Pascal Michel

Pascal Michel
Public Health Agency of Canada | PHAC · Office of the Chief Science Officer

DVM, MPVM, PhD

About

134
Publications
20,087
Reads
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2,704
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 2015 - present
Public Health Agency of Canada
Position
  • Chief Science Officer
November 2014 - November 2015
Public Health Agency of Canada
Position
  • Science advisor to Assistant Deputy Minister
January 2010 - November 2014
Public Health Agency of Canada
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (134)
Article
Full-text available
Identified in December 2019 in China, the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Pandemics share features that increase fear. While some fear can stimulate preventive health behaviors, extreme fear can lead to adverse psychological and behavioral response. The media play a major rol...
Article
In North America, different strains of the Lyme disease-causing bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto cluster into phylogenetic groups that are associated with different levels of pathogenicity and, for some, specific rodent reservoir hosts. Here we explore whether landscape connectivity, by impacting host dispersal, influences B. burgdorfer...
Article
Jamestown Canyon and snowshoe hare viruses are two emerging human pathogens associated with cases of neuroinvasive disease in North America. This study aimed to identify environmental and individual risk factors for seropositivity to these arboviruses in humans and pet dogs from Québec, Canada, 2012–2014. In humans, areas with moderate densities of...
Article
Full-text available
The emergence of the vector Ixodes scapularis in Ontario, Canada poses a significant public health risk. Both passive and active surveillance approaches have been employed by public health professionals (i.e., government employees) to monitor for the range expansion of this tick. Field surveillance using drag sampling for questing ticks is a recogn...
Data
Tick dragging results. The abundance of each life stage of I. scapularis collected via tick dragging during each visit to Turkey Point Provincial Park and Murphy’s Point Provincial Park from May to October 2014. (DOCX)
Data
Application of indicator. The scores based on the application of the indicator for sites of unknown status sampled during 2014–2015 and again in 2016 (NZ = non-zero, L = low, M = medium, H = high). (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
The invasion of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis into Ontario, Canada poses a significant risk to public health because it is a vector for numerous pathogens, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the causative agent of Lyme disease. Baseline field sampling in 2014 and 2015 detected I. scapularis and B. burgdorferi at sites across so...
Article
Full-text available
Prioritizing resources for optimal responses to an ever growing list of existing and emerging infectious diseases represents an important challenge to public health. In the context of climate change, there is increasing anticipated variability in the occurrence of infectious diseases, notably climate-sensitive vector-borne diseases. An essential st...
Data
Individual stakeholder weights for all criteria ordered by importance for the research intervention domain. (DOCX)
Data
Comparison of the I. scapularis site status over two years of field sampling with the predicted year to establishment based on Leighton et al. (2012) at 33 sites in Ontario. (DOCX)
Data
Supporting references used to assess disease scores for the pilot prioritization. (DOCX)
Data
The univariable analysis of site-level ecological variables on the late establishment of I. scapularis at 33 sites sampled in Ontario during the spring, summer and fall of 2014 or 2015 and again in 2016 based on logistic regression or exact logistic regression (*). (DOCX)
Data
Individual stakeholder weights for all criteria ordered by importance for the surveillance intervention domain. (DOCX)
Data
Weight stability interval sensitivity analysis for all stakeholders for the prevention & control domain. (DOCX)
Data
Individual stakeholder weights for all criteria ordered by importance for the prevention and control intervention domain. (DOCX)
Data
Weight stability interval sensitivity analysis for all stakeholders for the surveillance domain. (DOCX)
Article
Periodic outbreaks of West Nile virus (WNV), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and to a lesser extent, California serogroup viruses (CSGV), have been reported in parts of Canada in the last decade. This study was designed to provide a broad assessment of arboviral activity in Quebec, Canada, by conducting serological surveys for these arbovi...
Article
The identification of specific environments sustaining emerging arbovirus amplification and transmission to humans is a key component of public health intervention planning. This study aimed at identifying environmental factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) infections in southern Quebec, Canada, by modelling and jointly interpreting aggrega...
Article
In northeastern North America, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the vector of numerous tick-borne pathogens, including the agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi senso stricto. Since 1990, there has been a rapid spread of I. scapularis northward into the province of Ontario, Canada. Climate change has been implicated as one of the d...
