Paolo Moroni

Paolo Moroni
University of Milan | UNIMI · Department of Veterinary Medicine

DVM PhD

About

329
Publications
40,162
Reads
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4,209
Citations
Additional affiliations
March 2016 - present
University of Milan
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
March 2013 - present
Cornell University
Position
  • Senior Extension Associate
March 2011 - February 2016
University of Milan
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (329)
Article
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing intramammary infection and mastitis in dairy cows. S. aureus genotypes (GT) can differ significantly in their ability to diffuse and persist in the herd; while the association of virulence gene carriage with epidemiological behavior remains unclear, a role for secreted proteins has been postulated....
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotic use is an important component in dairy herd management both to treat bacterial diseases and to maximize animal welfare. However, there is concern among scientists that antibiotic misuse and/or overuse by farmers might promote the emergence of resistant pathogens. We conducted a cross-sectional web-based questionnaire study with dairy far...
Article
Houseflies (Musca domestica) are nonbiting muscoids of importance because they can be mechanical vectors of many kinds of pathogens such as bacteria, protozoa, viruses, and helminth eggs. This study aimed to evaluate the bacterial communities associated with houseflies captured in 3 different areas on a dairy farm located in New York State. Variati...
Article
Full-text available
Post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs has mainly an infectious basis and control strategies are centred on antibiotics added to the diet. Given concerns on the spread of multi-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to develop alternative prophylactic approaches to control PWD in piglets. The most promising alternative strategies are based on substances...
Article
Full-text available
The discovery of antibiotics more than 80 years ago has led to considerable improvements in human and animal health. Although antibiotic resistance in environmental bacteria is ancient, resistance in human pathogens is thought to be a modern phenomenon that is driven by the clinical use of antibiotics1. Here we show that particular lineages of meth...
Article
Full-text available
The cows receiving antibiotics for intra-mammary infection (IMI) produce milk that cannot be marketed. This is considered waste milk (WM), and a convenient option for farmers is using it as calf food. However, adding to the risk of selecting resistant bacteria, residual antibiotics might interfere with the gut microbiome development and influence g...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) limits the ability to prevent and treat infection, making AMR one of the foremost threats to human and animal health. Animal agriculture’s large use of antibiotics in food animals is an important factor in AMR. As such, policies to reduce antibiotic use and combat AMR in animal agriculture in the United States (US) ha...
Article
Full-text available
The primary objective of our study was to assess the ability of a vacuum recorder to detect the presence of bimodal milk flow curves in dairy cows compared with a portable milk flow meter. In a cross-sectional study, 241 individual cow milking observations were analyzed. We simultaneously collected (1) individual cow vacuum events during milking us...
Article
Full-text available
Streptococcus uberis, an environmental pathogen responsible also for contagious transmission, has been increasingly implicated in clinical mastitis (CM) cases in Europe. We described a 4-month epidemiological investigation of Strep. uberis CM cases in an Italian dairy farm. We determined molecular characteristics and phenotypic antimicrobial resist...
Article
Full-text available
The United States regulates the use of antibiotics in agricultural settings to address the global antibiotic resistance problem. Conventional dairy cows treated with antibiotics are kept in the herd and after the withholding period milk is harvested. On organic farms, the US organic standard on antibiotic use requires sick dairy cows to be treated,...
Article
Full-text available
On-farm culture (OFC) systems facilitate pathogen-based mastitis management and can facilitate antimicrobial stewardship on dairy farms. Interpretation of the results, however, may present a challenge for those with limited microbiology experience. Here, we compared results of 3 OFC systems interpreted by trained and untrained observers against res...
Article
Mastitis represents one of the major economic and health threats to the livestock sector associated with reduction in milk quality, loss of production and is a major reason for culling. Somatic cell score (SCS) is used as a criterion in breeding programmes to select cows genetically less susceptible to mastitis. The relevance of SCS as a predictor...
Article
Full-text available
Determining the species of mycoplasma isolated from culture-positive milk samples is important for understanding the clinical significance of their detection. Between August 2016 and December 2019, 214,518 milk samples from 2,757 dairy herds were submitted to Quality Milk Production Services (QMPS) at Cornell University for mycoplasma culture. From...
Article
Full-text available
Acholeplasma laidlawii can be isolated from cattle environments and different body sites of bovines. It is still under evaluation if A. laidlawii acts as a primary pathogen. Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of A. laidlawii isolated from the conjunctiva of a heifer with infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.
