Patricia Folgarait

Patricia Folgarait
National University of Quilmes | UNQ · Department of Science and Technology

Professor

About

89
Publications
19,845
Reads
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3,632
Citations
Citations since 2016
19 Research Items
1489 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
Introduction
I work on biological control of pest ants, native and exotic, mainly with parasitoids and pathogens. I like to use innovative ways of control. I have a patent on leaf-cutter ants control.
Education
March 1995 - November 1997
Universidad de Buenos Aires
Field of study
  • Granivoría en la estepa patagónica del distrito occidental
January 1994 - December 1994
University of Missouri - St. Louis
Field of study
  • Population responses of plant enemies to native tropical tree plantations
January 1989 - November 1993
University of Utah
Field of study
  • Evolutionary Ecology

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Conidiobolus lunulus is a recently described entomophthoralean species isolated from leaf-cutter ants. This fungus discharges not only primary but also secondary conidia and microconidia of different shapes. Because nothing was known about the biology of the fungus, and its interactions with hosts, we first evaluated if its pathogenicity against le...
Article
The alternative use of biological control agents (BCAs) against leaf-cutter ants (LCAs) is in increasingly high demand due to the negative consequences of traditional pesticides. Regarding LCAs, BCAs include entomopathogens that infect them, and mycopathogens that kill the fungi cultivated by these ants. The simultaneous use of multiple BCAs requir...
Article
Full-text available
Entomophthoralean fungi with pathogenic abilities to infect social insects are rare. Here, we describe a fungus isolated from leafcutter ants. Morphologically, the fungus has spherical primary conidia and two types of microconidia: one with the same shape as the primary conidia and another with an elliptical to half-moon shape. The fungus also prod...
Article
Leafcutter ants are a serious pest for forestry plantations and crops in Latin America. They have been traditionally controlled using chemical synthetic pesticides, which are known to have many negative effects to non-target organisms and the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of alternative strategies of control, a...
Article
The high diversity within a guild of Pseudacteon Coquillet (Diptera: Phoridae) parasitoid flies hosted by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), may be based on several niche axes, including host size specialization, host location cues, climatic responses, and tolerances. The recently described species, Pseud...
Article
Full-text available
How workers within an ant colony perceive and enforce colony boundaries is a defining biological feature of an ant species. Ants fall along a spectrum of social organizations ranging from single-queen, single nest societies to species with multi-queen societies in which workers exhibit colony-specific, altruistic behaviors towards non-nestmate work...
Article
Phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae, Metopinini) are natural enemies of leafcutter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Attini), which are among the most important pests in the Neotropical region. These parasitoids lay their eggs inside worker ants, causing the death of the parasitized ants, and the oviposition attacks on foraging workers interfere with the...
Article
Escovopsis atlas, E. catenulata, E. longivesica, E. primorosea, and E. pseudoweberi spp. nov. are described from fungal gardens of higher attine ants in Argentina. All these species possess clear diagnostic features: E. atlas characterized by subglobose vesicles; E. catenulata by the presence of claviform vesicles forming short chains; E. longivesi...
Article
Cactoblastis cactorum Berg (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) has been extensively studied since its initial use as a biological control agent for invasive populations of Opuntia Mill. The moth is native to several South American countries including Argentina where the exotic Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae) is grown as a commercial crop. Recently...
Article
Resource segregation by species is a cornerstone ecological concept that may result from several processes such as interspecific competition, and can help structuring communities, in particular parasitoid communities. Phorid parasitoid flies that use ants as hosts usually employ one host per individual parasitoid, and thus the pressure for segregat...
Article
Leaf cutter ants are one of the most important pests to agriculture and forestry in the Neotropics. One environmentally friendly solution to control them is biological control with the use of conidia of some fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana. We tested several isolates of this fungus (obtained from leaf cutter ants) by inoculating ants from seven c...
Article
Full-text available
Las hormigas cortadoras de hojas son una de las plagas más importantes de la región Neotropical. En el presente estudio, fueron recolectados representantes de cuatro provincias de Argentina, con el objetivo de identificar las especies de fóridos que las parasitan. Como resultado, se registraron siete especies de fóridos, Apocephalus neivai Borgmeie...
