Pasi Vainikka

Pasi Vainikka
VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland | vtt

About

67
Publications
24,097
Reads
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1,571
Citations
Citations since 2016
25 Research Items
1261 Citations
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200

Publications

Publications (67)
Article
Full-text available
The global food demand is projected to significantly increase. To maintain global food security in the future, protein production needs to become more efficient regarding the use of limited land and water resources. Protein-rich biomass can be produced via direct air capture of CO2 with the help of H2-oxidizing bacteria and renewable electricity in...
Article
The power sector is faced with strict requirements in reducing harmful emissions and substantially increasing the level of sustainability. Renewable energy (RE) in general and solar photovoltaic (PV) in particular can offer societally beneficial solutions. The LUT energy system transition model is used to simulate a cost-optimised transition pathwa...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Neo-Carbon Energy is the largest renewable energy research in the Finnish history. We are creating a completely new energy system where the produced energy is emission-free, cost-effective and independent. We are solving renewable energy’s flexible use, storage and distribution. This will revolutionise the entire energy field. The project is carrie...
Presentation
Presentation on the occasion of the PVSEC-27, Otsu, Japan, November 12-17, 2017.
Presentation
Description on the transition to 100% Renewable Electricity in South America and how 100% RE work, based on local resources.
Presentation
Presentation on the occasion of the 33rd EU PVSEC, Amsterdam, September 28, 2017.
Article
The global energy system has to be transformed towards high levels of sustainability in order to comply with the COP21 agreement. Solar photovoltaic (PV) offers excellent characteristics to play a major role in this energy transition. The key objective of this work is to investigate the role of PV in the global energy transition based on respective...
Article
Full-text available
In solid recovered fuel (SRF) production, type and nature of input waste stream influences the quality of fuel product. This paper presents the influence of input waste stream on SRF production in a mechanical treatment (MT) plant. The SRF was produced at industrial scale from three different types of waste streams: commercial and industrial waste...
Article
Power systems for South and Central America based on 100% renewable energy (RE) in the year 2030 were calculated for the first time using an hourly resolved energy model. The region was subdivided into 15 sub-regions. Four different scenarios were considered: three according to different high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grid developm...
Data
Table A: Financial assumptions for energy system components [36, 49, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62,]. Table B: Efficiencies and energy to power ratio of storage technologies. Assumptions are mainly taken from [61]. Table C: Efficiency assumptions for energy system components for the 2030 reference years. Assumptions are mainly taken from [59] and from [61...
Data
Fig A. Hourly generation profile for Argentina Northeast, example for an importing region. Fig B. Hourly generation profile for Central America, example for a balancing region. Fig C. Hourly generation profile for Brazil North, example for an exporting region. Fig D. Aggregated state-of-charge for the storages in the integrated scenario: battery (t...
Chapter
In this chapter, technology options for solid biomass and waste fuel utilisation in large-scale combustion plants are presented with the focus on fuel flexible technologies allowing multi-fuel operation. Fuel flexibility (the ability to use various fuels) protects power plant investment from changes in competitiveness between different fuels, which...
Article
In this study, a 100% renewable energy (RE) system for Brazil in 2030 was simulated using an hourly resolution model. The optimal sets of RE technologies, mix of capacities, operation modes and least cost energy supply were calculated and the role of storage technologies was analysed. The RE generated was not only able to fulfil the electricity dem...
Conference Paper
The global energy system has to be transformed towards high levels of sustainability for executing the COP21 agreement. Solar PV offers excellent characteristics to play a major role for this energy transition. Key objective of this work is to investigate the role of PV for the global energy transition based on respective scenarios and a newly intr...
Conference Paper
In this study, a 100% renewable energy (RE) system for Brazil in 2030 was simulated using an hourly resolution model. The optimal sets of RE technologies, mix of capacities, operation modes and least cost energy supply were calculated and the role of storage technologies was analysed. The RE generated was not only able to fulfil the electricity dem...
Conference Paper
The development of energy systems with high shares of renewable energy (RE) generation needs flexibility options, such as energy storage, grid integration as well as demand and supply side management. One of the biggest challenges is the compensation of seasonal RE and demand fluctuations. An additional way to increase system flexibility is the int...
Article
During biomass and waste combustion, high levels of alkali halides in the flue gas often lead to increased deposit formation and accelerated superheater corrosion. These problems can be reduced either by co-combustion or by the use of sulfur-containing additives. A measurement campaign was carried out in a 20 kWth bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) bench...
Research
Supplementary Material for the publication "Hydropower and Power-to-Gas Storage Options: The Brazilian Energy System Case" at the 10th International Renewable Energy Storage Conference (IRES) in Düsseldorf, March 15-17, 2016
Article
Full-text available
In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile...
