# Paolo PerroneUniversity of Oxford | OX · Department of Computer Science

Paolo Perrone

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

36

Publications

2,510

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188

Citations

Introduction

For now, see my personal homepage:
http://www.paoloperrone.org

Additional affiliations

Education

August 2014 - November 2018

August 2014 - November 2018

September 2012 - July 2013

## Publications

Publications (36)

These notes were originally developed as lecture notes for a category theory course. They should be well-suited to anyone that wants to learn category theory from scratch and has a scientific mind. There is no need to know advanced mathematics, nor any of the disciplines where category theory is traditionally applied, such as algebraic geometry or...

Markov categories are a novel framework to describe and treat problems in probability and information theory. In this work we combine the categorical formalism with the traditional quantitative notions of entropy, mutual information, and data processing inequalities. We show that several quantitative aspects of information theory can be captured by...

Full text available for now at the following link:
www.paoloperrone.org/phdthesis.pdf
Abstract:
www.paoloperrone.org/phdthesis-abstract.pdf

Many special classes of simplicial sets, such as the nerves of categories or groupoids, the 2-Segal sets of Dyckerhoff and Kapranov, and the (discrete) decomposition spaces of Gálvez, Kock, and Tonks, are characterized by the property of sending certain commuting squares in the simplex category \(\Delta \) to pullback squares of sets. We introduce...

We study the positivity and causality axioms for Markov categories as properties of dilations and information flow and also develop variations thereof for arbitrary semicartesian monoidal categories. These help us show that being a positive Markov category is merely an additional property of a symmetric monoidal category (rather than extra structur...

Information geometry is the study of interactions between random variables by means of metric, divergences, and their geometry. Categorical probability has a similar aim, but uses algebraic structures, primarily monoidal categories, for that purpose. As recent work shows, we can unify the two approaches by means of enriched category theory into a s...

Markov categories have recently turned out to be a powerful high-level framework for probability and statistics. They accomodate purely categorical definitions of notions like conditional probability and almost sure equality, as well as proofs of fundamental resutlts such as the Hewitt-Savage 0/1 Law, the De Finetti Theorem and the Ergodic Decompos...

Introduced in the 1990s in the context of the algebraic approach to graph rewriting, gs-monoidal categories are symmetric monoidal categories where each object is equipped with the structure of a commutative comonoid. They arise for example as Kleisli categories of commutative monads on cartesian categories, and as such they provide a general frame...

The ergodic decomposition theorem is a cornerstone result of dynamical systems and ergodic theory. It states that every invariant measure on a dynamical system is a mixture of ergodic ones. Here, we formulate and prove the theorem in terms of string diagrams, using the formalism of Markov categories. We recover the usual measure-theoretic statement...

Markov categories are a novel framework to describe and treat problems in probability and information theory. In this work we combine the categorical formalism with the traditional quantitative notions of entropy, mutual information, and data processing inequalities. We show that several quantitative aspects of information theory can be captured by...

We study the positivity and causality axioms for Markov categories as properties of dilations and information flow in Markov categories, and in variations thereof for arbitrary semicartesian monoidal categories. These help us show that being a positive Markov category is merely an additional property of a symmetric monoidal category (rather than ex...

One way of interpreting a left Kan extension is as taking a kind of “partial colimit”, whereby one replaces parts of a diagram by their colimits. We make this intuition precise by means of the partial evaluations sitting in the so-called bar construction of monads. The (pseudo)monads of interest for forming colimits are the monad of diagrams and th...

The ergodic decomposition theorem is a cornerstone result of dynamical systems and ergodic theory. It states that every invariant measure on a dynamical system is a mixture of ergodic ones. Here we formulate and prove the theorem in terms of string diagrams, using the formalism of Markov categories. We recover the usual measure-theoretic statement...

Probability theory can be studied synthetically as the computational effect embodied by a commutative monad. In the recently proposed Markov categories, one works with an abstraction of the Kleisli category and then defines deterministic morphisms equationally in terms of copying and discarding. The resulting difference between 'pure' and 'determin...

We consider three monads on $\mathsf{Top}$ , the category of topological spaces, which formalize topological aspects of probability and possibility in categorical terms. The first one is the Hoare hyperspace monad H , which assigns to every space its space of closed subsets equipped with the lower Vietoris topology. The second one is the monad V of...

This paper makes mathematically precise the idea that conditional probabilities are analogous to path liftings in geometry. The idea of lifting is modelled in terms of the category-theoretic concept of a lens, which can be interpreted as a consistent choice of arrow liftings. The category we study is the one of probability measures over a given sta...