Article
Full-text available
Las hormigas de la familia Attini son un grupo monofilético que incluye más de 230 especies distribuidas exclusivamente en el Nuevo Mundo. Todas las hormigas Attini superiores se alimentan de un hongo que cultivan dentro de sus nidos, y los cultivos de este hongo se encuentran continuamente expuestos a microorganismos exógenos a la colonia. Este tr...
Article
To our knowledge, this work is the first large-scaled, systematic survey of potential entomopathogens associated with worker ants of several Acromyrmex species. The study was performed at nine sites located in five Phytogeographical Provinces across Argentina. We recorded 28 species of fungi with entomopathogenic behaviour, which infected 24.3% of...
Article
Parasitoid–host interactions are important components of ecological communities. Although parasitoid–host interactions are strongly shaped by evolutionary history, the abundance of both the parasitoid and the host may have a role in determining the nature of the interaction once phylogenetic relationships are considered. 2. Leafcutter ants are host...
Preprint
Full-text available
An understanding of why introduced species achieve ecological success in novel environments often requires information about the factors that limit the abundance of these taxa in their native ranges. Although numerous recent studies have evaluated the importance of natural enemies in this context, relatively few have examined how ecological success...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this work is the morphological and molecular identification of five species of Trichoderma associated with leaf-cutting ant nests of the genera Acromyrmex present in Argentina. The species identified were T. lentiforme, T. inhamatum, T. virens, T. koningiopsis and T. aff. neotropicale resulting in the first record of T. lentiforme and T....
Article
Full-text available
The damage to plantations by pests is often determined by perceptions rather than objective data, resulting in excessive use of pesticides. Leafcutter ants are considered important pests to plantations in America. We evaluated the difference in Pinus taeda biomass consumption by four Acromyrmex leafcutter ant species which co-inhabit plantations of...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing studies in South America of phorid flies of the genus Pseudacteon Coquillett 1907 have revealed two further new species in this genus that are described here: P. obtusitus and P. notocaudatus. Both species are parasitoids of Solenopsis (F.) fire ants.
Article
Attini are the only ants that use fresh plant material to cultivate species of Leucoagaricus, which are their source of nutrition. Escovopsis species are specialized mycoparasites of Leucoagaricus sp. and Escovopsis parasitism has a negative impact on the health of the ants' colonies. The goals of this work were: to test if the virulence of differe...
Article
Many leaf-cutter ant species are well known pests in Latin America, including species of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta. An environmentally friendly strategy to reduce the number of leafcutter ants and avoid indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides is biological control. In this work we evaluated the effectiveness of a strain of the entomopathogen...
Article
Leafcutter ants in the genus Atta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Attini) are considered major pests of agriculture and forestry in the Neotropics. Phorid flies (Diptera: Phoridae) have been proposed as viable candidates for biological control of ants because of the importance of their trait-mediated effects on their hosts. However, the impact of differe...
Article
Leafcutter ants are considered the most important herbivores in the Neotropics. Atta vollenweideri is a rangeland pest that competes with cattle for grass, reducing the carrying capacity of pastures.However, there is much controversy regarding their degree of herbivory, pest status and competition with cattle. Furthermore, their economic injury lev...
Article
Phorid flies have been considered viable options for biological control of leaf-cutter ants because they are highly specific to these hosts, producing direct mortality and also affecting the normal functioning of colonies. Designing protocols for mass rearing of these insects requires knowing the temperature and humidity conditions that optimize th...
Article
In southern South America, Ada vollenweideri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a significant pest of several crops and forestry, also considered to reduce the carrying capacity of pastures. The most usual control method used in Latin America is the application of synthetic pesticides, mainly chlorpyrifos and fipronil. However, no studies have asse...
Conference Paper
We investigated the entomopathogenic fungi associated with different species of leaf-cutting ants at several sites of Argentina. Sites were located at two very different Phytogeographical Provinces. We collected 45-50 ants/nest, and 9 to 13 nests/site. From 2654 ants, we recorded 34.9% of ants infected with entompathogenic fungi (those which appear...