Article
Quality of solid recovered fuel (SRF) demands that the waste components containing pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and inert components are sorted out into separate small streams and to concentrate the suitable components into a prepared depolluted combustible fraction stream of SRF. In the SRF production, mass flow of waste compone...
Presentation
Sugarcane biorefineries, despite contributing to energy sustainability and mitigation of carbon emissions, produce a large amount of carbon dioxide as a by-product of their conversion techniques. This study aims in the carbon balance evaluation of the conversion process of a typical autonomous distillery in the centre-south region of Brazil in orde...
Research
Presentation on the occasion of the Rio 15 – World Climate & Energy Event in Rio de Janeiro on September 4, 2015.
Conference Paper
A vast potential of renewable energy sources and a supportive regulatory environment that has been encouraging investments on renewable energy (RE) are driving the development of non-hydro renewable energy generation in South American countries. Therefore, the possibility to build cost competitive independent 100% RE systems is becoming a reality i...
Article
To meet the increasing volume of waste to be treated via energy recovery, high SRF-energy-share fuel is being fired in conventional waste-to-energy facilities. In this work, corrosion related risk during firing of 70 e-% share (target fuel) is studied and compared against the base case fuel containing 50 e-% share. Cl and S concentration is highest...
Research
Presentation on the occasion of the Nordic Energy Management 2015 event in Helsinki on June 10, 2015.
Article
Power-to-gas (PtG) technology has received considerable attention in recent years. However, it has been rather difficult to find profitable business models and niche markets so far. PtG systems can be applied in a broad variety of input and output conditions, mainly determined by prices for electricity, hydrogen, oxygen, heat, natural gas, bio-meth...
Article
In order to study the mass flow of pollutant and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the output streams of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process, the various streams produced in commercial scale SRF production process are characterized chemically and, the elemental balance of SRF production process is presented. The SRF is produced from co...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Power-togas (P2G) technologies producing synthetic fuels have the potential to address the issue of intermittency of electricity from solar and wind farms, and simultaneously contribute to lower CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere. However it requires, among others, judicious technical selection of appropriate CO 2 capture and delivery technologie...
Conference Paper
Power-to-gas (PtG) technology has received considerable attention in recent years. However, it has been rather difficult to find profitable business models and niche markets so far. PtG systems can be applied in a broad variety of input and output conditions, mainly determined by prices for electricity, hydrogen, oxygen, heat, natural gas, bio-meth...
Article
Increased use of biomass and waste fuels, and the consequent corrosion problem have led to an increased need to study and monitor the combustion processes. This study presents an extensive physical characterization of aerosol particles measured from a bubbling fluidized bed boiler with different fuel mixtures and optional ferric sulfate feeding. Th...
Article
This is the third and final part of the three-part article written to describe the mass, energy and material balances of the solid recovered fuel production process produced from various types of waste streams through mechanical treatment. This article focused the production of solid recovered fuel from municipal solid waste. The stream of municipa...
Article
In this work, the fraction of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) complicated and economically not feasible to sort out for recycling purposes is used to produce solid recovered fuel (SRF) through mechanical treatment (MT). The paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of this SRF production process. All the process streams (i...
Article
A staged equilibrium process model was developed for a bubbling fluidized bed boiler firing SRF, bark and sludge. The model was used to study the influence of sulfur addition strategies (S-pellet additive and peat co-firing) on the behavior of copper, bromine, and alkalis. Aerosol samples collected from the backpass of the boiler were used to valid...
Article
Levels of PCDD/F production in a 140 MW,h bubbling fluidized bed boiler were measured. The boiler uses solid recovered fuel, bark and sludge. Homologue distribution patterns suggest the de novo mechanism is the main pathway for the generation of dioxin and furans in the post combustion zones of the boiler. Two modes of sulfur addition were tested t...
Article
PCDD/F abatement strategies – sulfur pellet addition and peat co-combustion – were tested for a BFB boiler facility utilizing SRF-bark-sludge as fuel. In this paper chemical and physical analyses of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) fly ashes were used to explain the differences in the performance of these strategies. These analyses revealed a diffe...
Article
In solid substances used as fuels, bromine originates mainly from flame retarded plastics and textiles, as well as from wastewater sludge. It has been indicated that bromine behaves in a similar way as chlorine with respect to ash forming matter, aerosol formation and high temperature corrosion in biomass and waste fired boilers. In this work, a me...
Article
This paper presents the mass, energy and material balances of a solid recovered fuel (SRF) production process. The SRF is produced from commercial and industrial waste (C&IW) through mechanical treatment (MT). In this work various streams of material produced in SRF production process are analyzed for their proximate and ultimate analysis. Based on...
Chapter
