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Recent studies have shown that diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI (DWI-FLAIR) mismatch is useful for thrombolytic treatment decisions in acute ischemic stroke. However, the role of partial mismatch in strategic locations among patients with evolving stroke has not been described before. Partial imaging mismatch involving strategic locations might indicate reversible ischemia, enabling thrombolysis even in those patients presenting in the extended time windows. In this report, we describe the partial strategic concept of DWI-FLAIR mismatch with case examples.
Background The purpose of this study was to compare the Image Quality, Contrast Medium Volume, and Radiation dose in renal angiography performed using Turbo Flash mode and dual-energy (DE) mode in the third-generation dual-source dual-energy CT. This prospective observational study was performed on renal donors who underwent CTA imaging as a pre-transplant workup. The study population was divided into two groups. Group A underwent DECT renal angiography. Group B underwent Turbo Flash Mode CT renal angiography. For group A, a contrast volume of 1 ml/kg and for group B at 0.5 ml/kg was administered. Image Quality was evaluated objectively by calculating CNR and SNR and subjectively by a 5-point scale. Radiation Dose analysis was done by noting CTDIvol and DLP on the scanner system and calculating effective radiation dose (ED). Results The subjective image quality scores for the Turbo Flash group were comparable with the DE group in qualitative image analysis. Additionally, in the Turbo Flash group, there was a reduction in contrast media and effective radiation dose by 47.5% and 32.7%, respectively. Nevertheless, mean attenuation of the abdominal arteries, CNR, SNR, and Noise (S.D) showed statistical significance between the two groups ( p value < 0.01). Conclusions To our knowledge, no previous study compared Turboflash mode with DE protocol in CT renal angiography in a donor group of patients. Turbo Flash CT is an excellent modality that is faster and has an added advantage of decreased radiation dose and contrast media volume reduction, which can be recommended for screening of voluntary kidney donors but needs further clinical studies, validation, and standardization with tailored protocols.
Background: Imaging of acute stroke patients in emergency settings is critical for treatment decisions. Most commonly, CT with CTA is used worldwide for acute stroke. However, MRI may be advantageous in certain settings. With advancements in endovascular clot retrieval techniques, there is a need to identify and use the best possible imaging for the diagnosis and outcome prediction of hyperacute stroke. Methods: This mixed retrospective and prospective observational study was conducted over 2 years in patients who underwent reperfusion therapies. Patients were included in this study if they had a baseline as well as follow-up noncontrast CT and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) MRI. We compared them for estimating final infarct size and outcomes after reperfusion therapy. Results: A total of 86 patients were included in the study. Baseline DWI found new infarcts in 33 patients compared to baseline CT. Sensitivity and specificity of CT and DWI in predicting the final infarct size was 75.3% and 76.9% and 97.2% and 92.3%, respectively. A positive correlation of 51.2% and 84.4% was noted between b-CT Alberta stroke programme early CT score (ASPECTS) and b-DWI with 72 hours DWI ASPECTS, respectively (p < 0.001). The positive predictive value of CT was 94.8% and DWI was 98.6%. None of the patients had reversible hyperintensities in the follow-up DWI. Conclusion: MRI is more sensitive and specific than noncontrast CT in predicting final infarct volume. It predicts final outcomes better and could be an alternative if available in acute stroke settings.
Background/purpose: Following endovascular intervention for stroke, hyperattenuated areas are common in brain parenchyma and it is difficult to differentiate on non-contrast CT whether it is contrast staining or reperfusion hemorrhage. Differentiation between contrast staining from reperfusion hemorrhage is of paramount importance for early initiation of antiplatelets and/or anticoagulants to prevent reocclusion of vessel. This study demonstrates signal characteristics of contrast-staining and reperfusion hemorrhage on susceptibility weighted MRI and its role to differentiate between two. Materials/methods: Between July 2017 to March 2019, 36 patients who presented with acute ischemic stroke due to large vessel occlusion underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Low-osmolar non-ionic (Iopromide 300 mg/L) iodinated contrast was used in all patients who underwent endovascular intervention. All patients underwent noncontrast CT brain and SWI on 3T MRI within 30 minutes of endovascular intervention. MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists. Reperfusion hemorrhage was defined as ECASS criteria II. Symptomatic ICH was defined as hemorrhagic transformation temporally related to a negative shift in NIHSS score >/=4. Results: Out of 36 patients, 15 had hyperattenuated areas in brain on NCCT. Out of 15, 13 patients had blooming on SWI, suggestive of bleed. Two patients had no blooming on SWI, suggestive of contrast staining. Two patients didnot show any hyperdensity on NCCT but blooming on SWI, suggestive of bleed. Conclusion: All patients with hyperdensity on NCCT secondary to bleed showed blooming on SWI whereas those with contrast staining didnot show any signal changes on SWI. Thus, it is possible to differentiate reperfusion hemorrhage from contrast staining using SWI MRI. The significance of SWI in normal CT may be low where a small bleed maynot have any clinical significance.