Conference Paper
Any sound biological control program should be based on solid basic information. The Pseudacteon –Solenopsis system has been intensively studied during the last 15 years in order to gather essential information for evaluating the use of these exotic parasitoids to control fire ants in the US. Fire ant´s Pseudacteon communities vary in their richnes...
Patent
Full-text available
Methods and compositions for controlling leaf-cutting ants. More particularly, methods and kits for controlling leaf-cutting ants by serially supplying different formulations, and a method for increasing production of conidia of the Escovopsis fungus useful as the controlling agent in the methods and compositions are disclosed herein. The methods c...
Article
Full-text available
This review updates and summarizes the current knowledge about the interaction of leaf-cutter ants and their parasitoids by providing comparable data for Acromyrmex and Atta ants. First, an overview of the relevant aspects of the biology and taxonomy of leaf cutters and of their parasitoids is provided. Second, I show the peculiarities of the paras...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Host-searching and oviposition behaviors of parasitoids, and defensive responses of the hosts, are fundamental in shaping the ecology of host-parasitoid interactions. In order to uncover key behavioral features for the little known interactions between phorid parasitoids (Diptera: Phoridae) and their leaf-cutting ant hosts (Formicidae: Att...
Article
Nestmate recognition among social insects is presumed to restrict non-nestmates from exploiting nest resources. Here, we developed aggression bioassays to assess the discrimination behaviors of both polygynous and monogynous forms of the red fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, during symmetrical interactions in neutral arenas. Workers from polygyne...
Article
Several species of parasitoid phorid flies (Pseudacteon spp., Diptera: Phoridae) have been released into the United States as potential biological control agents for the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Here we report the first successful introduction and spread of Pseudacteon nocens Borgmeier at a site in...
Article
We studied how the behavior and performance of Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier varies with the social form of its host Solenopsis invicta Buren, in its native range in Argentina where monogyne colonies are more abundant than polygynes (approximately 75 vs. 25%). Female, P. tricuspis took 44% less time (50 vs. 89 s) to attack monogyne than polygyne...
Article
Little is known about the natural history of phorid parasitoids of leaf-cutting ants, an important pest in the Neotropics. This is particularly so for phorids attacking Acromyrmex species. We searched for phorids ovipositing and reared them from ants collected in the field. We found that these phorids formed a guild. Acromyrmex phorids selected ant...
Article
Full-text available
Leaf-cutting ants are one of the main herbivores of the Neotropics, where they represent an important agricultural pest. These ants are particularly difficult to control because of the complex network of microbial symbionts. Leaf-cutting ants have traditionally been controlled through pesticide application, but there is a need for alternative, more...
Article
Leaf-cutter ants (Acromyrmex and Atta spp.) exhibit ancient and complex interactions with the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus (Basidiomycetes: Agaricales) from which they feed, and with the virulent and specific fungus Escovopsis weberi J.J. Muchovej & Delia Lucia (Ascomycetes: Hypocreales) that attacks the ants' fungal gardens. This system offers a...
Article
Leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta F. (Formicidae, Attini) are among the most important pest arthropods in Central and South America, consuming more vegetation than any other animal group. Among the organisms attacking ants in nature, flies of the family Phoridae have been proposed as the most promising biocontrol agents for pest ants. Four phorid...
Article
Little is known about the natural history of phorid parasitoids of leaf-cutting ants, an important pest in the Neotropics. This is particularly so for phorids attacking Acromyrmex species. We searched for phorids ovipositing and reared them from ants collected in the field.We found that these phorids formed a guild. Acromyrmex phorids selected ants...
Conference Paper
Fire ants (RIFA) native from Argentina are a worldwide distributed pest inflicting great damage to the US biodiversity and economy. Chemical control has been inefficient and contaminant. Only parasitoids from Argentina have been released in the US and although established their effect on ants cannot be assessed yet. Other natural enemies should be...
Article
Aim Because of the obligatory relationship between endoparasitoids and their hosts, we presume that hosts exert strong selection pressure on parasitoids. One prediction is a positive relationship between host diversity and parasitoid richness. This relationship could be the product of resource availability which could lead to more opportunities for...
