Patricia Sanmartín

Patricia Sanmartín
University of Santiago de Compostela | USC · Departamento de Edafoloxía e Química Agrícola

PhD

About

93
Publications
23,467
Reads
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Citations
Introduction
My major research interests include stone cultural heritage microbiology, biofilm at the stone/air interface, bioreceptivity and the development of innovative environmental technologies aimed at managing, assessing and mitigating natural and human impacts on stone heritage in the context of global change. Much of my research involves the interactions and exchanges between biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and anthroposphere in stone cultural heritage materials. http://webspersoais.usc.es/persoais/patricia.sanmartin/
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - July 2018
University of Santiago de Compostela
Position
  • PostDoc Position
May 2016 - July 2016
University of Santiago de Compostela
Position
  • Juan de la Cierva-incorporation contract
April 2013 - April 2016
University of Santiago de Compostela
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (93)
Article
Full-text available
The irregular damp dark staining on the stonework of a salt-contaminated twelfth century granite-built chapel is thought to be related to a non-homogeneous distribution of salts and microbial communities. To enhance understanding of the role of microorganisms in the presence of salt and damp stains, we determined the salt content and identified the...
Presentation
PAM fluorometry is used as a non-invasive, non-destructive technique to assess the quantity and physiological state of epilithic phototrophic organisms on heritage stone buildings and structures. The various PAM fluorometers available can yield different results depending on the properties of the instruments. The aim of this study was to compare th...
Article
Since the 1960s, synthetic polymers (at the time assumed to be resistant to microbial colonization) have been employed to mitigate the ongoing deterioration of cultural heritage. Since then, the use of synthetic materials in heritage conservation attracted much interest. This paper reviews the last two decades of advances in the relationship microo...
Article
Full-text available
Combined laboratory and field research examining the possible alterations caused by herbicide treatments applied to the construction materials (schist and some granite, bound with mortar) in the Roman wall of Lugo (NW Spain), declared a World Heritage site by UNESCO in 2000, was performed in three separate studies in the past 20 years. In the summe...
Chapter
Full-text available
There is currently an increasing trend in urban centres towards the use of public outdoor lighting systems to illuminate historic and architecturally important buildings during evening hours, but for which there is no specific regulatory framework. Considering that the light is a key factor involved in regulating growth and physiological processes...
Chapter
Full-text available
Some microorganisms can be used as bioremediation agents, in biocleaning treatments, to remove undesired sulphates, nitrates and organic matter from cultural heritage surfaces. Graffiti materials (mainly spray paints) are now included in the list of materials that can be biocleaned, with studies on this topic being initiated just over 5 years ago....
Article
Klebsiella aerogenes ATCC 13048 and Comamonas sp. ATCC 700440 (here identified as Comamonas testosteroni) have previously been shown to be good candidates for graffiti bioremoval, demonstrating in both immersion and subaerial strategies high levels of tolerance to the presence of the graffiti paint and some ability to degrade the graffiti material....
Article
The combined effects of UV-A or UV-B radiation and red LED light on subaerial biofilm formation were studied. Biofilms were generated using cultures isolated from natural phototrophic biofilms growing on the granite facades of the Palace of Xelmírez and the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario, both historic buildings in Santiago de Compostela (NW Spai...
Article
Microorganisms that can act as biocleaning agents can potentially be isolated from existing graffiti. In this study, a total of 30 different isolates of bacteria, fungi and yeasts were obtained from black, blue, red and silver graffiti coatings exposed outdoors conditions for 10 years. An additional strain was obtained from samples of black powdere...
Article
The recently proposed concept of quaternary bioreceptivity applies to substrates treated with coating materials and it is considered in the present study with the alga Bracteacoccus minor and the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. onto granite specimens treated with ethyl silicate and nano-sized silica doped with different amounts of TiO2 (0, 0.5, 1 and 3 w...
Article
2020 marks 25 years since Olivier Guillitte defined the term ‘bioreceptivity’, to describe the ability of a building material to be colonised by living organisms. Although Guillitte noted in his 1995 paper that several issues required further investigation, to the best of our knowledge the bioreceptivity concept has not been restated, reviewed, rea...
Article
Previous studies have provided evidence that chemical biocides can condition the behaviour of microbial populations, thereby promoting recolonization by some groups of microorganisms. We conducted a year-long study to evaluate the extent to which fungal and bacterial communities are affected by the biocidal treatments Biotin R®, Biotin T®, Prevento...