Article
Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is a rare but severe emerging vector-borne disease affecting human and animal populations in the northeastern United States where it is endemic. Key knowledge gaps remain about the epidemiology of EEE virus (EEEV) in areas where its emergence has more recently been reported. In Eastern Canada, viral activity has be...
Article
Full-text available
The recent emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America highlights vulnerability to climate sensitive diseases and stresses the importance of preventive efforts to reduce their public health impact. Effective prevention involves reducing environmental risk of exposure and increasing adoption of preventive behaviours, both of which depend on...
Data
Additional individual-level protection strategy performance profiles. (TIF)
Data
Regional-level management intervention profiles (interventions 18–23). (TIF)
Data
Matrix of evaluation scores for the interventions in the Quebec WNV management model. (DOCX)
Data
References used in the assessment of management interventions. (DOCX)
Data
Regional-level management intervention profiles (interventions 11–16). (TIF)
Data
Stakeholder weighting results by criteria and category for the Scenarios 1& 2 (low risk transmission). (DOCX)
Data
Stakeholder weighting results by criteria and category for the Scenarios 3& 4 (medium risk transmission). (DOCX)
Data
Stakeholder weighting results by criteria and category for the Scenarios 5& 6 (high risk transmission). (DOCX)
Data
Measurement scales used to score interventions in the model. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Background The indigenous Batwa of southwestern Uganda are among the most highly impoverished populations in Uganda, yet there is negligible research on the prevalence of malaria in this population. Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasitaemia prevalence was estimated in an indigenous Batwa and a non-indigenous neighbouring population, and an explora...
Poster
Full-text available
Contact details of the presenting author: cecile.aenishaenslin@umontreal.ca, 3200 Sicotte, Saint-Hyacinthe, Québec, J2S 7C6 Background: The recent emergence of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada, is a good example of a complex health issue. Preventive interventions can have environmental, social and economic impacts and decision-making requires a syste...
Article
Full-text available
The effects of climate change on infectious diseases are an important global health concern and necessitate decisions for allocation of resources. Economic tools have been used previously; however, how prioritization results might differ when done using broader considerations identified by local stakeholders has yet to be assessed. A multicriteria...
Article
Full-text available
Different genotypes of the agent of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, show varying degrees of pathogenicity in humans. This variation in pathogenicity correlates with phylogeny and we have hypothesized that the different phylogenetic lineages in North America reflect adaptation to different host species. In this stu...
Data
Supplementary Figures. These comprise an unrooted Bayesian phylogenetic tree and a minimum spanning tree of the MLST STs. (DOCX)
Data
Supplementary Tables. Data and statistical analyses tables. Tables of the raw data used for the first time in the study, and of statistical analysis results. (DOCX)
Article
Over the past two decades, the northward spread of Ixodes scapularis across Ontario, Canada, has accelerated and the risk of Lyme disease has increased. Active surveillance is a recognized and effective method for detecting reproducing populations of I. scapularis. In this study, we conducted field sampling consistent with an active surveillance ap...
Article
Full-text available
Background Lyme disease control strategies may include tick control interventions in high risk areas. Public authorities may be interested to assess how these types of interventions are perceived by the public which may then impact their acceptability. The aims of this paper are to compare socio-cognitive factors associated with high acceptability...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Lyme disease (LD) is a vector-borne disease that is endemic in many temperate countries, including Switzerland, and is currently emerging in Canada. This study compares the importance of knowledge, exposure and risk perception for the adoption of individual preventive measures, within and between two different populations, one that has...
Article
Full-text available
Pour les êtres humains comme pour les animaux, l’environnement c’est tout ce qui nous entoure, mais c’est aussi les contacts directs avec d’autres animaux qui peuvent être porteurs de maladies. Saviez-vous que plus de 60% des maladies infectieuses affectant les humains sont d’origine zoonotique, où l’animal joue un rôle important dans leur transmis...
Article
Full-text available
Designing preventive programs relevant to vector-borne diseases such as Lyme disease (LD) can be complex given the need to include multiple issues and perspectives into prioritizing public health actions. A multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) model was previously used to rank interventions for LD prevention in Quebec, Canada, where the disease is em...
