Patricia A H Williams

Patricia A H Williams
Flinders University · Flinders Digital Health Research Centre

PhD

About

122
Publications
31,277
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711
Citations

Publications

Publications (122)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: In publications on the electroencephalographic (EEG) features of psychoses and other disorders, various methods are utilized to diminish electromyogram (EMG) contamination. The extent of residual EMG contamination using these methods has not been recognized. Here, we seek to emphasize the extent of residual EMG contamination of EEG. Me...
Chapter
This research offers a generalizable Campus Mental Well-being Sense of Coherence Framework for improving student experience by classifying SES variables according to Antonovsky’s salutogenic health logic (GRRs and SRRs) and by mapping these variables to the Information Infrastructure to Experience Framework (IEF).
Article
Full-text available
Human movement is generally evaluated through both observations and clinical assessment scales to identify the state and deterioration of a patient's motor control. Lately, technological systems for human motion analysis have been used in clinics to identify abnormal movement states, while they generally suffer from privacy challenges and concerns...
Article
PURPOSE Although there are commonly accepted criteria of what defines quality of health care including cancer care, less is known about what defines quality of mHealth interventions in health care. The aim of this review was to identify how quality of mHealth interventions for cancer survivors is described and measured. METHODS CINAHL, EmCare, JBI...
Data
Supplementary material for the article "Discovering self-quantified patterns using multi-time window models"
Article
Full-text available
Purpose A new research domain known as the Quantified Self has recently emerged and is described as gaining self-knowledge through using wearable technology to acquire information on self-monitoring activities and physical health related problems. However, very little is known about the impact of time window models on discovering self-quantified pa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objective: In publications on the electroencephalographic (EEG) features of psychoses and other disorders, various methods are utilised to diminish electromyogram (EMG) contamination. The extent of residual EMG contamination using these methods has not been recognised. Here, we seek to emphasise the extent of residual EMG contamination of EEG. Meth...
Chapter
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought telehealth into the limelight. Telehealth is not a new word but since the pandemic, for many day-to-day users of the healthcare system, this term has become a household term. For IT enthusiasts, it is refreshing to see the uptake in telehealth. In most cases the uptake in telehealth came from the forced necessity o...
Article
Issue addressed Digital health technologies can potentially reduce health disparities in cancer care. However, benefits of digital health technology depend partly on users’ digital health literacy, that is, ‘capabilities and resources required for individuals to use and benefit from digital health resources’, which combines health and digital liter...
Chapter
Consumers demand fast, high capacity, upgradeable memory cards for portable electronic devices, with secure digital (SD) and microSD the most popular. Despite this demand, secure erasure of data is still not a composite part of disposure practices. To investigate the extent of this problem, second-hand memory cards were procured from the Australian...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Digital technologies promise to overcome some of the major challenges of cancer care today, including enabling continuity of care in a complex and high-risk setting, rapid information access and analysis, and facilitation of patient’s self-management. With digital technologies increasingly adopted across all aspects of cancer care, there is a need...
Article
Full-text available
Health Smart Homes aim to assist the health and well-being of elderly people through digital technologies, by helping them to continue their daily living activities with safety and independence. This paper presents a landscape review to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of Health Smart Home technologies for advancing autonomy and quality o...
Chapter
The need is growing for a workforce with both technical skills and the ability to navigate existing and emerging information security challenges. Practitioners can no longer depend upon process-driven approaches to people, processes and IT systems to manage information security. They need to be navigators of the entire environment to effectively in...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Digital transformation in healthcare is being driven by the need to improve quality, reduce costs and enhance the patient experience of healthcare delivery. It does this through both the direct intervention of technology to create new diagnostic and treatment opportunities, but also through the improved use of information to create more...
Article
Full-text available
Background Digital transformation in health care is being driven by the need to improve quality, reduce costs, and enhance the patient experience of health care delivery. It does this through both the direct intervention of technology to create new diagnostic and treatment opportunities and also through the improved use of information to create mor...
Article
Consumers demand fast, high capacity, upgradeable memory cards for portable electronic devices, with secure digital (SD) and microSD the most popular. Despite this demand, secure erasure of data is still not a composite part of disposure practices. To investigate the extent of this problem, second-hand memory cards were procured from the Australian...
