Paolo Malanima

Paolo Malanima
Universita' degli Studi "Magna Græcia" di Catanzaro | Università Magna Græcia di Catanzaro · Department of Legal, Historical, Economic and Social Sciences

Professor

About

97
Publications
64,754
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1,819
Citations
Citations since 2016
18 Research Items
1068 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150
2016201720182019202020212022050100150
Introduction
In the last two decades my work dealt with the problem of long-term development (which is also the topic of my teaching activity in the fields of history of development and development economics). In particular my contributions to the scientific debate concern: 1. Italian GDP per capita since the Antiquity until the WW1, Italian wages in the long-run and urbanisation (Italian and European); 2. inequalities in development (North-South disparities in Italy after 1861 and disparities among Mediterranean countries in the last two decades); 3. the role of energy past and present (since the Antiquity and during Modern Growth). My present research interest is World energy consumption and energy technology from the start of Nineteenth century until today.
Education
October 1969 - December 1976
Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
Field of study
  • Humanities

Publications

Publications (97)
Data
A Database with yearly data of energy consumption for the last two centuries. The Database includes traditional energy sources as well.
Chapter
Between 1650 and 1860–1870, the Italian demographic system displayed the traditional features of the old agrarian civilisations. Crises depended in particular on climatic shocks and the ensuing falls of incomes. The reduced frequency of dramatic crises allowed a slow demographic rise from the late seventeenth century. Yet it was only after the Unif...
Article
Our knowledge of energy consumption over the past two centuries is still superficial. The available energy databases cover, at best, the years from the 1960s. Furthermore, we know little on the consumption of traditional sources; still in use in developing countries. The consequence is that the modern “energy transition” and its impact on the econo...
Preprint
Full-text available
The relationship between epidemics in Tuscany and the Renaissance economy: 1348-1550.
Article
On the basis of a new series on the consumption of traditional and modern sources of energy between 1820 and 1913, this article addresses the start of modern growth and the great divergence on the world scale. Since the beginning of the nineteenth century, the greater availability of modern energy sources expanded working capacity well beyond the p...
Article
Book review of: Paul Caruana Galizia, Mediterranean Labor Markets in the First Age of Globalization. An Economic History of Real Wages and Market Integration (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015) 197 pp.
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Full-text available
In contrast to the debates of the past, which focused mainly on income inequality and the related elements of injustice, the recent interest in economic inequality focuses on its effects on economic growth and social development. New research is an important element of these recent debates: a historical approach that contextualizes inequality with...
Article
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This paper deals with industrialization in Italy between 1871 and 2001, and is based on data on the labour force per province (NUTS 3) from population censuses. Particular attention is devoted to long-term trends and North–South disparities. After the analysis of the geographic spread of industry and its changes, we test the role of access to marke...
Article
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The article deals with ancient, medieval and modern wages: from 2000 BC to present. Real wages remained in a narrow range until about 1820. Then they increased about 13 times
Data
Data on wages in the building sector for Italian provinces and regions in the period 1862-1878 were used to analyse regional disparities. Wages are given for different jobs and cathegories of jobs. Real wages were computed on the basis of a food basket.
Preprint
Full-text available
Information on wages has never been exploited in the long-lasting debate on North-South disparities in Italy in the aftermath of the national Unification. The present article is based on a wide array of data on provincial wages in the building sector over the period 1862-78. Nominal wages in the Centre-North and the South, including the Islands, we...
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This article is aimed at analysing the trends of economic, social and institutional inequality among the Mediterranean countries in the period 1950-2015. After the examination of the inequalities in GDP per capita among and within nations, we present a human development index (HDI) that includes a measure of democratic achievements. Main result is...
Article
Measuring Wellbeing. A History of Italian Living Standards. By Giovanni Vecchi. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017. Pp. xvii, 645. $ 97.19, hardcover. - Volume 77 Issue 4 - Paolo Malanima
Article
A well-known debate on the Renaissance economy was held in this journal in 1962–4 between Roberto S. Lopez and Harry Miskimin on one hand and Carlo M. Cipolla on the other. More than half a century later, this topic can be reconsidered in the light of much wider information on the late medieval/early modern Italian economy. Using data on population...
Working Paper
Full-text available
The article is aimed at analysing the trends of economic, social and institutional inequality among the Mediterranean countries in the period 1950-2015. After the examination of the inequalities in GDP per capita among and within nations, we present a Human Development Index (HDI) that includes a measure of democratic achievements. Main result is t...
Data
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Between 1960 and 2015, World urban population rose by about three billion. Urbanisation is still growing nowadays. The article deals with both convergence in urbanisation on the World scale and the possible progress of urbanisation in the next future.