Many special classes of simplicial sets, such as the nerves of categories or groupoids, the 2-Segal sets of Dyckerhoff and Kapranov, and the (discrete) decomposition spaces of G\'{a}lvez, Kock, and Tonks, are characterized by the property of sending certain commuting squares in the simplex category $\Delta$ to pullback squares of sets. We introduce...

We present a novel proof of de Finetti's Theorem characterizing permutation-invariant probability measures of infinite sequences of variables, so-called exchangeable measures. The proof is phrased in the language of Markov categories, which provide an abstract categorical framework for probability and information flow. This abstraction allows for m...

One way of interpreting a left Kan extension is as taking a kind of "partial colimit", whereby one replaces parts of a diagram by their colimits. We make this intuition precise by means of the "partial evaluations" sitting in the so-called bar construction of monads. The (pseudo)monads of interest for forming colimits are the monad of diagrams and...

Markov categories are a recent categorical approach to the mathematical foundations of probability and statistics. Here, this approach is advanced by stating and proving equivalent conditions for second-order stochastic dominance, a widely used way of comparing probability distributions is by their spread. Furthermore, we lay foundation for the the...

Monads can be interpreted as encoding formal expressions, or formal operations in the sense of universal algebra. We give a construction which formalizes the idea of “evaluating an expression partially”: for example, “2+3” can be obtained as a partial evaluation of “2+2+1”. This construction can be given for any monad, and it is linked to the famou...

An algebraic expression like $3 + 2 + 6$ can be evaluated to $11$, but it can also be \emph{partially evaluated} to $5 + 6$. In categorical algebra, such partial evaluations can be defined in terms of the $1$-skeleton of the bar construction for algebras of a monad. We show that this partial evaluation relation can be seen as the relation internal...

In earlier work, we had introduced the Kantorovich probability monad on complete metric spaces, extending a construction due to van Breugel. Here we extend the Kantorovich monad further to a certain class of ordered metric spaces, by endowing the spaces of probability measures with the usual stochastic order. It can be considered a metric analogue...

We consider three monads on Top, the category of topological spaces, which formalize topological aspects of probability and possibility in categorical terms. The first one is the hyperspace monad H, which assigns to every space its space of closed subsets equipped with the lower Vietoris topology. The second is the monad V of continuous valuations,...

We define and study a probability monad on the category of complete metric spaces and short maps. It assigns to each space the space of Radon probability measures on it with finite first moment, equipped with the Kantorovich-Wasserstein distance. This monad is analogous to the Giry monad on the category of Polish spaces, and it extends a constructi...

Monads can be interpreted as encoding formal expressions, or formal operations in the sense of universal algebra. We give a construction which formalizes the idea of "evaluating an expression partially": for example, "2+3" can be obtained as a partial evaluation of "2+2+1". This construction can be given for all monads on a concrete category, and i...

In this mainly expository note, we state a criterion for when a left Kan extension of a lax monoidal functor along a strong monoidal functor can itself be equipped with a lax monoidal structure, in a way that results in a left Kan extension in MonCat. This belongs to the general theory of algebraic Kan extensions, as developed by Melli\`es-Tabareau...

In earlier work, we had introduced the Kantorovich probability monad on complete metric spaces, extending a construction due to van Breugel. Here we extend the Kantorovich monad further to a certain class of ordered metric spaces, by endowing the spaces of probability measures with the usual stochastic order. It can be considered a metric analogue...

We give a conceptual treatment of the notion of joints, marginals, and independence in the setting of categorical probability. This is achieved by endowing the usual probability monads (like the Giry monad) with a monoidal and an opmonoidal structure, mutually compatible (i.e. a bimonoidal structure). If the underlying monoidal category is cartesia...

We define and study a probability monad on the category of complete metric spaces and short maps. It assigns to each space the space of Radon probability measures on it with finite first moment, equipped with the Kantorovich-Wasserstein distance. This monad is analogous to the Giry monad on the category of Polish spaces, and it extends a constructi...

Here we define a procedure for evaluating KL-projections (I- and rI-projections) of channels. These can be useful in the decomposition of mutual information between input and outputs, e.g. to quantify synergies and interactions of different orders, as well as information integration and other related measures of complexity. The algorithm is a gener...

The decomposition of channel information into synergies of different order is
an open, active problem in the theory of complex systems. Most approaches to
the problem are based on information theory, and propose decompositions of
mutual information between inputs and outputs in se\-veral ways, none of which
is generally accepted yet.
We propose a n...

Dual affine connections on Riemannian manifolds have played a central role in
the field of information geometry since their introduction by Amari.
Here I would like to extend the notion of dual connections to general vector
bundles with an inner product, in the same way as a unitary connection
generalizes a metric affine connection, using Cartan de...