Article
USB storage devices, also known as USB sticks, pen drives, flash drives, thumb drives, and key drives, have replaced many other portable storage media. USB devices are popular given their robustness, low power consumption, rapid response rates, non-volatile nature, capacity, and ease of transportation. However, the data on these devices are most of...
Conference Paper
The push for improved access to health information using digital health and electronic technologies has seen Australia at the forefront of developing foundational services such as medication management. The current national solution for the electronic transfer of prescriptions is based on a centralised exchange model which is an expensive solution...
Conference Paper
Developed in the mid-2000s by the Wi-Fi Alliance, the Wi-Fi Protected (WPS) protocol assists configuration of mobile and wireless networks. Its development grew from the needs of less technology knowledgeable end-users to be able to setup wireless networks, primarily for the home environment. However, the technology is also used by small to medium...
Article
Medical informatics is a young and rapidly evolving field, influenced by and impacting on many different knowledge domains. Recent contributions on scoping the associated body of knowledge are confounded both by variations in popular use of terminology for established areas, and by the advent of new areas without yet established terminology. Determ...
Article
Health Smart Homes provide various forms of assisted living support, by monitoring the activities and health status of their occupants to generate flows of information and sometimes interventions involving the occupants and their careers. Technologies of varying complexity must be combined to produce the underlying Health Smart Home system, and pro...
Article
The vision for Australia's national electronic health record system included empowering consumers to become active participants in their own health care. This paper aims to critically review the literature on consumer perspectives of Australia's My Health Record (formerly PCEHR). The review is based on a subset of articles (n=12) identified in the...
Conference Paper
Electronic transfer of prescriptions is an essential element of electronic medications management. Unfortunately, current manual and preliminary electronic transfer of prescription methods are not patient focussed, leading to a suboptimal solution for the patient. This is increasingly relevant in the push for more patient engagement in their own he...
Conference Paper
The demand for portable digital data storage has increased with the evolution and advancement in consumer electronic devices. USB storage devices, also referred to as USB sticks, pen drives, flash drives, thumb drives, and key drives, have replaced many other portable storage. With the evolution of these devices, an increased use for data transport...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
One area of healthcare that has moved more quickly than others in adopting electronic transfer of information is prescribing in the primary care environment. Several Acts and Regulations have been repealed and amended at Commonwealth and State levels to enable this progress over the past decade, as medication provision is a strictly controlled area...
Article
Full-text available
The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity p...
Conference Paper
In a health system increasingly driven by cost constraints, there is a focus on improved electronic transfer of information to support healthcare delivery. One area of healthcare that has moved more quickly than others to achieve this is prescribing in the primary care environment. Whilst the move to electronic transfer of prescriptions has reduced...
Article
The challenges that a lack of conventionally conceptualized borders in Cyberspace create are increasing in scale and form. This position paper evaluates through the myriad of reasons for this situation, from the absence of cyber security standards, an industry which values training over education for short term gains, resulting in a long term de-sk...
Chapter
Full-text available
Security and privacy have been well established as major considerations in health informatics generally (Rindfleisch 1997). A challenge for healthcare innovation is to embrace the potential of mobile health creatively within the healthcare system and not to merely replicate current technologies into a parallel wireless environment. In addressing th...
Conference Paper
The use of personal devices in the work environment has crossed the boundaries of work and socially related tasks. With cyber criminals seriously targeting healthcare for medical identity theft, the lack of control of new technologies within healthcare networks becomes an increasing vulnerability. The prolific adoption of personal mobile devices in...
Article
General practices in Australia recognise the importance of comprehensive protective security measures. Some elements of information security governance are incorporated into recommended standards, however the governance component of information security is still insufficiently addressed in practice. The International Organistion for Standardisation...
Article
Full-text available
Information security is a necessary requirement of information sharing within an electronic health system because without it confidentiality, availability, or integrity controls are absent. Research shows that the application of security in this setting is subject to workarounds partly because of resistance to security controls from clinicians who...
Article
General medical practices' in Australia are vulnerable to information security threats and insecure practices. It is well accepted in the healthcare environment that information security is both a technical and a human endeavour, and that the human behaviours, particularly around integration with healthcare workflow, are key barriers to good inform...
Conference Paper
Hearing loss in Australian children, particularly those in rural and remote areas, is a growing health concern. Resultant deafness has significant impact on the educational and social development of such children. Whilst telehealth had provided other benefits for rural and remote areas, the absence of suitable testing equipment and associated healt...