Article
Previous studies have provided evidence that bioremediation deals a novel approach to graffiti removal, thereby overcoming well-known limitations of current cleaning methods. In the present study eight bacteria aerobic, mesophilic and culturable from the American ATCC and the German DSMZ collections of microorganisms, some isolated from car paint w...
Presentation
Outdoor ornamental night lighting can be used as a non-destructive means of guiding and promoting specific physiological responses in phototrophic organisms (algae and cyanobacteria) and thus inhibiting or enhancing the growth of biofilms on monuments, civil buildings and facades. In this study, the longer wavelengths of ultraviolet (UV) light, i.e...
Presentation
The application of naturally occurring bacterial cells and enzymes in the biological removal of undesired substances such as salts and organic matter has been carried out successfully for over twenty years. Graffiti paint, most successfully removed with laser techniques, has recently been added to the list of bioremovable material. Biocleaning is a...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluated the self-cleaning ability and durability of Si-based consolidants (an ethyl silicate consolidant and a consolidant based on nanosized silica) spiked with nanocrystalline TiO2 activated by either UV-A radiation (spectral region between 340 and 400 nm, and main peak at 365 nm) or UV-B radiation (spectral region between 270 and 42...
Article
Recent work has demonstrated that surface colour affects the formation of cyanobacterial subaerial biofilms on polycarbonate coupons and, in turn, influences their bioreceptivity. To explore whether colour is important on other substrates, the influence of colour on the primary bioreceptivity of granite to the terrestrial green alga Apatococcus lob...
Article
The lack of scientific information about the effects of wildfire on prehistoric structures and rock art, such as dolmens and petroglyphs, impedes the development of conservation guidelines. In this study, the impact of a recent wildfire (late 2017) on granite outcrops in the San Salvador de Coruxo archaeological site (Vigo, SW Galicia) was evaluate...
Article
Full-text available
The former Artistic and Industrial Recreation Pavilion, which was designed by Antonio Palacios (1874–1945) and built for the Galician Regional Exhibition held in 1909 in Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, north-western Spain), and which currently houses a nursery school, was completely restored in 2018. The main purpose of the restoration was to reco...
Article
Full-text available
Correct color measurement by contact-type color measuring devices requires that the sample surface fully covers the head of the device, so their use on small samples remains a challenge. Here, we propose to use cardboard adaptors on the two aperture masks (3 and 8 mm diameter measuring area) of a broadly used portable spectrophotometer. Adaptors in...
Article
Full-text available
The society has become increasingly interested in using natural products over chemicals for cleaning activities. In this study, the cleaning potential of formulations embedded in a hydrogel matrix and composed respectively of essential oils (EOs) of Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris, and Calamintha nepeta, and their respective main active component...
Article
Full-text available
Estudios previos demuestran que el uso de películas en el aula incrementa la retención de información, aunque su falta de rigor científico debe ser evaluada, evitando integrar errores en la base de conocimiento del alumnado. Películas de los últimos ocho años muestran acertadas reconstrucciones de tsunamis pero incluyen errores sobre las áreas de b...
Presentation
Green products are receiving more and more attention in the research landscape, especially when they can replace synthetic products, which have proved to be potentially dangerous to human health and the environment. This green revolution has started to spreading in the cultural heritage conservation field, where there is a recent increased interest...
Article
Full-text available
Illustrated glossaries on stone pathologies help to describe deterioration forms in built heritage without resorting to any laboratory analyses. In this way, terms such as crust, deposit, and soiling which according to ICOMOS-ISCS: Illustrated Glossary on Stone Deterioration Patterns may include exogenic material, a patina which results from ageing...
Article
Full-text available
The role and importance of a built structure are closely related to the surrounding area, with interest in a given area having a concomitant effect on the relevance given to the constructions it may hold. Heritage interest in landscape areas has grown in recent times leading to a sound valorisation process. This connects with the recent concept of...
Article
Full-text available
Se preparó un recurso didáctico audiovisual de 23 minutos 33 segundos de duración, compuesto de 30 escenas de siete películas recientes sobre desastres naturales, estrenadas entre los años 2011 y 2015. Sobre algunos fotogramas de las escenas se superpusieron las palabras “correcto” e ”incorrecto” y también se insertaron entre algunas escenas, imáge...
Article
The upper zone of the background walls of the processional cloister of the Monastery of San Martiño Pinario (Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain) is affected by a deep green, highly hydrophobic subaerial biofilm. The pattern that the biofilm follows the walls suggests that particular microclimatic conditions induce changes in the biofilm propert...
