Patricia M. Clay

Patricia M. Clay
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | NOAA · Northeast Fisheries Science Center

PhD

About

70
Publications
28,753
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1,053
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Introduction
I am an anthropologist with the NMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Center in Woods Hole MA, but work from NMFS HQ in Silver Spring MD. I am part of a federal inter-agency task force on Ocean Societal Indicators and chair of the Soc for Applied Anth Topical Interest Group for Fisheries and Coastal Communities. My interests include ecosystem management and marine spatial planning, fishing communities, catch shares, food systems, adaptive management and governance, and the impacts of climate change.
Additional affiliations
November 1993 - present
National Marine Fisheries Service
Position
  • Anthropologist
November 1993 - present
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Position
  • Anthropologist

Publications

Publications (70)
Article
Fishermen may be increasingly impacted by natural disasters, given sea level rise and the likely increased frequency and severity of storms associated with climate change. Planning for resiliency in the face of these disasters requires understanding the factors that influence fishermen’s capacity to adapt. The paper examines perceptions of adaptive...
Article
Full-text available
Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating hurricanes to hit US shores. The brunt of the impact was felt in New York and New Jersey, especially among coastal towns such as fishing communities. A survey of these two states assessed social and economic impacts to 958 commercial and recreational fishermen and fishing-related business owners 12 mo...
Article
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Background Food availability, access, and utilization are the three pillars of food security and need to be aligned in order to support a healthy population. United States (US) fisheries policy plays an important role in seafood availability. US health policy impacts access and utilization of seafood in various ways; however, health policies are of...
Article
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In 2010, the Northeast U.S. sink gillnet fleet faced threats of indefinite closures to fishing if compliance rates with acoustic deterrent devices did not increase. Simultaneously, a catch share program with multiple “sectors” was implemented for groundfish, an important target for this fleet. This research examines whether the threat of closures,...
Article
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The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encompasses approximately 3.4 million square nautical miles of ocean and a coastline of over 12,300 miles. Along with the Great Lakes, this vast area generates ~US 370 billion of U.S. gross domestic product, 617 billion in sales and 2.6 million jobs each year. These ocean and coastal ecosystems also provide ma...
Article
Interdisciplinary science and environmental management involve bringing together data and expertise at multiple spatial scales. The most challenging part of merging scales is aligning the scale of inquiry with the research application. Through the Louisiana case study relating wetland loss and commercial fishing, we examine how the nature and stren...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Joint ICES/EUROMARINE Workshop on Common Conceptual Mapping Methodologies (WKCCMM) aimed to advance approaches to support inter- and transdisciplinary science via qualitative conceptual models to inform Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) throughout European seas and beyond. The workshop focused on developing a common understanding of conce...
Article
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Background: The field of behavioural economics holds several opportunities for integrated fisheries management and conservation and can help researchers and managers alike understand fisher behaviour and decision-making. As the study of the cognitive biases that influence decision-making processes, behavioural economics differentiates itself from...
Article
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Indigenous Peoples and salmon in the lands now called Alaska have been closely entwined for at least 12,000 years. Salmon continue to be central to the ways of life of Alaska Natives, contributing to physical, social, economic, cultural, spiritual, psychological, and emotional well-being. Salmon have also become important to Alaskan settlers. Our r...
Article
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Science-based natural resource management is necessary for agencies to effectively meet their goals and mandates. However, this scientific basis needs to be advanced and evolved with ecosystems experiencing unprecedented events that challenge conventional management frameworks. Effectively managing marine resources and achieving agency missions req...
Technical Report
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As United States fisheries managers develop and modify fisheries management plans that set catch limits for the Nation’s commercially important fish stocks, the importance of including and weighing the social impacts associated with changes in management has gained increasing attention. In recognition of the potential for social impacts, social imp...
Article
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Salmon are intrinsic to health and well-being in Alaska, and sit at the center of myriad social, cultural, and spiritual practices, norms, and values. These practices and values are essential to living and being well in many communities in Alaska, but often remain invisible and unaccounted for in management contexts. This paper stems from the colle...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Executive summary To support the implementation of the Ecosystem Based approach to Management (EBM), ICES strives to provide evidence-based scientific advice and relevant management options that also assess potential trade-offs among sectors or between environmental status and human uses. To help achieve this, the Workshop on Challenges, Opportunit...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Ecosystem Overviews (EOs) are central products in the ICES approach to support Ecosystem Based Management, through providing the ecoregion context, identifying main pressures, asso-ciated human activities and impacts on ecosystem state. The WKEO3 explored and discussed both stakeholder/client and expert views on the development of the EOs, and asse...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The overarching focus of Working Group on Maritime Systems (WGMARS) has been on under-standing the conceptualisation and implementation of Integrated Ecosystem Assessments (IEAs) in ICES and more broadly. From 2017-2019, the Working Group reviewed academic literature and ICES documents, interviewed the chairs of the ICES Regional Seas Working Group...