Article
It is no small task to manage the protection of healthcare data and healthcare information systems. In an environment that is demanding adaptation to change for all information collection, storage and retrieval systems, including those for of e-health and information systems, it is imperative that good information security governance is in place. T...
Article
Information that is persistently collected, unrelated to direct clinical care may be a Pandora's Box for health improvement and monitoring. The use and linkage of disparate data sources, particularly those relating to geo-location and social media present enormous opportunities and challenges for healthcare. To date these sources have been difficul...
Article
With the recent introduction of the Australian e-health system, health reforms and legislation were passed. Whilst the aim of these health reforms was reasonable and sensible, the implementation was rushed and less than perfect. The Deloitte e-health Strategy [1] which was endorsed by the National Health and Hospital Reform Commission (NHHRC) recom...
Article
Full-text available
Australia is stepping up to the new e-health environment. With this comes new legislation and new demands on information security. The expanded functionality of e-health and the increased legislative requirements, coupled with new uses of technology, means that enhancement of existing security practice will be necessary. This paperanalyses the new...
Article
The changing and demanding nature of the mining workforce in rural and remote Australia brings unique challenges to the delivery of healthcare services. In an attempt to control costs whilst delivering cost effective and quality healthcare, new models of delivery must be considered. For a workforce that is fly-in/fly-out, the provision of healthcar...
Article
Full-text available
The competitive nature of business and society means that the protection of information, and governance of the information security function, is increasingly important. This paper introduces the notion of a governance framework for information security for health providers. It refines the idea of an IT Balanced Scorecard into a scorecard process fo...
Article
Full-text available
The potential for cyberwarfare is vast and is of concern to all nations, and national security defence. It appears that many countries are actively trying to protect their computer networks, whilst looking for ways that might bring down the networks of other countries, although this is not officially acknowledged. Bringing down another nations comp...
Article
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Australia is moving to a national e-health system with a high level of interconnectedness. The scenario for recovery of such a system, particularly once it is heavily relied upon, may be complex. Primary care medical practices are a fundamental part of the new e-health environment yet function as separate business entities within Australia’s health...
Article
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Small business in Australia comprise 95% of businesses. As a group this means that they contain increasing volumes of personal and business data. This creates escalating vulnerabilities as information is aggregated by various agencies. These vulnerabilities include identity theft and fraud. The threat environment of small business is extensive with...
Article
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This article explores the nature of cloud computing in the context of processing sensitive personal data as part of a personal narrative. In so doing, it identifies general security concerns about cloud computing and presents examples of cloud technologies used to process such data. The use of personal narratives in electronic patient records and i...
Article
Full-text available
Primary healthcare in Australia is vulnerable to a multitude of information security threats and insecure practices. This situation is increasingly important in the developing e-health environment. Information security is everyone’s responsibility and it is extensively documented in international standards and best practice frameworks, that this re...
Article
Full-text available
The protection of patient information is now more important as a national e-health system approaches reality in Australia. The major challenge for health care providers is to understand the importance information security whilst also incorporating effective protection into established workflow and daily activity. Why then, when it is difficult for...
Article
Connecting Australian health services and the e-health initiative is a major focus in the current health environment. Many issues are presented as key to its success including solving issues with confidentiality and privacy. However, the main problem may not be these issues in sharing information but the fact that the point of origin of such record...
Article
Information communication technologies will increasingly make security in organizations more complex. This will be particularly evident in sectors that already lack adequate security regimes. One such sector is healthcare, where information security is not their core business and the understanding of its importance is often underestimated. Poor imp...
Article
E-health and the national electronic medical record are on our doorstep. As an integral part of the healthcare system, dentistry needs to get on board with this national initiative. How prepared is the dental profession for this? How can a culture of online clinical records be promoted and what protocols and infrastructure exist for this to occur?...
Conference Paper
The medical information environment has changed dramatically in the past decade with the advent of electronic information exchange and e-health initiatives. With this change have come additional risks to the security of information, particularly to sensitive patient data. Unfortunately, evidence suggests that protection of electronically held patie...
Conference Paper
General medical practices providing primary health care are the primary source for seeking medical advice in society. Government incentives and the urge to keep up-todate with current trends have led to massive deployment of technology in General Practices. Whilst this technology has enormously benefited the profession, it has also seen sundry form...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The competitive nature of business and society means that the protection of information, and governance of the information security function, is increasingly important. This paper introduces the notion of a governance framework for information security for health providers. It refines the idea of an IT Balanced Scorecard into a scorecard process fo...