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The displacement of the centre of the European economy from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic and the beginning of north–south divergence in Europe has been discussed on the basis of data on real wages, urbanization rates, and, more recently, estimates of gross domestic product for a number of European countries. The purpose of the present article...
Article
Power to the People examines the varied but interconnected relationships between energy consumption and economic development in Europe over the last five centuries. It describes how the traditional energy economy of medieval and early modern Europe was marked by stable or falling per capita energy consumption, and how the First Industrial Revolutio...
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Full-text available
The topic of energy is of central interest today. Although a long-term view can be useful in order to clarify contemporary trends and future perspectives, scholarly literature provides little information on the consumption of energy sources by past societies, before the beginning of the 20th century. In the following analysis , the topic of energy...
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The particular development of the Italian regional disparities and North–South inequality is correlated with the structural change which came about during the process of industrialisation. This process began in certain Northern poles producing a sudden increase in regional inequality, but, as it later spread through the North and Centre, a fall in...
Chapter
This chapter considers the role that energy played in the industrial growth in nineteenth-century Europe. The economies of Europe grew more rapidly during the nineteenth century than at any previous period in history. This was not simply a consequence of the doubling of the population; per capita income rose as well. Given these facts it is hardly...
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This chapter examines the impact of major development blocks on the diffusion of new energy carriers and energy consumption in twentieth-century Europe. The focus is on the drivers of energy transitions and economic energy efficiency. The second and third industrial revolutions were each distinguished by major development blocks in the fields of en...
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This chapter examines the role of energy in the economic growth of twentieth-century Europe. It considers the interrelationships of factors of production in order to identify the general features of a shared experience of growth, rather than to illuminate the local differences. The chapter first explains how development blocks contributed to GDP gr...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on coal development blocks. From an energy point of view, the key aspects of the first industrial revolution were coal, steam, and iron. The development block was built around two core innovations, the steam engine and new techniques in metallurgy, saving on both labor and land. The chapter first considers the core innovations...
Book
This book examines the varied but interconnected relationships between energy consumption and economic development in Europe over the last five centuries. It describes how the traditional energy economy of medieval and early modern Europe was marked by stable or falling per capita energy consumption, and how the First Industrial Revolution in the e...
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This chapter defines some important concepts that are used in the book and which are relevant to energy in the economic context. It first considers energy consumption in the economic sense; here energy is defined as the capacity to perform work, useful for human beings, thanks to changes in the structure of matter or its position in space. The use...
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This chapter examines the dynamics of the early modern European economy in order to highlight both the possibilities for development and the constraints of the old European world. It first considers population and climate, focusing on two main changes: saving land, which implied a transition in the kind of energy carriers, and saving labor, which i...
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This chapter examines energy transitions in twentieth-century Europe. It begins with a discussion of the rise in energy consumption in the twentieth century and the breakthrough of oil and electricity. These developments display similarities and differences with the previous century, that of the first industrial revolution, where coal came to domin...
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This chapter summarizes the book's main findings and their implications for the future, reflecting in particular on the limits of growth, peak oil, technology, and prospects for a return to the organic economy. The central part of the book's argument is that pre-industrial Europe faced energy constraints to economic growth, and was set free from th...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on traditional energy sources in Europe. It first provides an overview of energy sources and energy consumption in premodern Europe before discussing organic energy sources and agricultures, looking in particular at food demand, a global perspective on the European agriculture, intensification and population, working animals, a...
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This chapter examines the emergence of a modern energy regime in Europe. It begins with a discussion of the increase in energy consumption and how a combination of coal, engine, and iron coalesced to form the “development block” that characterized and drove the first industrial revolution. It then considers the role of coal in the new geography of...
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Contact with other animals was the cause of the worst infectious illnesses that have affected the human species in past agrarian societies. Various strains of influenza, smallpox, malaria, plague, measles, and cholera were provoked by in- fections which first affected domestic animals or those non-domestic species with which humans came into contac...
