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Chemical oxidation is a process involving the transfer of electrons from an oxidizing reagent to the chemical species being oxidized. In water and wastewater engineering, chemical oxidation serves the purpose of converting putrescible pollutant substances to innocuous or stabilized products. Chemical oxidation processes take place in natural waters...
Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine are the elements of the halogen family. Fluorine, in its oxidizing form, has no practical value in water or wastewater treatment systems. Of the other three, chlorine is by far the commonly used and thus will receive most of attention in this chapter.
Scientists continuously look for suitable indicators to measure the impact of humans on the ecosystem. Ideally, such indicators should also be suited as benchmarks for ascertaining the effects of administrative policies. One such indicator is the Ecological Footprint, which although it has a short history, has gained a widespread popularity. Since...
Electronic waste E-waste, including all obsolete electronic products, has become the fastest growing component in the solid waste stream. Personal computers PCs—the most significant component in E-waste stream—were studied for their potential leaching toxicity of contaminants. All the components in a PC that are composed of, or contain printed wire...
In this study, Galerkin's finite element method is used to analyze the transport of a pollutant in a three-dimensional aquifer system. The collection of water quality data is expensive, and to gather information on the migration of contaminant plumes under field conditions is a lengthy process. Therefore, a numerical model is an excellent complemen...