Patricia A Jennings

Patricia A Jennings
University of Virginia | UVa · Curry School of Education

Ph.D. Human Development

About

60
Publications
105,331
Reads
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5,793
Citations
Introduction
I study the social and emotional dynamics of educational settings and apply this understanding to develop and test interventions designed to enhance teachers’ capacity to cultivate supportive relationships with their students and provide a supportive and engaging social and emotional context for academic learning. Aligned with this approach, I develop and test social and emotional learning curricula and interventions for preK-12 students in school settings. I am particularly focused on applying mindfulness- and compassion-based approaches to improving teacher and student emotional awareness and self-regulation and improving teaching and learning environments.
Additional affiliations
March 2012 - present
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • CARE NYC - IES Goal 3 Project
Description
  • For full description see: http://ies.ed.gov/funding/grantsearch/details.asp?ID=1233
March 2012 - present
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • CALM Teachers Study
Description
  • For a complete description see: http://prevention.psu.edu/projects/CALM.html
March 2009 - February 2012
Pennsylvania State University
Position
  • CARE for Teachers - IES Goal 2 Project
Description
  • For full description see: http://ies.ed.gov/funding/grantsearch/details.asp?ID=731
Education
September 2000 - June 2004
University of California, Davis
Field of study
  • Human Development
September 1978 - May 1980
Saint Mary's College of California
Field of study
  • Education