Article
Full-text available
The following new species of Apocephalus ant-parasitizing flies are described: Apocephalus exlobicornis Brown & Disney, A. exstriatus Brown & Disney, A. flavitenuipes Brown & Disney, A. intermedius Brown & Disney,A. longisetarum Brown & Disney, A. necdivergens Brown & Disney, A. noetingerorum Brown & Disney, A.penicillatus Brown & Disney, and A. ph...
Article
Full-text available
Pseudacteon flies, parasitoids of worker ants, are being intensively studied as potentially effective agents in the biological control of the invasive pest fire ant genus Solenopsis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). This is the first attempt to describe the karyotype of P. curvatus Borgmeier, P. nocens Borgmeier and P. tricuspis Borgmeier. The three speci...
Article
Full-text available
Varias especies de fóridos Pseudacteon provenientes de Sur América han sido introducidas en los Estados Unidos para utilizar como control biológico de la hormiga roja de fuego Solenopsis invicta. En esta publicación mostramos los resultados de pruebas de especificidad de hospedero realizadas en otros cuatro fóridos, P. nocens, P. nudicornis, P. cul...
Article
Full-text available
Classical biological control efforts against imported fire ants have largely involved the use of Pseudacteon parasitoids. To facilitate further exploration for species and population biotypes a database of collection records for Pseudacteon species was organized, including those from the literature and other sources. These data were then used to ma...
Article
Full-text available
We assessed the performance of Pseudacteon curvatus Borgmeier with respect to the social form of Solenopsis invicta Buren in Argentina In the field, we studied the effect the parasitoid on size and proportion of ant foragers. In the laboratory, we evaluated P. curvatus oviposition preferences; host size elected; developmental periods; and sexual si...
Article
We studied the structure of an ant community along a 900-m transect of grassland in Argentina. Two ant species, Solenopsis richteri Forel and Camponotus punctulatus Mayr, monopolized space and food. These two species were distributed as a mosaic with most of the transect always controlled by either one or both. Within monospecific areas, each speci...
Article
Full-text available
The subgenus Eibesfeldtphora, of the genus Neodohrniphora, is raised to the rank of genus. Cremersia is synonymised with Neodohrniphora and N. zikani is restored to its original status as a species. New keys to the known males of Myrmosicarius and to all the females of Neodohrniphora are pro- vided. The following new species from Argentina are desc...
Article
Camponotus punctulatus builds big nests, up to 1.20m high and 2m in diameter, containing more organic matter and nutrients than the surrounding soil. The aim of this study was to relate litter decomposition in C. punctulatus nests with soil organisms. We expected a greater level of decomposition and more soil organisms within than outside the nests...
Article
Solenopsis invicta was found in the city and the province of Buenos Aires Argentina for the first time. This discovery is also the first clear record of internal immigration within the native home range of this noted tramp species.
Article
Full-text available
Lucianaphora folgaraitae Disney n. gen., n. sp., Macrocerides attophilus n. sp. are described, both being collected over leaf-cutter ants and Cremersia crassicostalis n. sp. from females collected over army ants. Some species col-lected with army ants are given code letters until they are linked up with their unknown sex. Host records for previousl...
Article
We observed the diurnal distribution of a phorid parasitoid guild of Solenopsis fire ants across five sites in an arid region of western Argentina over 17-months. We found a rich assembly of 15 taxa, of which 7 species were found each month of the year and over most times of the day. The majority of species were found most frequently in the evening...
Article
Full-text available
We examined flight activity patterns for a guild of fire ant parasitoids in western Argentina in relationship to their host's location (mound/foraging trail) and light condition (full sun/partial sun/full shade) at different scales, from the individually sampled mound to the full day's summation for each species. We asked first whether taxa showed...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural activities promote the explosion of diverse pest populations. In Argentina, the ant Camponotus punctulatus invades agricultural fields after production ceases. The temporal demography and spatial distribution of colonies of C. punctulatus were studied over a five year period using replicated plots of different land use types representi...
Article
An understanding of why introduced species achieve ecological success in novel environments often requires information about the factors that limit the abundance of these taxa in their native ranges. Although numerous recent studies have evaluated the importance of natural enemies in this context, relatively few have examined how ecological success...