Article
Full-text available
In North America, Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne zoonosis caused by the spirochaete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is maintained by wildlife. Tick vectors and bacteria are currently spreading into Canada and causing increasing numbers of cases of LD in humans and raising a pressing need for public health responses. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Integrated vector management (IVM) is recommended as a sustainable approach to malaria control. IVM consists of combining vector control methods based on scientific evidence to maximize efficacy and cost-effectiveness while minimizing negative impacts, such as insecticide resistance and environmental damage. Zooprophylaxis has been identified as a...
Article
Full-text available
Space science and satellite technologies hold untapped potential for public health, according to a new expert group that will deliver its proposals to the United Nations General Assembly in New York next month. Pascal Michel talks to Fiona Fleck.
Article
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Public health risks related to the microbial contamination of recreational waters are increased by global environmental change. Intensification of agriculture, urban sprawl, and climate change are some of the changes which can lead to favorable conditions for the emergence of waterborne diseases. Earth observation (EO) images have several advantage...
Research
Full-text available
APPLICATIONS OF SPACE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY FOR PUBLIC HEALTH Meeting organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) 15-16 June, Meeting Room C, WHO Headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland
Research
Full-text available
In collaboration with the Canadian Space Agencies
Article
Full-text available
Lyme disease (LD) is a tick-borne emerging disease in Canada that has been endemic in many temperate countries for decades. Currently, one of the main approaches for LD prevention is the promotion of individual-level preventive behaviors against ticks. Health behaviors are influenced by individual and social factors, one important of which is risk...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fecal contamination of recreational waters may lead to gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, dermatitis and ear infections. In addition to directly testing waters for contamination, the World Health Organisation also recommends the assessment of environmental factors known to influence water quality as part of the monitoring efforts....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fecal contamination of recreational waters may lead to gastroenteritis, respiratory infections, dermatitis and ear infections. In addition to directly testing waters for contamination, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the assessment of environmental factors known to influence water quality as part of monitoring efforts. M...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY We studied the association between drinking water, agriculture and sporadic human campylobacteriosis in one region of British Columbia (BC), Canada. We compared 2992 cases of campylobacteriosis to 4816 cases of other reportable enteric diseases in 2005-2009 using multivariate regression. Cases were geocoded and assigned drinking water sourc...
Article
Full-text available
SUMMARY This study investigated the extent to which proximity to cattle and weather events in Alberta predispose human populations to E. coli O157 disease. Cases of human E. coli O157 infection in Alberta between 2004 and 2011 were obtained from the province's Communicable Disease Reporting System and Discharge Abstract Database. Regression models...
Article
Full-text available
In spatial epidemiology, the choice of an appropriate geographical unit of analysis is a key decision that will influence most aspects of the study. In this study, we proposed and applied a set of measurable criteria applicable for orienting the choice of geographical unit. Nine criteria were selected, covering many aspects such as biological relev...
Article
Childhood nonviral gastroenteritis is a priority for various public health authorities. Given that waterborne transmission is sometimes incriminated during investigation of gastroenteritis outbreaks, the authors hypothesized that watershed characteristics may influence the occurrence of this disease and could contribute additional insights for bett...
Article
Full-text available
Zoonoses are a growing international threat interacting at the human-animal-environment interface and call for transdisciplinary and multi-sectoral approaches in order to achieve effective disease management. The recent emergence of Lyme disease in Quebec, Canada is a good example of a complex health issue for which the public health sector must fi...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a highly pathogenic arbovirus that infects humans, horses, and other animals. There has been a significant increase in EEEV activity in southeastern Canada since 2008. Few data are available regarding nonlethal EEEV infections in mammals, and consequently the distribution and pathogenicity spectr...
Article
Diverse fecal and nonfecal bacterial contamination and nutrient sources (e.g. agriculture, human activities and wildlife) represent a considerable non-point source load entering natural recreational waters which may adversely affect water quality. Monitoring of natural recreational water microbial quality is most often based mainly on testing a set...
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of severe gastroenteritis in children living in Québec rural areas with intensive livestock activities. From September 2005 through June 2007, 165 cases of gastroenteritis in children aged from 6 months to 5 years, hospitalized or notified to the public health department were enrolled, and 326 el...
Article
Full-text available
Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that...