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According to Allen, between 1500 and 1750, a “great divergence” among countries in the level of wages occurred in Europe. Italian real wages were already among the lowest in the late medieval and early modern age. Their relative level diminished even more from the seventeenth century. An analysis of prices and wages in Italy and England does not su...
Article
According to Allen, between 1500 and 1750, a “great divergence” among countries in the level of wages occurred in Europe. Italian real wages were already among the lowest in the late medieval and early modern age. Their relative level diminished even more from the seventeenth century. An analysis of prices and wages in Italy and England does not su...
Book
A detailed exploration of the influence and utility of Thomas Malthus' model of population growth and economic changes in Europe since the sixteenth century.
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The energy system of the ancient Mediterranean civilisations was the same as that of all agrarian societies between the 5th millennium B.C. and the 19th century, and the level of per head consumption of energy was the same too. This system was based on food, firewood, and fodder for working animals. Despite the increase in useful knowledge and the...
Book
Power to the People examines the varied but interconnected relationships between energy consumption and economic development in Europe over the last five centuries. It describes how the traditional energy economy of medieval and early modern Europe was marked by stable or falling per capita energy consumption, and how the First Industrial Revolutio...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, consumption in early modern Europe is analysed in terms of prices, incomes and per capita GDP. We focus in particular on England and Italy, and stress both the similarities and differences. We show how the increase in consumption of some items is not at odds with decline or stability in labour incomes and, probably, per capita outp...
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In the article, consumption in early modern Europe is analysed from the perspective of prices, incomes and per capita GDP. In particular we focus on England and Italy and stress both the similarities and differences. We show how the increase in some con-sumption items is not at odds with decline or stability in labour incomes and, probably, per cap...
Chapter
The transformation of the energy system during the period between the 16th and 19th centuries was the necessary, al though not sufficient, condition of modern growth, first in Europe and then in the rest of the World. The transition to alternative forms of energy was prompted by the decline in per capita energy availability in early modern Europe d...
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The growing interest in economic growth in the very long run has promoted a rich literature and theoretical models which try to explain pre-industrial stagnation and modern economic growth in a unified framework. The transition from Malthusian stagnation to modern growth has also been the subject of intense research. According to Malthus, preventiv...
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Socioeconomic disparity between North and South Italy has been recently explained by Lynn (2010) as the result of a lower intelligence quotient (IQ) of the Southern population. The present article discusses the procedure followed by Lynn, supplementing his data with new information on school assessments and per head regional income. Genetic North–S...
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The purpose of the article is to present the statistical reconstruction of a series of per capita output in central—northern Italy between 1300 and 1913. The various phases of both the statistical procedure and the results are presented and discussed. From the Renaissance until the 1880s, when modern growth starts, the curve of per capita GDP is do...
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Full-text available
The transformation of the energy system during the period between the 16th and 19th centuries was the necessary, al-though not sufficient, condition of modern growth, first in Euro pe and then in the rest of the World. The transition to alternative forms of energy was prompted by the decline in per capita energy availability in early modern Europe...
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Giugno 2011 – Per spiegare le origini e la natura del divario economico fra il Nord e il Sud d'Italia, sono state richiamate differenze storiche remote tra le due aree: nella struttura genetica, nei comportamenti sociali, nell'evolu-zione istituzionale 1 . Noi non ci proponiamo di risalire così indietro nel tempo. A nostro avviso il divario fra le...
Chapter
The nineteenth century marks the passage of Europe from a civilization based on agriculture and the countryside to a civilization based on industry, services, and cities. Urbanization was one of the main changes taking place during the modernization of the last two centuries. In the past, a dualistic economy and society prevailed, and the urban and...
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This article sets the background for the contributions collected in this issue, comments on the statistical data and discusses the chronology of Italy's economic history in a long-term macroeconomic perspective. The following topics are addressed: the rise in productive capacity; structural change and the periodization of challenges and responses....
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Tutte le società – scrisse Claude Lévi-Strauss 1 – si basano su tre tipi fonda-mentali di scambio: lo scambio delle donne da una famiglia all'altra; lo scam-bio delle informazioni; lo scambio di beni economici fra individui, famiglie, gruppi. La teoria economica e la storia economica si occupano in prevalenza del ter-zo tipo di scambio; «in prevale...
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The shock of the old: technology and global history since 1900 By EdgertonDavid. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp. xviii + 270. Hardback US$26.00, ISBN 9780195322835. - Volume 3 Issue 1 - Paolo Malanima