Publications

Publications (60)
Article
Based on an overarching analysis of the ecological levels or contexts that implementers experienced as barriers and facilitators in the delivery of a mindfulness‐based social‐emotional learning program, this study reveals the importance of relational trust between the implementer and actors within the various ecological levels. This study applies B...
Article
Latent moderated structural equations (LMS; Klein & Moosbrugger, 2000) is a popular method in estimating latent interaction effects. Mplus has implemented a variant of LMS (LMS-cat) that uses categorical confirmatory factor analysis to handle ordered-categorical indicators. We conducted a simulation study to examine the performance of the LMS-cat i...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives This study qualitatively examined the relationship between home practice and reperceiving for teachers who participated in the CARE program. We used distress tolerance, mindfulness, burnout, efficacy, compassion, and self-care as proxies for (or direct representations of) underlying components of reperceiving—awareness, emotion regulatio...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Training in mindfulness has become increasingly popular for caring professionals, including teachers, nurses, psychotherapists, and social workers. Recent research indicates mindfulness is valuable for these individuals as a means of managing occupational stress and burnout and can also enhance the quality of interactions with students,...
Article
Teacher stress is at an all-time high, negatively impacting the quality of education and student outcomes. In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have been shown to promote well-being and reduce stress among healthy adults. In particular, mindfulness-based interventions enhance emotion regulation and reduce psychological distress. One suc...
Article
Mounting evidence suggests teacher–child race/ethnicity matching and classroom diversity benefit Black and Latinx children's academic and socioemotional development. However, less is known about whether the effects of teacher–child matching differ across levels of classroom diversity. This study examined effects of matching on teacher‐reported chil...
Article
Full-text available
As the demand for mindfulness-based interventions grows, so does the need to monitor implementation to ensure effective delivery. Research has shown that the fidelity and quality of program implementation can impact intervention outcomes. This study reports on the development and use of implementation monitoring measures for the Cultivating Awarene...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has demonstrated that mindfulness can protect against the negative effects of stress and ambition on teachers’ burnout. The present study examines whether the protective effects of mindfulness may extend to features of classroom quality; in particular, whether teachers’ interpersonal mindfulness may help them to be emotionally support...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the cost of implementing the Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) for Teachers professional development program during a randomized controlled trial targeting a diverse sample of public elementary school teachers in New York City. Detailed budget information collected during the study was used to identify the...
Chapter
Full-text available
Accumulating research in education shows that contemplative practices contribute to and foster well-being of individuals in sustainable ways. This bears special importance for teachers, as it affects not only them but also their students. Based on accumulating behavioral and neuroscientific findings, it has been suggested that a key process by whic...
Article
This qualitative collective case study investigates elementary teachers’ experience with stress and the mechanisms of change related to developing resilience following a mindfulness-based intervention, Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE). Results suggest that the amount of stress teachers experience is less important than how t...
Chapter
Professions typically set ethical guidelines that articulate certain responsibilities and express a set of common values and principles that such professionals should hold. The professional educator aims to create and maintain a learning environment that expresses care for each student’s learning and developmental needs. The ethics of care have bee...
Article
Studies show teaching is a highly stressful profession and that chronic work stress is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study analysed physiological markers of stress and self-reported emotion regulation strategies in a group of middle school teachers over 1 year. Chronic physiological stress was assessed with diurnal cortisol measures...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the extant literature on mindfulness-based interventions applied to reducing teachers’ occupational stress and improving job performance, demonstrating the evolution of the field over the past 20 years from very small pilot studies to a recently conducted large cluster randomized controlled trial. The term “mindfulness” refers...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding teachers’ stress is of critical importance to address the challenges in today’s educational climate. Growing numbers of teachers are reporting high levels of occupational stress, and high levels of teacher turnover are having a negative impact on education quality. Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE for Teachers)...
Article
This case study looks into the process of developing a qualitative coding scheme and conducting analysis based on semistructured interviews, for a mindfulness-based intervention delivered to teachers as a professional development program. The Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education for Teachers program is being studied as part of a large,...
Article
Full-text available
College students who mentor at-risk youth face a variety of challenges and unexpected dilemmas. Mindful awareness practices (MAPs) offer a promising strategy for stress reduction and enhanced relationship satisfaction for college students, counseling students, parents, and teachers; yet, the potential benefits for college student mentors remain lar...
Article
Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education™ (CARE for Teachers) is an in-service professional development program designed by a team of educators and scientific advisors to promote social and emotional competence (SEC) and well-being to help teachers manage classroom stress and enliven their teaching in order to promote improvements in relat...
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of the Community Approach to Learning Mindfully (CALM) program for educators. CALM is a brief daily school-based intervention to promote educator social-emotional competencies, stress management, and wellbeing. Two middle schools were randomly assigned to waitlist control condition or the CALM program. Part...
Article
Chronic job stress makes teachers susceptible to burnout and negative health outcomes. Identifying factors that contribute to burnout is critical for teachers' health and their students' learning. This cross-sectional study examined the daily cycle of stress-related biomarkers (alpha amylase and cortisol) and self-reports of stress, burnout and psy...
Article
Full-text available
School personnel encounter numerous occupational stressors unique to their profession, and these stressors place educators at risk of job-related stress and burnout. Given the prevalence of stress and burnout among school personnel, concrete interventions designed to address the unique demands and enhance coping resources of school personnel are ne...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents the results of a series of studies conducted to develop and validate a self-report measure of the Mindfulness in Teaching Scale. Results from study 1 suggested the presence of two distinct factors measuring teacher intrapersonal mindfulness and teacher interpersonal mindfulness. Both constructs demonstrated strong positive loa...
Article
Teachers’ efficacy beliefs play an important role in how they create quality learning environments. When pre-service teachers (also known as initial teacher trainees) develop strong efficacy beliefs, they can be confident in their abilities to be successful teachers once they enter the field. One way pre-service teachers obtain efficacy information...
Article
Full-text available