Preprint
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25 The U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) encompasses approximately 3.4 million square nautical 26 miles of ocean and the U.S. coastline stretches for 12,383 miles. This vast area generates billions 27 of dollars annually as well as multiple other societal benefits. As climatic changes occur, these 28 benefits or ecosystem services may be significa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A guiding principle of the NOAA Catch Share Policy is to track the performance of programs to monitor whether they are achieving their goals and objectives. This report focuses on assessing changes in fisheries participation for communities involved in each of the U.S. catch share programs. The indicators included here were chosen to better elucida...
Article
Between 2014 and 2016 an interdisciplinary team of researchers including physical oceanographers, biologists, economists, and anthropologists developed a working example of an Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) for three ecologically distinct regions of the Northwest Atlantic; Georges Bank, the Gulf of Maine, and the Grand Banks, as part of the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Northeast U.S. Shelf Ecosystem supports a wide array of living marine resources from Atlantic sea scallops, one of the most valuable, to the North Atlantic Right whale, one of the most endangered. All of these resources - fish, invertebrates, marine mammals, sea turtles, plants, habitats, and other ecosystem components - are being impacted by c...
Research
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Presentation to the Mid-Atlantic Fisheries Management Council’s East Coast Climate Change and Fisheries Governance Workshop
Research
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Prepared in advance of the 2013 National Climate Assessment’s Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate Technical Input Document.
Research
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Prepared in advance of the 2013 National Climate Assessment’s Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate Technical Input Document Here we examine two Northeast species, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and Atlantic croaker1 (Micropogonias undulatus). In the northeastern US, cod (primarily found in New England (ME-CT)) is likely to experience nega...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report discusses impacts of Hurricane/Post Tropical Cyclone Sandy on fishing and fishing-related businesses in New York and New Jersey one year after landfall. It describes major factors leading to different levels of impact on different sectors and some reasons behind these different impact levels. Further examined are types of impediments to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Summary Viable measures of social well-being and sustainability, including measures of vulnerability and resilience, are needed for coastal fishing communities. Although sustainable development indices have been created and implemented at national and regional levels, few are available at the local or community level, and even fewer address the soc...
Article
http://www.anthropology-news.org/index.php/2014/04/22/bringing-social-science-into-us-national-climate-policy/
Article
Increasing attention by consumers to the social and environmental dimensions of the food they eat has generated many different responses, including certification programs, watch lists and local/slow food movements. This article examines the more recent entry of seafood into these consumer social movements. Although a concern with the family farm—as...
Article
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The united States is an ocean nation—our past, present, and future are inextricably connected to and dependent on oceans and marine resources. marine ecosystems provide many important services, including jobs, food, transportation routes, recreational opportunities, health benefits, climate regulation, and cultural heritage that affect people, comm...
Article
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The United States is an ocean nation—our past, present, and future are inextricably connected to and dependent on oceans and marine resources. Marine ecosystems provide many important services, including jobs, food, transportation routes, recreational opportunities, health benefits, climate regulation, and cultural heritage that affect people, comm...
Chapter
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The biophysical impacts of climate change on oceans described in Sections 2 and 3 also affect humans and human systems that interact with the ocean. For example, fishing-dependent communities and the national economy are affected by climate-related impacts on populations of marine resources and understanding climate impacts to fish and shellfish st...
Conference Paper
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THIS IS A PAPER ABOUT A PARTICULAR SITUATION IN THE NORTHEAST US FISHERIES, and the way data we reported about fishery performance measures became part of the social and political discourse.
Article
[sustainability, biological anthropology, fisheries management, food system, sustainable fishery, Community Supported Agriculture, food and nutrition, ecology and environment]
Article
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Well-being is an important indicator of how participants in an industry are doing. Since the 1970s, anthropologists have been developing and utilizing “well-being” as an indicator, along with identifying the advantages and disadvantages of such a metric. Building on this experience, a “well-being” index is useful if it (1) is easily developed from...
Technical Report
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This document profiles 177 fishing communities in Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. Each profile provides a historic, demographic, cultural, and economic context for understanding a community's involvement in fishing. Available at: http://www.nefsc.n...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides an evaluation of the economic and social performance of active limited access Northeast groundfish vessels for the 2010 fishing year (May 2010 through April 2011) and provides additional analyses to those contained in the Report for Fishing Year 2010 on the Performance of the Northeast Multispecies (Groundfish) Fishery (May 201...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Catch share systems are being encouraged and considered in a variety of United States (U.S.) fisheries. Scientists, policy makers, and stakeholders (including fishermen and non-governmental environmental organizations) have different views about potential social and economic impacts and outcomes of these output-oriented systems. Thus identifying an...