Purpose: The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the role of third-generation, dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in the characterization of renal calculi, with ex vivo renal stone evaluation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (IS) as the reference standard. Material and methods: In our study 50 patients with history suggestive of renal calculi were subjected to DECT using 100 kVp and Sn150 kVp. With DECT, renal stone attenuation at low and high kVp was attained, and the attenuation ratios were measured. The result of DECT was compared with IS to identify the chemical composition of the extracted renal stones. IBM SPSS version 22 was used for statistical analysis. Results: In our study, the mean attenuation ratio of the renal stone was 1.57 ± 0.25. Out of 50 patients, the stones of 39 patients were predicted as calcium-containing stones, in 4 patients as cystine stones, and in 7 as uric acid stones on DECT. In IS analysis, 43 patients had calcium-containing stones, and 7 patients had uric acid stones. The accuracy rate of DECT for detecting calcium and uric acid stones in our study were 90% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value for the DECT to assess the chemical composition of renal calculi was found to be 92%. Conclusions: Third-generation DECT scan had 100% accuracy in differentiating uric acid stones from non-uric acid stones in our study. Because the treatment is different for different chemical compositions of stones, identification of specific chemical components is very important, and it can be accurately done by DECT.
Computed tomography (CT) has undergone a phenomenal evolution since its introduction in 1971 and has revolutionized diagnostic radiology. It is now the cornerstone of diagnostic imaging and has become an inevitable part of the management of patients. Among all the advancements and breakthroughs witnessed over the years, the most recent and most advanced is the dual-energy CT (DECT), also known as spectral CT, introduced in 2006. In DECT, two datasets are obtained by scanning with two different energy spectra (low and high energy). The difference in attenuation can differentiate materials with different elemental compositions but similar attenuation in single-energy CT. Therefore, it has widespread clinical applications based on its potential for material decomposition and virtual monoenergetic imaging. In this review, the principle and hardware of DECT will be presented with an overview of its clinical applications.
Objectives Our objective was to analyze the clinical presentation, imaging findings, and the management of segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM) in different case scenarios within our medical institution. Materials and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 13 cases of SAM in our institution from July 2017 to March 2020. The images from the cases were collected from picture archiving and communication system (PACS) along with other pertinent clinical information from the hospital's information system. All the patients we studied underwent contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) using a third-generation Siemens SOMATOM Force dual-source CT scanner. Once the dual-phase scanning was completed, the images were analyzed using the workstation's syngo.via software. Results Three out of the 13 cases required stent-grafting of the renal/celiac artery, and the involved branch of the superior mesenteric artery was embolized in one case. The rest of the cases were managed conservatively with antiplatelets/anticoagulants. Subsequent follow-ups of the patients were conducted and showed stabilization/regression of the initial findings without finding any evidence of worsening. Conclusion SAM should be considered when making a differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain when associated with dissection or aneurysms in splanchnic arteries, and in cases of unexplained intra-abdominal hemorrhaging. The radiologist needs to be aware of this possibility to raise suspicion, alert the clinician, and guide appropriate management.
Purpose: Our study aimed to compare the sensitivity of T2 relaxometry and positron emission tomography - computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with a history suggestive of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using video electroencephalography (EEG) as the reference standard. Material and methods: In our study, 35 patients with a history suggestive of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were subjected to conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), T2 relaxometry, and PET/CT. The results of each of the studies were compared with video EEG findings. Analyses were performed by using statistical software (SPSS version 20.0 for windows), and the sensitivity of conventional MRI, T2 relaxometry, and PET/CT were calculated. Results: The sensitivity of qualitative MRI (atrophy and T2 hyperintensity), quantitative MRI (T2 relaxometry), and PET/CT in lateralizing the seizure focus were 68.6% (n = 24), 85.7% (n = 30), and 88.6% (n = 31), respectively. Conclusions: The sensitivity of MRI in lateralization and localization of seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy can be increased by adding the quantitative parameter (T2 relaxometry) with the conventional sequences. T2 Relaxometry is comparable to PET/CT for localization and lateralization of seizure focus and is a useful tool in the workup of TLE patients.