Article
Full-text available
There has been a global push for improved antimicrobial stewardship, including in animal agriculture, due to growing concerns about antimicrobial resistance. However, little is known about the general public's perceptions of antimicrobial use in animal agriculture. The aim of this study was to explore the US public's perceptions of antibiotic use i...
Article
Full-text available
Veterinarians are the main source of information for farmers regarding the responsible use of antibiotics in farm animals and how to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance. Consequently, understanding how veterinarians perceive their clients’ and colleagues’ antibiotic use and their own beliefs about the development of antibiotic resistance is es...
Article
Full-text available
Intramammary infections (IMI) with Staphylococcus aureus are a common cause of bovine mastitis and can result in both clinical (CM) or subclinical mastitis (SCM). Although bacterial isolates of S. aureus differ in their virulence potential it is largely unclear which bacterial virulence factors are responsible for increased clinical severity. We pe...
Article
Full-text available
Among more than twenty species belonging to the class Mollecutes, Mycoplasma bovis is the most common cause of bovine mycoplasmosis in North America and Europe. Bovine mycoplasmosis causes significant economic loss in the cattle industry. The number of M. bovis positive herds recently has increased in North America and Europe. Since antibiotic trea...
Article
Full-text available
Lactating cows are routinely treated at dry-off with antibiotic infusions in each quarter for the cure and prevention of pathogenic intramammary infection, which remains the most common disease in dairy herds. This approach is known as blanket dry-cow therapy, usually effective for the prevention and cure of infections, but has been shown to potent...
Article
Full-text available
Animal health is affected by many factors such as metabolic stress, the immune system, and epidemiological features that interconnect. The immune system has evolved along with the phylogenetic evolution as a highly refined sensing and response system, poised to react against diverse infectious and non-infectious stressors for better survival and ad...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of heat treatment on colostral low-abundant proteins, IgG and IgA, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), as well as bacteria and somatic cells. First-milking colostrum samples >8 L and Brix % > 22.0 were harvested from 11 Holstein cows on a commercial dairy in New York State an...
Article
Full-text available
Antibiotic resistance is a global problem affecting both human and animal health. Ensuring the strategic and effective use of antibiotics is paramount to combatting the emergence and spread of resistance. This study explored New York State (NYS) dairy farmers’ perceptions regarding antibiotic use in dairy farming and antibiotic resistance. Dairy fa...
Poster
Full-text available
Veterinarians have a crucial role in promoting farm management measures to reduce the risk of antibiotic resistance from emerging on dairy farms, as well as educating their clients regarding the appropriate and responsible use of antibiotics. Our objective was to elucidate perceptions, attitudes, and concerns of dairy veterinarians regarding antibi...
Article
Full-text available
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the main contagious mastitis agents in cattle and can express a set of antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence-associated genes that explain the wide range of outcomes of intramammary infections. Staphylococcus aureus strains are heterogeneous: their different resistance and virulence pat...
Article
Full-text available
Late lactation is a critical moment for making mastitis management decisions, but in small ruminants the reliability of diagnostic tests is typically lower at this stage. We evaluated somatic cell counts (SCC) and cathelicidins (CATH) in late lactation sheep and goat milk for their relationship with intramammary infections (IMI), as diagnosed by ba...
Chapter
Milk and dairy products could contain a variety of microorganisms, deriving from the environment or from infected udders, becoming an important source of foodborne pathogens. The main microorganisms involved in mastitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Prototheca spp., Mycoplasma spp. and Streptococcus spp., while the principal pathogens responsible for...
Article
We investigated the distribution of pathogenic non-agalactiae gram-positive, catalase-negative cocci (GPCN) in a convenience sample of New York State dairy farms. Our primary objective with the clinical mastitis (CM) GPCN samples was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC) resolution and bacteriological cure of Streptococcus dysgalactiae or Streptococ...
Article
Full-text available
Mycoplasma cynos is recognized as an emerging causative pathogen of canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) worldwide. We developed a new open-source real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay for M. cynos that performs well under standard rtPCR conditions. Primers and probes were designed to target the M. cynos tuf gene. Reaction efficiencies for the M. cyn...