Article
This study evaluated the medium-term performance of some of the most widely used methods of cleaning stone: dry brushing or washing with water or with an ethanol-water (1:1) mixture, benzalkonium chloride or commercial products based on quaternary ammonium salts with biocidal properties (Biotin R®, Biotin T®, Preventol RI80®, and New Des 50®). The...
Article
Full-text available
Between 2005 and 2008 a research project about the deterioration causes of the petroglyphs of Campo Lameiro (Pontevedra) was developed. The substrate of the carvings was characterised as a two mica-granite, fine to medium grained, with granular allotriomorphic texture. Intense cracking is present in the rock at all levels, which is responsible of i...
Article
The weathering capacity of UV-A, UV-B and UV-C radiation (i.e. long, medium and short wave) was tested on granite, rhyolite and biocalcarenite samples and glass slide supports coated with silver, black, blue and red graffiti paint. Physical and chemical changes occurred in the red, blue and silver paints, but not the black paint. Red and blue paint...
Article
Postharvest fungal decay causes economic loss and may cause human intoxication. Biological control of fungal decay of fruits using antagonistic native bacteria is a promising alternative. Leaf-associated (phyllosphere) bacteria are a promising yet underexploited source of antagonists for fungal control. A total of 108 bacterial isolates from mango...
Article
Full-text available
Se propone una estrategia de aprendizaje con un eje central: la visita virtual empleando Tecnologías Geoespaciales (TGs), a través de puntos de importancia geológica del área de Monforte de Lemos (Lugo). Durante la visita se trabajan aspectos relacionados con (i) la tectónica y plegamientos, (ii) los recursos geológicos y mineros, (iii) la historia...
Presentation
Bacterial and fungal soil biodiversity express the degree of conservation and functionality in natural habitats, allowing to monitor variations related to environmental changes. Thus, the characterization of soil communities in threatened woodland habitats of European interest (defined by the EU Directive 92/43/CEE, or “Habitat Directive”) is of gr...
Article
Schist weathering induced by the presence of lichen is one of the main concerns in the Côa Valley (northeast Portugal)and Siega Verde (northwest Spain)Archaeological Parks. In this study, different types of lichens, including mainly crustose forms (Caloplaca pellodella, Candelariella vitellina, Circinaria hoffmanniana, Diploschistes actinostomus an...
Presentation
Full-text available
Although biodeterioration of building materials is a critical problem for maintenance of heritage constructions, lime and earth-based mortars have been poorly explored in this regard. This study examines the damage resulting from the biodeterioration of four different lime mortar novel formulations. Mortars of plaster, reintegration, joints and inj...
Presentation
Full-text available
The cost of biocleaning surfaces to remove graffiti is similar to that of traditional methods (chemical, mechanical and/or laser), but biocleaning has proved superior in terms of substrate integrity and respect for environmental and human safety. Bioremediation thus provides a novel approach to graffiti removal, although it is still a work in progr...
Article
Full-text available
The first academic studies on the use of microorganisms in cleaning procedures appeared in the late 1980s/early 1990s. In the past thirty years, most of such studies have addressed the removal of nitrate and sulphate salts and organic matter from surfaces by using non-pathogenic anaerobic microorganisms, mainly sulphate-reducing bacteria. The succe...
Article
Cyanobacteria can grow as biofilms, communities that colonize surfaces and that play a fundamental role in the ecology of many diverse habitats and in the conversion of industrial production to green platforms. Although biofilm growth is known to be significantly affected by several characteristics, the effect of colour surface is an overlooked asp...
Article
Salt crystallisation is a very common and powerful weathering agent that can modify the petrophysical properties of building stone such as granite. In addition, the weathering can affect the susceptibility of the stone to biological colonisation. The aims of the present study were to examine the properties of a granite weathered by sodium chloride...
Chapter
Full-text available
El cambio climático es ya una realidad que se está manifestando de diferentes maneras y al que se deberá hacer frente a lo largo del siglo xxi. Las proyecciones climáticas prevén un incremento de las temperaturas medias anuales, una mayor duración, frecuencia e intensidad de los periodos de sequía así como un incremento del nivel del mar, entre otr...
Article
This study evaluated whether exposing samples of granite colonized by a natural biofilm to artificial daylight or UV-A/B/C irradiation for 48 h enhanced removal of the biofilm with a chemical product previously approved for conservation of monuments by the European Biocide Directive. Rodas granite, which is commonly found in stone-built heritage mo...