Article
Objectives: Balancing all stakeholder requirements in tertiary education curriculum design is not a straightforward task. Further, in rapidly evolving disciplines such as computer science and informatics, the problem is more complex. This paper discusses the specific and generic requirements that should be included in biomedical informatics courses...
Article
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Information security is becoming increasingly important within the Australian general medical practice environment as legal and accreditation compliance is being enforced. Using a literature review, approaches to measuring information security governance were analysed for their potential suitability and use within General Practice for the effective...
Article
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The human component is a significant factor in information security, with a large numbers of breaches occurring due to unintentional user error. Technical solutions can only protect information so far and thus the human aspect of security has become a major focus for discussion. Therefore, it is important for organisations to create a security cons...
Article
Full-text available
A new kind of Internet threat has emerged. Hacking is increasingly being used as a weapon by individuals to promote their political ideologies by engaging in distributed citizen-based warfare. Their aim is to disrupt communications using internet enabled networks and organisations. Examples of these online assaults during 2009 were evident during t...
Article
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The status of information security in Australian medical general practice is discussed together with a review of the challenges facing small practices that often lack the technical knowledge and skill to secure patient information by themselves. It is proposed that an information security governance framework is required to assist practices in iden...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Primary care medical practices in Australia have been identified as a profession in need of assistance with information security practices. Whilst guidelines exist, there is little assistance in an accessible and easily implemented form for medical practices. This research presents the preliminary findings of a study which advocates that informatio...
Article
Information security is important in any organisation and particularly where personal and medical information is routinely recorded. Further, where the organisational culture revolves around trust, as in the medical environment, insider threats, both malicious and non-malicious, are difficult to manage. International research has shown that changin...
Article
Primary care medical practices fail to recognize the seriousness of security threats to their patient and practice information. This can be attributed to a lack of understanding of security concepts, underestimation of potential threats and the difficulty in configuration of security technology countermeasures. To appreciate the factors contributin...
Article
Purpose – The manner in which information is used and communicated in the medical environment has been revolutionized by the introduction of electronic storage, manipulation and communication of information. This change has brought with it many challenges in information security. This research seeks to propose a practical application, the capabilit...
Article
Full-text available
Flash and USB portable drives are now in common place use in computing environments. The U3 smart drive is one emerging type of enhanced flash drive. It is believed that U3 smart drive devices do not leave any record or evidence on a host PC after use. Therefore, it is conceivable that it could be used in a digital crime or attack on a computer or...
Article
Research has shown that multiple factors affect the implementation of effective information security in general medical practices. These relate to trust, capability, costs, time, knowledge level, poor implementation, attitude and inconsistencies in objectives. This paper discusses these issues, their affect on medical information security practice...
Article
Full-text available
In an environment where technical solutions for securing networked systems are commonplace, there still exist problems in implementation of such solutions for home and small business users. One component of this protection is the use of intrusion detection systems. Intrusion detection monitors network traffic for suspicious activity, performs acces...
Article
The process of digital forensic exploration is vitally important to the outcome of an investigation. Uncontestable and irrefutable evidence is required for legal purposes and this is underpinned by robust investigative process. This paper is a preliminary enquiry into digital forensic process models specifically for the purpose of education. It ide...
Article
Governance is an increasingly important legally and ethically for business and the professions. Further, accountability using best practice is essential to defensible governance. Information governance is a major aspect of governance and in turn, security is a major aspect of information governance. Implementing effective security is often difficul...
Article
Computers have become an important part of our lives and are becoming fundamental to activities in the home and workplace. Individuals use computer technology to send emails, access banking information, pay taxes, purchase products, surf the internet and so on. Business also use computers and the Internet to perform accounting tasks, manage custome...
Article
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This paper describes an investigation into how an employee using a virtual environment can circumvent any or all of the security, policies and procedures within an organization. The paper discusses the fundamental issues that organizations must address to be able to detect such an attack. Attacks of this nature may be malicious with intent to cause...
Conference Paper
There are many freeware based tools that can be downloaded from the World Wide Web. This paper reports the retrieval results of using these tools on digital images which have been deleted from Secure Digital (SD) cards. Since SD cards and USB flash drives are considered solid state technology, the tools selected are specifically for solid state dri...