Article
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"Today the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) recognizes social science as one of the basic sciences supporting its mission. Planning documents routinely mention social science,recognizing that humans, their institutions, and their activities have profound effects on coastal and marine ecosystems and vice versa. This was not always the case....
Article
In the Northeast US fishery managers have attempted to control marine recreational fishing mortality through annual adjustments to the number and/or size of fish that can be kept. These measures, with a few exceptions, have generally failed to prevent recreational fishing mortality rates from exceeding annual target levels. In this study, we show t...
Article
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As populations of many fish species worldwide have de-clined, the price of fuel has increased, and coastal development has mushroomed, fishing communities have suffered economic and social vulnerability. Since its 1996 re-autho-rization, the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (which governs U.S. marine fisheries) has included...
Article
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Characterizations of fishing communities range from containers of cultural traditions to sites of resistance, from places of management to spaces of global connection. We review key themes and issues from the literature on fishing communities, in light of theoretical work on communities and the context of applied anthropological work in the United...
Article
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This special issue of Human Organization provides a selection of articles addressing the use of applied anthropology in fisheries management in the United States today. NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)1 has employed anthropologists and sociologists internally and externally to support fisheries management since 1974, although it used...
Article
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This paper presents a model for Fisheries Social Impact Assessment (SIA) that lays the groundwork for development of fisheries-focused, quantitative social assessments with a clear conceptual model. The usefulness of current fisheries SIA's has been called into question by some as incompatible with approaches taken by fisheries biologists and econo...
Conference Paper
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Oral Histories While much of the discussion regarding the impacts of US fishing regulations on coastal communities is dependent on firm level economic data derived directly from the fish-harvesting sector, far less is known about the social impacts affecting households and families equally involved in fishing economies though often at an informal l...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This paper characterizes and summarizes responses to selected questions from the Social and Economic Survey administered in spring and summer 2000 to recipients of the second round (Round II) of financial assistance in the Northeast (Gulf of Maine) Multispecies Fishery Disaster Assistance Program. The paper indicates how these fishermen conduct the...
Technical Report
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In September 1997, NOAA awarded a contract (i.e., #40 ENN F7 00378) to researchers at the University of Rhode Island to develop the conceptual framework for the analysis and monitoring of the large marine Ecosystem (LME) modules for socioeconomic activity and governance of LMEs. This report provides a framework for linking the socioeconomic and gov...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The FAO/DANIDA Project "Training in Fish Stock Assessment and Fishery Research Planning" has organised training courses on fish stock assessment and workshops dealing with the assessments of specific resources in many countries. The general experience has been that in many cases proper assessments were difficult to achieve due to restrictions in th...
Chapter
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This report provides technical advice and recommendations to NMFS fishery managers and the regional fishery management councils on the development and implementation of limited access programs (which are discussed more fully in Section I.B.). Almost all Federally managed marine fisheries in the United States today are under some form of limited acc...
Article
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Fisheries management is people management-influencing people's behavior to promote socially profitable, ecologically sustainable practices. We can better influence future behavior if we understand cur-rent behavior and motivations and their interactions with management. The legal reason for identifying linkages between human behavior and management...
Article
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The delimitation of areas of the sea is common practice in fisheries management, par- ticularly when addressing problems associated with size selection and by-catch issues. Fishermen, scientists and managers divide up the sea to delimit stock units, species ranges, nursery and fishing grounds, faunal boundaries and political jurisdictions. Biologic...
Article
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Historically, nation-state level fisheries management has relied primarily on the disciplines of biology, ecology, and to some extent economics – usually in some combination, and with varying degrees of emphasis and success. Recently, as an increasing number of fisheries have begun to experience severe declines there has been increased interest in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Historically, and particularly in the ICES nations, fisheries management has relied primarily on the disciplines of biology, ecology, and to some extent economics -- usually in some combination, and with varying degrees of emphasis and success. Recently, as an increasing number of fisheries have begun to experience severe strains -- with some now f...
Article
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The Northeast's commercial oceanic and estuarine fisheries produced domestic landings worth $1.098 billion dockside in 1999, a increase of $98 million over 1998. In 1997 and 1998 domestic landings totaled $1,009 million, and $1,000 million respectively. Total quantities and value for finfish and shellfish species of major importance for 1995-1999 a...

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