May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) is a venous compression syndrome in which the left common iliac vein (LCIV) is compressed between the lower lumbar spine and the right common iliac artery (RCIA). Variations are known where in the right lower limb can be affected. While most of the cases are asymptomatic, it can cause severe morbidity in symptomatic individuals, most commonly deep vein thrombosis and post thrombotic sequelae. In this article, we review the key clinical features, multimodality imaging findings and treatment options of this disorder. Our goal is to raise awareness of this under-diagnosed condition among clinicians in order to promote early detection and recognition to enhance positive and expedited outcomes.
Background Arterial spin labelling (ASL) is a noncontrast, magnetic resonance perfusion technique which can provide information about the parenchymal perfusion status and collaterals in acute stroke. Its role in the setting of large vessel occlusion (LVO) is underutilized due to the limited availability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the emergency settings. However, it might serve as an useful adjunct to other perfusion modalities in future. Objective To study ASL perfusion patterns in anterior circulation LVO stroke and evaluate the presence of arterial transit artefacts (ATA) as a surrogate marker of collaterals. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of our mechanical thrombectomy database over the last 2 years for acute stroke cases in which ASL perfusion as part of MRI was performed. ASL perfusion patterns in acute LVO stroke were reviewed, with respect to presence of ATA and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI)-ASL mismatch. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed between 2 readers of varying experience. Baseline variables were analyzed between those with and without ATA. Results Out of 95 patients, 78 had anterior circulation occlusions, among which 27 had ASL. Type I (with ATAs) was seen in 11 patients and all of these had DWI mismatch. Type II (without ATAs) was seen in 16 patients. Of these, 15 had mismatch with DWI and only 1 had no mismatch. Inter-rater reliability for the detection of ATA on ASL was substantial (Cohen’s k—0.64). No statistical significance was noted between ATA and clinical outcomes. Conclusion ASL patterns vary amongst patients with LVO stroke and can be classified based on the presence of ATA since resulting DWI mismatch actually indicates a pseudo-perfusion deficit.
Purpose: To prospectively estimate the reliability of B-mode ultrasonography and sonoelastography in differentiating benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes with cytological findings as to the reference standard. Materials and methods: A total of 50 patients referred for sonography for enlarged cervical lymph nodes were included in the study. They were subjected initially to B-mode ultrasonography and sonoelastography and later underwent fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the same sitting. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared. Results: Out of 50 cases, 33 were males, and 17 were females. On B-mode ultrasonography, 15 enlarged cervical lymph nodes were benign-looking and 35 were malignant-looking. When studied on elastography, 12 were benign-looking and 38 showed features of malignancy. However, when studied histopathologically, 18 were benign and 32 were malignant. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were compared, and the results were better in sonoelastography than B-mode ultrasonography. When both B-mode and sonoelastography were combined, an increase in the sensitivity for differentiation was achieved. However, a decrease in specificity was noted when both modalities were combined in our study, probably due to a significant number of patients with tuberculous cervical lymphadenopathy. Conclusion: In countries like India, where granulomatous infection like tuberculosis is prevalent, the combination of sonoelastography with B-mode ultrasonography has decreased specificity in the differentiation of benign and malignant cervical lymph nodes, and histopathology is always needed for the final confirmation of diagnosis. The decreased specificity on elastography is attributed to simultaneous coexisting inflammation and fibrosis in chronic granulomatous lymphadenopathy.
Purpose: Renal fibrosis is the most common cause of allograft failure in kidney transplantations. Evaluation of renal abnormalities has progressed considerably over the past years. Currently, the diagnosis of intrarenal fibrosis and quantification of its development with non-invasive assessment tools is possible. This may help in early detection of renal allograft dysfunction. This study sought to assess the efficacy of 2D real-time shear-wave elastography (SWE) in the quantitative measurement of renal allograft dysfunction. Methods: A total of 172 patients were included in our study. SWE was performed in all these patients just before renal allograft biopsy. The cortical elasticity was assessed and described in terms of Young's modulus (kPa). Banff histopathological grading obtained from transplant kidney tissue biopsy was taken as the reference standard. The potential correlation between SWE scores and Banff classification was performed. Results: There was a significant correlation between the Banff grade and mean SWE score, with a correlation coefficient of 0.665 (p < 0.001). The individual correlation coefficients of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with mean SWE score stood at 0.667 and 0.649 respectively (p < 0.001). The correlation of resistive indices was insignificant when compared to mean polar SWE score in respective poles and the Banff grading of fibrosis. Conclusions: Renal stiffness quantified by 2D SWE showed significant correlation with histopathological renal fibrosis. Thus, the study suggests that shear-wave elastography could be used as a surrogate marker for early detection of renal fibrosis.