Article
We studied the consequences of rice cultivation and its subsequent abandonment for soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics in north-eastern Argentina. Two chronosequences, which included a pristine grassland with C4 vegetation as a control, and several stages of rice (C3) fields abandoned for 1, 2, 4, 6 and 15 years were selected, and soil samples from...
Article
Full-text available
In north-eastern Argentina, Camponotus punctulatus builds large numbers of big and coherent anthills after abandonment of rice cultivation. These anthills easily reach 1 m in height and 2 m in diameter, and a density of 1800 nests ha−1. We studied the internal morphology of C. punctulatus aged anthills of 4, 6 and 15 years, respectively, by describ...
Article
We studied the developmental performance of the large morph of Pseudacteon nocens Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae), a prospective biological control agent of imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). We measured selected life history traits of this parasitoid as a function of 1) host species (Solenopsis invicta Buren versus Solenopsis richteri For...
Article
Full-text available
The genus Myrmosicarius Borgmeier is revised. M. brandaoi n. sp., M. cristobalensis n. sp., M. gonzalezae n. sp. and M. longipapis n. sp. from Argentina, with M. cristobalensis from Paraguay also, are described. M. diabolicus is synonymized with M. crudelis and M. cuspidatus is synonymized with M. catharinensis. A new key to the females is provided...
Article
RESUMEN. Fóridos del género Pseudacteon Coquillett oviponen en forrajeras del género Solenopsis Westwood y empupan en sus cabezas. Se evaluó la relación entre la viabilidad de los parasitoides, la presencia de cuernos respiratorios y el color en los opérculos de los puparios de cuatro especies de Pseudacteon criados sobre Solenopsis invicta Buren y...
Article
Aim  Saevissima group fire ants, Solenopsis richteri and S. invicta, have become serious pests when introduced from Argentina and Brazil to other continents. In South America, Solenopsis are distributed across a great variety of habitats and climates. In North America, S. invicta, introduced free of phorids, now ranges from coast to coast in the so...
Article
Ánts are important sources of soil disturbance and have often been considered ecosystem engineers. The physical and chemical changes produced by these insects may affect soil microorganisms. Camponotus punctulatus, a native ant species in Argentina, builds large soil nests called tacurúes, after agriculture disturbance. Soil nutrient concentrations...
Article
This study assessed the biodiversity of soil macrofauna along a chronosequence of abandoned rice paddy fields including situations of 2, 4, 7 and 15 years since the last rice harvest, compared to a control without agricultural disturbance. The density of soil macrofauna changed dramatically according to the chronosequence. It was maximum in the 2-y...
Article
We monitored weekly relative abundances of adult female Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) species between February 1998 and May 2000 in Argentina. Fire ant-phorids were active around mounds of Solenopsis richteri Forel throughout the year. Phorid species richness ranged from six species during the summer-fall, to a single, large species during the wi...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared soil physical, chemical, and biological characteristics between natural grassland and recently abandoned rice fields in order to identify those variables that might explain the observed increase of Camponotus punctulatus anthills in abandoned rice paddy fields from Northern Argentina. Mainly due to a reduction of macropores and...
Article
This study extends our comparative knowledge of Pseudacteon interactions with Solenopsis fire ant workers. Reported in this work are development times for seven Argentinean parasitoid species reared on two hosts, Solenopsis richteri Forel and Solenopsis invicta Buren, under laboratory temperature regimes comparable with those of the climatic zones...
Article
A new species of ant-parasitizing phorid fly, Pseudacteon bulbosus, (Diptera: Phoridae), is described. These flies are the first recorded parasitoids of Solenopsis interrupta Santschi, and some aspects of their natural history are outlined.
Article
Full-text available
Populations of the ant Camponotus punctulatusundergo demographic explosions after agricultural activities, buildingconspicuous, vegetation-covered soil mounds. We investigated the effects ofC. punctulatus on floristic composition and soilpropertiesalong a gradient of agricultural disturbance in Northeastern Argentina. Wesampled vegetation and soil...