Article
Full-text available
Information governance is becoming an important aspect of organisational accountability. In consideration that information is an integral asset of most organisations, the protection of this asset will increasingly rely on organisational capabilities in security. In the medical arena this information is primarily sensitive patient-based information'...
Conference Paper
It is anticipated that there will continue to be an exponential increase in the demand for electronic data [1]. The use of public networks, such as the Internet, to transmit private health information gives rise to numerous information security concerns. This paper investigates the security practices implemented by health care practices when transm...
Article
There are many models of security both conceptual and technically 'specific. These models can be categorized by either their protection objective or by the process they follow. In recent years there bas been a wider acceptance that information systems need a more holistic approach. However, these holistic models lack the ability to be straightforwa...
Article
Despite the risks associated with their use, medical practitioners are using wireless devices to store and access medical information. There are a number of risks associated with this use, including denial of service, eavesdropping and social engineering. The consequences of these vulnerabilities are that availability and confidentiality can be com...
Article
The 21st century information explosion has placed an increasing expectation on general medical practitioners to know how to access and utilise the latest medical research effectively. This paper discusses how the information environment in the context of clinical decision making in medical practice has been transformed through the use of IT. It dis...
Article
Many developing countries around the world are faced with the dilemma “brain-drain” as their healthcare professionals seek better economic opportunities in other countries. This problem is compounded by a lack of robust healthcare infrastructure requiring substantive improvements to bring them up to date. This impacts a countries ability to underst...
Article
Security is most commonly seen as a business concept. This is one reason for the poor uptake and implementation of standard security processes in non-business environments such as general medical practice. It is clear that protection of sensitive patient information is imperative yet the overarching conceptual business processes required to ensure...
Article
Practical application of security measures severely hampers the level of security afforded to medical data in Australia. Whilst the reasons for medical data security are widely understood, there is little published information on how to tackle even basic security challenges for medical practice in Australia. Research suggests that there is an under...
Article
Full-text available
The increased use of computing has significantly raised the profile of information security within the clinical environment. Medical information security is concerned with protecting the assets of a medical practice. These assets include hardware, software and intellectual property. To date, computer and information security in this environment has...
Article
Full-text available
Standards are an essential feature in an unregulated field such as computing. Thus, when computing and the healthcare environment are combined, the requirement for standards is imperative. For instance, the combination of sensitive information and mobile technology presents increased complexity in information security. Whilst we have many worldwide...
Article
The advances in networking and communications have created a landscape of change for information security in medical practice with the use of electronic health records. Whilst the benefits of improved quality are accepted, the ethical, logistical and security demands have increased. To resolve the problems faced, mapping how medical practice has to...
Article
Primary care medical practice is an area that critically underestimates security risk in relation to e1ectronic information. This is significant as most general practices in Australia are recording clinical records, full or partial, by electronic means. The push for increased connectivity and communication brings increased security risk. Research i...
Article
Full-text available
Paperbased health records together with electronic Patient Management Systems remain the norm for hospitals and primary care practices to manage patient health information in Australia. Although the benefits of recording patient health information into an electronic format known as an electronic health record (EHR) are well documented, the use of t...
Article
Full-text available
Telemedicine is changing the way medicine can be practiced, and how medical knowledge is communicated, learnt and researched in today’s technologically oriented society. The adoption of internet based communication has significantly expanded the patients’ ability to access a multitude of world class medical information. Research has shown that pati...
Article
Full-text available
In the medical field, information security is an important yet vastly underrated issue. Research into the protection of sensitive medical data is often technically focused and does not address information systems and behavioural aspects integral to effective information security implementation. Current information security policy and guidelines are...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Issues in the security of medical data present a greater challenge than in other data security environments. The complexity of the threats and ethics involved, coupled with the poor management of these threats makes the protection of data in clinical practice problematic. This paper discusses the security threats to medical data in terms of confide...
Article
Information literacy skills are becoming a world-wide educational issue. Chalmcrs and Fuller (1996) suggest that wc should not assume students commence university with the ability to develop sustained learning strategies that are consistent with the type of ieaming we wish them to acquire. This often results in students' inability to make the best...
Article
The use of PDA technology to support decision making at the point of clinical care is becoming increasingly popular. Whilst its use for administrative tasks, reference information and medical education do not present significant security concerns, usage for patient information and research activities require active security measures. An inherent la...