Large combustion plants generate > 100 MW power as their primary function. They were not designed to utilise waste as fuel, so they do not utilise it as their primary fuel and operate at higher steam parameters than purely waste- fired units. The main options for firing waste are: direct solid waste firing in pulverised-coal (PC) boilers, direct fi...
Article
The main fine particle (d(p) < 1 mu m) forming elements found in combustion gases of anthropogenic waste or biomass fired boilers are typically K, Na and Cl, possibly complemented with S. When these are excluded, in solid recovered fuel (SRF) combustion the main elements were found to be: Ba, Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sb,Sn and Zn. Fine particle composit...
Article
Bromine seems to have similar behaviour to chlorine during thermal conversion: bromine forms high vapour pressure salts in the furnace, bromine contributes to high temperature corrosion of boiler steels and brominated dioxins and furans have been detected in combustion plant effluents. This paper presents a review on the natural origin, content and...
Article
In Part 1 of the work a measurement campaign was carried out to determine the occurrence of corrosive ash components in a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler combusting solid recovered fuel (SRF). It was found out that the main ash-forming elements that had been vaporized and subsequently condensed from the gas phase were Na, K, S and Cl together w...
Article
Analogously to chlorine, bromine has been shown to have a role in high temperature corrosion and dioxin/furan formation in combustion systems. This paper presents a review on the origin, content and modes of occurrence of bromine in solid substances used as fuels. In Part 1 the natural and in Part 2 the anthropogenic occurrence of bromine is discus...
Article
Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. Th...
Article
An experimental campaign was carried out with a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) pilot scale combustor to study the role of coal bound kaolin in the fate of solid recovered fuel (SRF) originated halide aerosols. A combustion experiment was carried out with SRF-Spruce Bark mixture as a reference. High kaolinite coal and paper pigment kaolin, one at a...
Article
In waste fired boilers high temperature corrosion has often been attributed to zinc and lead chlorides. In addition, bromine induced high temperature corrosion has been earlier observed in a bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) with bark and wastewater sludge. In Part 1 of this work a measurement campaign was und...
Article
Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromin...
Article
Corrosive ash species are the single most important factor limiting the electric efficiency of steam boiler plants fired with waste or biomass. Chlorine has been found to have a central role in the chemistry involved as it reduces the melting temperature of ash, forms corrosive vapour and gas species in the furnace and halogenated deposits on boile...
Chapter
Full-text available
Aerosol and fly ash sampling was carried out at a 80MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler plant co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF), spruce bark and paper mill wastewater sludge in two experimental conditions. The SRF-Bark ratio in the fuel mix was kept constant at 50%–50% on dry mass basis in both experiments but two sludge proportions were us...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study is to analyse the market potential of new high efficiency CHP concept developed by VTT in German and European pulp and paper industry. The basic idea behind the new CHP concept is to co-combust SRF and other waste fuels together with paper mill sludge and coal to reach high steam values and high efficiencies. Because of...
Article
Combustion of two biomass fuels: demolition wood (DW) and pepper plant residue (PPR), was investigated from an emission viewpoint in a 20 kWth fluidized bubbling bed reactor and a 1 MWth fluidized bubbling bed test boiler. Fluidization velocity and boiler output were varied in the larger facility whereas they were kept constant in the smaller react...
Article
Firing or co-firing of biomass in efficient power plants can lead to high-temperature corrosion of superheaters due to condensation of alkali chlorides into superheater deposits. Corrosion can be prevented if a significant portion of the alkali chlorides present in the flue gases is destroyed before reaching the superheaters. The alkali capturing p...
Article
Costs of biofuel production from energy crops can be reduced by applying the crop residues in heat and power production. Perennial herbaceous crops like Cynara cardunculus L. are challenging fuels because they tend to have high ash and chlorine contents. Coals, however, are often rich in aluminium silicates and sulphur, and co-firing of these biofu...
Conference Paper
Co-combustion of coal with biomass or firing biomass alone is increasingly used as a first step to meet the Finnish commitments under the Kyoto agreement. Fluidized bed combustors are commonly used when co-firing, however, even if FBC’s have a wide tolerance for different fuel qualities, co-combustion of biomass or firing biomass alone may lead to...
Conference Paper
The co-combustion of fossil fuels with CO2 -neutral fuels is an attractive way both to decrease CO2 emissions in energy production and to use fuel synergies which decrease each other’s undesirable properties. This paper presents a new approach to understand and predict the chlorine deposition tendency in the co-combustion of coal with biomass and R...
Article
The co-combustion of fossil fuels with CO2 neutral fuels is an attractive way both to decrease CO2 burden in heat and power production and to use fuel synergies that neutralize each other's undesirable properties. This paper presents a approach to understand and to distinguish the roles of sulfur and kaolinite in co-combustion of coal with CO 2-neu...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Study the production of microbial biomass and lipids from electricity, air, water and some nutrients. The project is funded by the Academy of Finland.