Article
We studied the rates of seed removal by different granivores, in different microsites, at different times, in a Patagonian shrub steppe in South America. Granivory rates of exotic (Phalaris canariensis) and native (Mulinum spinosum) seed species were an order of magnitude lower than those reported for another cool desert from North America with com...
Article
Nothing was known about the life cycle of Pseudacteon cultellatus Borgmeier. Because this species seems to be a promising candidate for biological control of fire ants, we studied several aspects of its development. We measured selected life history traits of the fire ant parasitoid Pseudacteon cultellatus as a function of (1) host species (Solenop...
Article
1. In Argentina, six species of Pseudacteon parasitoids (Phoridae) attack Solenopsis richteri, one of the two species of South American fire ant that are exotic pests in North America. 2. The presence of these Pseudacteon species significantly reduces the number of ants at food resources in the field, as well as foraging activity generally. 3. Some...
Article
Full-text available
Agricultural activity in NE Argentina promotes the demographic explosion of the ant Camponotus punctulatus Mayr. We compared ant activity between a natural grassland and a neighbouring sown pasture in north-eastern Argentina during 24 h periods during three different times in the year. We offered sugar and tuna baits to ants in order to assess ant...
Article
Ants are important components of ecosystems not only because they constitute a great part of the animal biomass but also because they act as ecosystem engineers. Ant biodiversity is incredibly high and these organisms are highly responsive to human impact, which obviously reduces its richness. However, it is not clear how such disturbance damages t...
Article
Full-text available
In order to gain insight about why Patagonia has low levels of gravinory activity, percentages of world-wide gravinory rates were compared for rodents, ants, and birds in seven desertic areas of the world. Using a series of multivariate analyses, we classified and ordinated these areas according to percentages of gravinory rates, environmental feat...
Article
Full-text available
In order to gain insight about why Patagonia has low levels of gravinory activity, percentages of world-wide gravinory rates were compared for rodents, ants, and birds in seven desertic areas of the world. Using a series of multivariate analyses, we classified and ordinated these areas according to percentages of gravinory rates, environmental feat...
Article
Full-text available
We review the current knowledge on biodiversity in soils, its role in ecosystem processes, its importance for human purposes, and its resilience against stress and disturbance. The number of existing species is vastly higher than the number described, even in the macroscopically visible taxa, and biogeographical syntheses are largely lacking. A maj...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the susceptibility of five Costa Rican tree species to leaf-cutter ants (Atta cephalotes L.: Formicidae, Attini), young and mature leaves from trees that were grown in a plantation under full sun and partial shade were offered to six leaf-cutter colonies located in full sun and six in patial shade. In addition to offering leaf disks to t...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects of plant density, plant diversity, and light availability on susceptibility of saplings of Stryphnodendron microstachyum Poeppig & Endlicher to attack by herbivores and pathogens in the lowlands of northeastern Costa Rica. Seedlings of S. microstachyum were planted at either low or high density. High density stands were...
Article
In greenhouse experiments, we compared putative biotic, chemical, physical and phenological defenses of six myrmecophytic Cecropia species cultivated under high and low nutrient regimes. We tested the intraspecific predictions of the C:N balance hypothesis for a broader range of defenses than included in other studies to date. Treatment effects on...
Article
In a greenhouse experiment, we compared presumed biotic, chemical, physical and phenological defenses of six myrmecophytic Peruvian Cecropia species under high and low light regimes. For all species, increased light intensity enhanced both dry mass production of glycogen-rich Müllerian bodies (MBs) and levels of condensed tannins and total phenolic...
Article
1. Myrmecophytic Cecropia trees feed and house ants, presumably in exchange for protection from herbivory. These plants produce ant rewards in the form of M\ddot{u}llerian bodies (MB), glycogen-rich and protein-containing corpuscles located on trichilia at the bases of leaf petioles. Because of indirect evidence for the costliness of MB, we conduct...
Article
Full-text available
The diet of Acromyrmex striatus was used as indirect evidence for potential antiherbivore activity by the nectivorous ant Camponotus blandus and by chemical and mechanical plant defenses in a subtropical forest in the Argentinean Chaco. There was a negative relationship between the proportion of visits by C. blandus and leaf harvesting of A. striat...