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This article examines energy consumption in Sweden, Holland, Italy and Spain over 200 years, including both traditional and modern energy carriers. The analysis is based on totally new series of energy consumption including traditional carriers along with modern sources. Our main purposes are a closer examination of the process of the energy transi...
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The article presents the yearly series of Italian regional per capita product in the period 1891-2004. An estimate is also provided of the product in the North and South from 1861 until today. The following periods are singled out in the series of product: 1861-1913: formation of regional disparities with the start of modern growth; 1920-39: deepen...
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The present article adopts a comparative perspective contrasting the agricultural civilization of Europe with the agricultural civilizations of other regions to understand the reasons for Europe s transition to modern energy carriers. In Europe especially in the West and North specific ecological conditions determined a stronger need for energy tha...
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Se guardiamo all'economia dal punto di vista del prodotto pro capite, l'epoca che va dalla metà del Settecento fino all'Unità costuisce, per l'Italia, un lungo periodo di declino economico, con brevi intervalli di recupero. Questa tesi viene sostenuta sulla base di una ricostruzione dell'an damento della popolazione, dei prezzi, dei salari, e, infi...
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This article provides an overview of Italian urbanisation between 1000 and 2000, which may help in distinguishing the main phases of Italian economic history. In this millennium, three epochs can be singled out: from the tenth century to 1300 50; from 1300 50 to 1860 70; and from 1860 70 to 2000. While the first phase is characterised by slow progr...
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La revisione delle stime della popolazione nell'antichità romana consente di porre in una nuova luce il tema delle relazioni fra uomini ed economia in Italia nel lungo periodo. Nell'articolo viene presentata l'evoluzione demografica dell'Italia dal III secolo a.C. fino al 1900. Vengono poi discusse le relazioni uomini-economia. La conclusione è che...
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This article provides an overview of Italian urbanisation between  and , which may help in distinguishing the main phases of Italian economic history. In this millennium, three epochs can be singled out: from the tenth century to –; from – to –; and from – to . While the first phase is characterised by slow progr...
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This article estimates agricultural production and output per worker in Italy, from about the year 1000 to the present. The millennium may be divided neatly into three periods. Output per worker increased until the fourteenth century, declined, with some fluctuations, until the end of the nineteenth century, and then recovered, booming in the past...
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Solo dalla fine del XVI secolo è attualmente possib ile ricostruire la dinamica demografica della Toscana utilizzando la tecnica della proiezio ne inversa. A partire dall'inizio del XIV secolo disponiamo, tuttavia, di numerose informazio ni, tali da consentire di delineare, in maniera sufficientemente attendibile, i caratteri d el popolamento e del...
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Paolo Malanima, Una miniera da sfruttare, p. 119-123. Mentre gli storici del Medioevo hanno una lunga consuetudine nell'uso delle fonti notarili, quelli dell'eta moderna e contemporanea, fino ad un'epoca assai vicina a noi, hanno struttato queste stesse fonti in maniera occasionale. Solo di recente si e passati a un'utilizzazione piu sistematica de...
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Il tema dell'urbanizzazione italiana è stato oggetto di analisi da parte di De Vries e Bairoch in due opere sulle città europee pubblicate nel 1984 e nel 1988. L'evoluzione urbana dell'Italia richiede, comunque, un approfondimento, specialmente per l'età tardo-medievale. Questo saggio propone una ricostruzione d'insieme dell'urbanizzazione italiana...
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For about three centuries, from 1300 to 1600, the leader European economy was the Italian one. At the end of the XVIth century, the economic system still revealed the features of its supremacy: high per capita product, high wages, high prices, large exports of industrial goods and commercial and banking services. The equilibrium of the economic sys...
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The fulling mill is considered as the first important complex textile technique to be developed in Europe. The spread of the fulling mill is followed, from its origin in central Italy about the middle of the tenth century up to the thirteenth century when this new process had reached all the principal European regions. Factors in the thirteenth cen...
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ABSTRACT The Italian Renaissance Economy 1250-1600 Paolo Malanima The aim of the paper is the analysis of the Italian economy from the 13th century until the end of the 16th. A quantification of the output both in Italian agriculture on one hand and secondary and tertiary sectors on the other is provided for the first time. The reconstruction of...
Article
Full-text available
The paper examines energy consumption in Sweden, Holland, Italy and Spain over 200 years, including both traditional and modern energy car- riers. The article is based on totally new series of energy consumption in- cluding traditional carriers along with modern sources. Our main purposes are a closer examination of the process of the energy transi...
Article
Full-text available
The paper focuses on energy transitions in Europe over the last four centuries. Special attention is given to the models of theoretical explanations for the historical energy transitions and how these may be empirically assessed. The twin model of serial substitutions (supply side) and energy ladder (demand side) does not provide enough of an econo...

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