Thoracic aortic injuries caused by high impact trauma are life-threatening and require emergent diagnosis and management. With improvement in the acute care services, an increasing number of such injuries are being managed such that patients survive to undergo definitive therapies. A high index of clinical suspicion is required to order appropriate imaging. Computed tomography angiography is used to classify the injuries and guide treatment strategy. While low-grade injuries might be managed conservatively, high-grade injuries require urgent surgical or endovascular intervention. Over the past decade, endovascular repair of the thoracic aorta with or without a surgical bypass has become the preferred treatment with reduced mortality and morbidity. Rapid advancements in the stent graft technology have reduced the anatomic barriers to endovascular therapy and increased the confidence of the operators. Detailed planning prior to the procedure, understanding of the anatomy, correct choice of hardware, and adherence to technical protocol are essential for a successful endovascular procedure. These patients are often young and the limited data on the long-term outcome of aortic stent grafts make a case for a robust follow-up protocol.
Liver can commonly get injured in blunt abdominal injury or secondary to penetrating injury. Often mortality is related to the delay in hemostasis. The combination of CT scanning to locate the site of bleed followed by embolization can be a lifesaving procedure in both the hemodynamically stable as well as unstable patients. Spleen, on the other hand, can be sacrificed in the face of a life-threatening hemorrhage. However, recent trends favor nonoperative management, whenever there is salvageable splenic parenchyma and embolization is an important adjunctive treatment.
Background We review our initial experience of India’s and Asia’s first mobile stroke unit (MSU) following the completion of its first year of operation. We outline the clinical care pathway integrating the MSU services using a case example taking readers along our clinical care workflow while highlighting the challenges faced in organizing and optimizing such services in India. Methods Retrospective review of data collected for all patients from March 2018 to February 2019 transported and treated within the MSU during the first year of its operation. Recent case example is reviewed highlighting complete comprehensive acute clinical care pathway from prehospital MSU services to advanced endovascular treatment with focus on challenges faced in developing nation for stroke care. Results The MSU was dispatched and utilized for 14 patients with clinical symptoms of acute stroke. These patients were predominantly males (64%) with median age of 59 years. Ischemic stroke was seen in 7 patients, hemorrhagic in 6, and 1 patient was classified as stroke mimic. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator was administered to 3 patients within MSU. Most of the patients’ treatment was initiated within 2 h of symptom onset and with the median time of patient contact (rendezvous) following stroke being 55 mins. Conclusion Retrospective review of Asia’s first MSU reveals its proof of concept in India. Although the number of patients availing treatment in MSU is low as compared to elsewhere in the world, increased public awareness with active government support including subsidizing treatment costs could accelerate development of optimal prehospital acute stroke care policy in India.
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to health care services including interventional radiology (IR). Treating COVID-19 infected patients became a priority; furthermore, government policies of differing elective procedures and the public’s fear of contacting COVID-19 have impacted IR workload worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the workflow in six vascular IR centers located across India. Methods The data were collected retrospectively from April 1 to June 30, 2020. All the six centers were staffed by the alumni of a single parent center located in India. Data was also collected from the same time period in 2019 for comparison. Results A total of 893 patients were treated from April 1 to June 30, 2019, and 419 were treated during the same period in 2020 during the pandemic, a 53% case volume reduction (95% CI:28. 56–129.44; p < 0.001). The month of April had the largest case volume reduction (66%, 95% CI: 13.57–50.43; p < 0.001). Elective procedures showed an 85% reduction (95% CI: 9.62–91.71; p < 0.001). Venous interventions showed the highest reduction of 76% (95% CI: 0.75–67.75; p < 0.001). Neurological emergencies, dialysis-related interventions, and nonvascular procedures did not show a significant change. No patient tested positive for COVID-19 prior to the procedure; however, one patient who was treated emergently was found to be positive later. Conclusion COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted IR practice across India. Workload reduction was more profound at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic with a gradual improvement over time.