Article
Full-text available
Subclinical mastitis by Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) and by non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) is a major issue in the water buffalo. To understand its impact on milk, 6 quarter samples with >3,000,000 cells/mL (3 SAU-positive and 3 NAS-positive) and 6 culture-negative quarter samples with <50,000 cells/mL were investigated by shotgun proteomics and lab...
Article
Full-text available
Streptococcus uberis is an important causative agent for clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle. The aim of this study was to develop 2 multiplex PCR assays (mPCR) for the simultaneous detection of virulence factors and housekeeping genes for use when investigating the genetic variability and distribution of Strep. uberis virulence facto...
Article
A recently developed bovine cathelicidin (CATH) ELISA was evaluated in the dairy buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) by testing 618 quarter milk samples from a herd with subclinical mastitis cases. Somatic cell count (SCC) and bacteriological culture (BC) were carried out on the same samples for comparison. Out of 618 quarters, 258 (41.75%) were positive to...
Article
Full-text available
IL-1R8 is a member of Interleukin-1 receptor family acting as a negative regulator of inflammation reliant on ILRs and TLRs activation. IL-1R8 role has never been evaluated in acute bacterial mastitis. We first investigated IL-1R8 sequence conservation among different species and its pattern of expression in a wide panel of organs from healthy goat...
Article
The study was conducted to describe the dynamics of ST398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on a dairy herd in northeastern Italy. MRSA was first identified in this herd of 120 cows in 2016, after which the herd was sampled once every 3 months for 1 year (April 2016-May 2017). Samples collected included nasal swabs and milk samples...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) represents the most important threat for the pig industry all over the world with a morbidity over 50% among weaned piglets during outbreaks of the disease. Given the public health concerns about the spread of multi-resistant bacteria due to the use of antibiotics in livestock, it is necessary to develop alternative str...
Conference Paper
Most lactating cows are routinely treated in each quarter with antibiotic at drying off. This is defined as the ‘blanket’ approach, and it is considered effective in preventing new infections and curing the existing infections. However, this farming practice can potentially interfere with the milk microbiota balance, as well as promote the selectio...
Article
This research communication reports the evaluation of cathelicidin in dairy goat milk for its relationship with the somatic cell count (SCC) and microbial culture results. Considering the limited performances of SCC for mastitis monitoring in goats, there is interest in evaluating alternative diagnostic tools. Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial prote...
Article
Escherichia coli causes a significant number of clinical mastitis cases in dairy cattle worldwide. The antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli is important for both human and animal health. Surveillance reports recorded that the efficacy of most antibiotics is substantially preserved but detection of E. coli from clinical mastitis cases producing e...
Article
Full-text available
Dry and early lactation periods represent the most critical phases for udder health in cattle, especially in highly productive breeds, such as the Holstein Friesian (HF). On the other hand, some autochthonous cattle breeds, such as the Rendena (REN), have a lower prevalence of mastitis and other transition-related diseases. In this study, milk micr...
Data
PCoA of weighted UniFrac distances represent the differences in milk microbiota structure between each time point for HF and REN. Average distance between breeds is statistically significant (p = 0.01) for T1 (A), T2 (B), T3 (C), T4 (D) time points. (TIFF)
Data
Composition of the dry-off and lactating diets for both HF and REN cows. (PDF)
Data
Taxonomic characterization of milk microbiota differences among breeds at phylum, family and genus level. List of the bacterial groups with relative abundance > 1% and p-value < 0.05. Average relative abundance per breed (with related standard deviation), as well as Mann-Whitney U-test p-values, are reported. (PDF)
Data
Species-level analysis of Streptococcus. The relative abundances of genus Streptococcus is shown for each quarter milk sample in the stacked bar plot (A) and in the pie charts (B). The “Other” category (gray) represents all of the genera that do not belong to the genus Streptococcus; blue bars show how Str. thermophilus is the main species among th...
Data
Correlation plots of SCC vs. microbial relative abundance. Dotplots represent the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between SCC and the relative abundance of selected bacterial taxa at different levels for all quarter milk samples (REN and HF). For representation purposes, SCC was log-transformed before plotting; only correlations with a p-value of...
