned to whether the 'Green Economy', the concept of 'natural capital' and 'Payment for Ecosystem Services' together facilitate the management of new environmentally-fi...
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Can a rights-based agenda potentially challenge the dominant market narrative with respect to water access, and in the process, also address climate change reparations, adaptation and mitigation? Learning from the case of water in the most advanced court challenge to neo-liberal state power that has yet been adjudicated, in Johannesburg in 2009, it...
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Social protests in South Africa are frequent, contributing to an average of more than 8000 ‘Gatherings Act’ incidents per year recently, according to the South African Police Service. This paper is focused on discontent and social protest in Durban in 2009–2012, considering emerging trends and tactics within current understandings of social protest...
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The United Nations climate negotiations – especially the annual Conference of the Parties (COPs) that have taken place since the 1997 Kyoto Protocol – have failed to address what scientists agree is the world's greatest-ever threat to the human species and much other life on Earth. In Durban, South Africa, the December 2011 COP17 summit yet again t...

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At the Leverhulme Centre for the Study of Value (LCSV, http://the studyofvalue.org), we seek to understand how new and competing ways of valuing social and environmental harm and care present both challenges and opportunities in a rapidly changing world. Our research explores value in a variety of social and environmental contexts, from the valuation of human life and development in the public and private sectors to the values being created in new markets for carbon, biodiversity, land and water. Founded in 2012 by Professor Sarah Bracking with the support of the Leverhulme Trust, LCSV supports an interdisciplinary and international team of researchers. The LCSV Working Paper Series (http://thestudyofvalue.org/publications/) aims to foster the rapid distribution of research findings and work in progress by researchers, post-graduate students and associates of LCSV.