Article
Full-text available
Microbial activity has an important impact on the maintenance of cultural heritage materials, owing to the key role of microorganisms in many deterioration processes. In order to minimize such deleterious effects, there is a need to fine-tune methods that detect and characterize microorganisms. Trends in microbiology indicate that this need can be...
Article
Cyanobacteria, pioneering microorganisms that create a conditioning layer on substrates and act as a source of nutrients for successive colonization by heterotrophic microbes, are commonly studied in relation to the microbial ecology of stones in indoor and outdoor habitats. They are well known for producing greenish-yellow, bluish-green or occasio...
Chapter
Nanoparticle-based materials are applied in the conservation of cultural heritage for their consolidating and self-cleaning abilities. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to possess inherent antimicrobial activity, which has stimulated their application in the control of microbial colonization of stone and other mineral materials. A liter...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Desde 2005 a Asociación para a Defensa Ecolóxica de Galiza (ADEGA) desenvolve a iniciativa de educación e voluntariado ambiental Proxecto Ríos que a día de hoxe conta con máis de 300 grupos de participantes e que suman a máis de 3.000 persoas en toda Galiza, que cada ano se mobilizan para coñecer, poñer en valor e conservar os ecosistemas fl uviais...
Article
Full-text available
Graffiti are increasingly observed on urban and peri-urban buildings and their removal requires a huge financial outlay by local governments and agencies. Graffiti are not usually removed immediately, but rather over the passage of time, viz. months or even years. In this study, which forms part of a wider research project on graffiti removal, diff...
Article
The quantity (duration and intensity) and quality (colour or wavelength) of light are key factors involved in regulating growth and physiological processes in photosynthetic organisms. As a preliminary approach to developing biocolonization control strategies based on urban ornamental lighting, this study aimed to evaluate how coloured cellophane f...
Article
Microorganisms found on graffiti and associated environments are potential candidates for biological removal of undesirable graffiti on cultural heritage structures and materials. A feasibility study involving the isolation of natural strains of microorganisms that are capable of degrading graffiti as possible candidates for use in biocleaning trea...
Article
Full-text available
We have tested the practical application of color measurements in the study of organic matter properties (C and N content, C/N ratios, degree of peat humification-DPH) of a 335 cm long peat core sampled at Tremoal do Pedrido bog. Usual and unusual CIELAB color parameters were measured on samples that were sectioned at high resolution (slices of 1 c...
Article
This paper reviews current knowledge and recent advances in methods of graffiti removal. Three approaches were considered: chemical, physical (including laser) and biological. Findings concerning the efficiency and effectiveness of the methods, including any damage to the substrate or other side effects, are described. Emphasis is placed on the lim...
Article
In this study, a digital CMOS camera was calibrated for use as a non-contact colorimeter for measuring the color of granite artworks. The low chroma values of the granite, which yield similar stimulation of the three color channels of the camera, proved to be the most challenging aspect of the task. The appropriate parameters for converting the dev...
Article
Repeated short–term exposures to: (1) a commercial isothiazoline biocide (Biotin T®), (2) constant temperature (37 °C) and (3) UV-C germicidal irradiation (254 nm) on planktonic culture of an aeroterrestrial cyanobacterium of the genus Nostoc was carried out to assess (1) the effectiveness of the three trial treatments, referred to here as biocide...
Article
In 1995, Guillitte defined bioreceptivity, a new term in ecology, as the ability of a material to be colonized by living organisms. Information about the bioreceptivity of stone is of great importance since it will help us to understand the material properties which influence the development of biological colonization in the built environment, and...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the relationship between the aesthetic parameters of color and brightness and conversely, chemical-mineralogical composition in roofing slates from different Spanish and Portuguese quarries. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of 50 commercial types of rooting slates was carried out using X-ray diffraction and fluorescen...
Article
Full-text available
This paper addresses the detection and monitoring of the development of epilithic phototrophic biofilms on the granite façade of an institutional building in Santiago de Compostela (NW Spain), and reports a case study of preventive conservation. The results provide a basis for establishing criteria for the early detection of phototrophic colonizati...
Article
Nitrocellulose is one of the most commonly used compounds in ammunition and paint industries and its recalcitrance to degradation has a negative impact on human health and the environment. In this study the capability of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 13541 to degrade nitrocellulose as binder in paint was assayed for the first time. Nitrocellulos...