The heavy demands of teaching result in many teachers becoming alienated or burning out. Therefore, it is imperative to identify ways to support teachers’ internal capacities for managing stress and promoting well-being. Mindfulness is an approach with a growing foundation of empirical support in clinical as well as education settings. Cultivating...
Book
Full-text available
Mindfulness for Teachers is based upon the author's extensive experience as a mindfulness practitioner, teacher, teacher educator and scientist. Drawing upon basic and applied research in the fields of neuroscience, psychology and education, the book offers valuable information about how mindfulness can help teachers manage the stressful demands of...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Successful implementation of social and emotional learning (SEL) curriculum de­pends upon the teacher’s ability to serve as a positive role model, facilitate interpersonal problem solving, and create environments that are conducive to social and emotional learning. The emotionally demand­ing events teachers typically face often invo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Introduction: Teaching is one of the most stressful professions. Compared to other occupations, teaching is rated worse in physical health, psychological wellbeing, and job satisfaction. Few professional development models have been tested to support educators’ stress management and wellbeing, but recent research suggests mindfulness-based interve...
Conference Paper
Teachers encounter high levels of occupational stress that can lead to burnout, poor teaching and attrition. Teacher burnout can have downstream, deleterious effects on student learning (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). There is need for research to understand the origins of teacher stress and how to reduce it in order to improve teacher wellbeing and...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Fidelity refers to the degree to which an intervention is conducted as designed and is critical for any comprehensive prevention trial. During the early stages of development, refinement and evaluation, developers present the intervention themselves. When an intervention trial grows beyond the capacity of the developers alone, fidelit...
Article
Full-text available
Early childhood teachers are instrumental in creating socially and emotionally supportive learning environments for young children. However, there is a paucity of research examining teachers’ psychosocial characteristics in relation to the dimensions of quality learning environments. Furthermore, little is known about the relationship between teach...
Article
Full-text available
Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE for Teachers) is a mindfulness-based professional development program designed to reduce stress and improve teachers' performance and classroom learning environments. A randomized controlled trial examined program efficacy and acceptability among a sample of 50 teachers randomly assigned to CA...
Article
Full-text available
Interest in contemplative science, particularly the use of mindfulness-based practices, has expanded rapidly in recent years. This special issue of Research in Human Development explores the potential effectiveness of mindfulness-based practices delivered in school settings. Articles included in this issue demonstrate how mindfulness can be used to...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background. Teachers are responsible for delivering academic instruction, facilitating student learning and engagement, and managing classroom behavior. They often serve as implementers of school-based social-emotional prevention programs, as well. Because teachers’ ability to create a healthy classroom context and deliver academic and social-emoti...
Article
Full-text available
E DUCATORS are faced with the difficult task of meeting the academic, social, and emotional needs of diverse learners in their classrooms – a task of even greater difficulty in the present context of high-stakes testing and teacher accounta-bility in the US (Darling-Hammond & Sykes, 2003) and OFSTED inspections in the UK (Hartney, 2008). Given the...
Article
This article reviews the contextual and neuropsychological challenges of the adolescent period with particular attention to the role that universal prevention can play in moderating the harmful effects of stress. The centrality of emotion regulation skills to long-term health and wellness suggests their importance in prevention and intervention eff...
Article
Full-text available
This article draws on research in neurosci-ence, cognitive science, developmental psychology, and education, as well as scholarship from contemplative traditions concerning the cultivation of positive develop-ment, to highlight a set of mental skills and socioemotion-al dispositions that are central to the aims of education in the 21st century. The...
Article
This article focuses on how mindfulness train-ing (MT) programs for teachers, by cultivating mindful-ness and its application to stress management and the social-emotional demands of teaching, represent emerging forms of teacher professional development (PD) aimed at improving teaching in public schools. MT is hypothesized to promote teachers' "hab...
Article
Full-text available
Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve em...
Article
Full-text available
Cultivating Awareness and Resilience in Education (CARE) is a professional development program designed to reduce stress and improve teachers' performance. Two pilot studies examined program feasibility and attractiveness and preliminaryevidenceofefficacy.� Study�1�involvededuca- tors from a high-poverty urban setting (n = 31). Study 2 in- volved s...
Book
Full-text available
These accounts of the implementation of best practices, including mentoring, social and emotional learning, teacher leadership, and community involvement, illustrate instances where the knowing-doing gap has been bridged to create positive outcomes for students. Thoughtful practitioners will be inspired by this compendium of innovative ideas that h...
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose a model of the prosocial classroom that highlights the importance of teachers’ social and emotional competence (SEC) and well-being in the development and maintenance of supportive teacher–student relationships, effective classroom management, and successful social and emotional learning program implementation. This model propos...
Article
Full-text available
Stress, even extremely traumatic stress, may pose both risks and benefits. Although combat can have lifelong negative consequences, the perception of positive benefits from military experience can mitigate the negative effects of combat on mental health. However, little research has examined the impact of trauma earlier in life on the development o...
Article
Contemplative education includes practices that aim to help a person cultivate conscious awareness, especially internal self-awareness and awareness of one's connection to the world. Such practices include meditation, movement, and the contemplation of nature. Exploration is under way to determine if these practices might assist young people in the...
Article
Full-text available
Self-transcendence has been hypothesized to be a critical component of wisdom (Curnow, 1999) and adaptation in later life (Tornstam, 1994). It reflects a decreasing reliance on externals for definition of the self, increasing interiority and spirituality, and a greater sense of connectedness with past and future generations. The Adult Self-Transcen...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporary theories of economic development have concentrated on socioeconomic and epidemiological indices of development to the exclusion of issues of psychological and spiritual development. Yet, economic development without attention to individual human development may produce increasing wealth but decreasing happiness. The construct of Gross...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
There is a lot of debate about how to measure the effect of stress on the body. What is the current thinking about allostatic load? Is there a more effective way to measure physiological stress?

Network

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
www.compassionschools.org A Randomized Control Trial evaluation of a health and wellness curriculum that integrates mindful awareness, social and emotional learning, health and wellness education, mindful movement and physical activity, built through a lens of mindfulness and compassion.