Data
Genus level composition along the four time points for REN milk samples. Relative abundances (with related standard deviation) of the main bacterial groups along the four time points of sampling. On the right, the significance of the Mann-Whitney U-test is reported for each pair-wise comparison. P-values: ***: < 0.005; **: < 0.01; *: < 0.05. (PDF)
Data
Microbiota composition of outlier samples. The bacterial abundances at genus level are shown for the 8 discarded samples, as well as the average composition for the remaining REN (n = 43) and HF (n = 74) samples. (A) Relative abundances of the main commensals (green box) and environmental/opportunistic (red box) genera are shown as stacked barplot;...
Data
Genus level composition along the four time points for HF milk samples. Relative abundances (with related standard deviation) of the main bacterial groups along the four time points of sampling. On the right, the significance of the Mann-Whitney U-test is reported for each pair-wise comparison. P-values: ***: < 0.005; **: < 0.01; *: < 0.05. (PDF)
Article
Bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma and in particular by Mycoplasma (M.) bovis is a serious animal-health problem for (bigger) dairy herds. It is a highly contagious disease with low infectious doses and with high amounts of shedding. This can lead to a rapid dissemination of the infections in a herd followed by milk yield decline. After appearanc...
Article
The objectives of this study were to characterize the pathogen frequency and severity of clinical mastitis (CM) in 20 dairy herds of southeastern Brazil; and to determine the incidence rate of clinical mastitis (IRCM; overall and based on specific-pathogen groups) based on quarter time at risk and its association with risk factors at the herd-level...
Article
Lactococcus garvieae is now recognized as a species with clinical significance for human and veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of this pathogen in sand bedding and milk samples.. Two Minnesota farms in with problems of clinical and subclinical mastitis due to streptococci-like organisms were selected. Twenty-fo...
Article
Pentraxin 3 is the prototypic long pentraxin and is produced by different cell populations (dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts) after pro-inflammatory stimulation. Different studies demonstrated the up-regulation of PTX3 during mastitis in ruminants, but its role is still unknown. We first investigated the co...
Poster
Full-text available
A global effort exists for more judicious use of antibiotics in animal agriculture, including in dairy farming. Veterinarians are key personnel involved in this issue, as they are the actors that will often serve to educate farmers on antibiotic use, decide whether or not antibiotics should be used, and/or ultimately prescribe antibiotics. A few st...
Article
Full-text available
Staphylococcus aureus is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR and investiga...
Preprint
Full-text available
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is recognized worldwide as one of the major agents of dairy cow intra-mammary infections. This microorganism can express a wide spectrum of pathogenic factors used to attach, colonize, invade and infect the host. The present study evaluated 120 isolates from eight different countries that were genotyped by RS-PCR a...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment of bovine mastitis with intramammary antibiotics is common, yet several concerns exist including failed efficacy for individual hosts or pathogens and the inability of approved drugs to revert mastitis-induced tissue damage to healthy tissue capable of returning to full milk production. These issues, in addition to aspects of public healt...
Article
An expert opinion elicitation, based on a modified Delphi technique, was organized to collect the opinion of 16 Italian veterinarians with the aim of conducting a hazard and a welfare promoter characterization for defining and weighing a list of management and housing factors potentially associated with negative or positive welfare outcomes in dair...
Article
Lactococcus garvieae has emerged as an important zoonotic pathogen. However, information regarding mechanisms and factors related to its pathogenicity is lacking. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and functionality of genes related to virulence factors in L. garvieae strains isolated from different niches (diseased fish, humans...
Article
In Holstein Friesian dairy cows, selective pressure for increased milk production has led to a higher propensity to disease, including mastitis, when compared to less selected and lower producing dairy breeds. The biology underpinning the higher resistance to disease of such "local breeds" is not fully understood. With the aim of investigating the...
Article
Elevated bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) has a negative impact on milk production, milk quality, and animal health. Seasonal increases in herd level somatic cell count (SCC) are commonly associated with elevated environmental temperature and humidity. The Temperature Humidity Index (THI) has been developed to measure general environmental...
Article
Full-text available
The selective pressure for increased milk production brought about great difficulties in the adaptation of cows to their environment. However, not much is known about the biological mechanisms behind the relationship between genetic selection and higher risk of metabolic and infectious diseases (Oltenacu, P.A., and Broom, D.M., 2010). It is well kn...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of pre-milking mechanical teat stimulation on milk yield and milking performance of dairy buffaloes in early lactation. For this purpose, twenty-two healthy Italian Mediterranean buffaloes in their first to third lactation and in early lactation (<120 days in milk) were subjected to t...