Purpose: Applications of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging outside the brain have gained increasing importance in recent years, and recent studies have shown the usage of diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging in diagnosing pyelonephritis based on renal cortical and medullary apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of DW magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in comparison with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in diagnosing pyelonephritis. Material and methods: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted for a period of six months in a tertiary hospital in Coimbatore. All patients with clinical and laboratory diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, who were referred for radiological imaging (CECT), were taken into the study. Out of 112 patients with a clinical and laboratorial diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN), who underwent both DW MR and CECT, diagnosis of APN was made in 100 patients based on CECT, while in 12 cases the investigation (CECT) was negative. Finally, these 100 patients were included in the study. The validity of DW MR imaging in diagnosing APN was assessed by deriving sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value in comparison with CECT findings. Results: The validity report of DW MR imaging in the detection of APN showed a very high sensitivity (96-100%) and specificity (86-90%) and very low false positives (6-10%) and negatives (< 5%), and it also showed that in the areas of affected renal parenchyma ADC values were consistently lower compared to unaffected renal parenchyma. Conclusion: Based on the generated hypothesis, DW MR imaging of the kidneys seems to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of focal or diffuse infections within the kidney in comparison with CECT.
CT angiogram (CTA) has become the modality of choice for imaging of thoracic vascular pathologies, involving the aorta and the pulmonary arteries. Apart from showing exquisite details of these large arteries, pathologies and anatomic variants of their branches can also be studied to a great extent. The major branches of aortic arch can be affected by a wide variety of pathologies ranging from atherosclerosis to trauma and vasculitis. Bronchial arteries in spite of supplying only 1% of lung parenchyma can become hypertrophied in various congenital and acquired conditions, becoming an important source of collateral circulation as well as a source for life threatening hemoptysis. CT also plays an important role in diagnosis of vascular compression at the thoracic outlet. With advances in CT technology, the acquisition, interpretation and clinical applications of CT angiography will continue to grow in the years to come.
Arterio-portal fistulas (APFs) are characterized by anomalous communication between arteries and the portal vein (PV) system. Treatment of APF is imperative as an emergency or if there is development of portal hypertension/heart failure in chronic cases. Both endovascular and surgical managements can be attempted, however since endovascular management carries comparatively low intra and post procedural morbidity it is mostly preferred. This is a case report on endovascular management of post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm arising from bifurcation of common hepatic artery with complete disruption of the gastroduodenal artery and high-flow APF. This report describes the intraprocedure challenges in exclusion of fistula from the circulation, without disruption of portal system and anticipation of recruitment of new collateral feeders to the fistula immediate post exclusion with its embolization, which needs appropriate positioning of the catheter prior to exclusion of the fistula.
Coronary arteriovenous (AV) fistulae are rare congenital anomalies and encompass a wide variety of communications between the coronary artery and the pulmonary or systemic vasculature. Symptoms depend on the presence and severity of myocardial malperfusion secondary to coronary artery steal phenomenon at rest or exertion. These fistulae are traditionally treated by open surgery. Endovascular therapy has been reported with the use of fibered coils. We report a case of a large left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery to the main pulmonary artery fistula that was incidentally discovered during a preoperative work up in a 28-year-old woman. The fistula was successfully treated with detachable balloons, however the patient developed delayed thrombosis of the coronary artery after 7 years of endovascular therapy requiring surgical bypass to the coronary artery.
Intracranial interventions comprise a set of procedures, which are complex and challenging. Further, they are extremely risky because complications in the brain are usually associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Thus, a clear understanding is necessary to handle tortuous vessels because improper planning can result in a higher rate of complications. The combination of long sheaths, specialty wires, and preshaped catheters can enable us to access some of the most complex vascular anatomy. There are several conditions that can contribute to a difficult access. There are few techniques described by different authors. The authors have listed the techniques found useful based on their experience. These challenges include tortuous iliac arteries, dilated tortuous aortic arch, acute takeoff of the arch vessels, tortuous neck vessels with prominent loops, crossing a large aneurysm, extensive peripheral vascular disease, etc.
Presence of ischemic penumbra is the principal factor that decides the need for mechanical thrombectomy in acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion. Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of arterial spin labeling (ASL) in detecting diffusion perfusion mismatch and directing patients into mechanical thrombectomy. We retrospectively studied all patients with acute nonhemorrhagic stroke in the anterior circulation, who had undergone stroke imaging with ASL followed by mechanical thrombectomy from July 2016 to November 2016. Area of diffusion perfusion mismatch was graded semiquantitatively into three grades: small, medium, and large. Mismatch was compared with 30-day modified Rankin scale (mRS) score. Interpretable PASL-perfusion images were obtained in all patients. Diffusion perfusion mismatches were present in all patients. Out of six patients with good mRS score, five patients had large diffusion perfusion mismatch. Two out of three patients with poor mRS were secondary to failed recanalization, in spite of large mismatch. One out of nine patients had poor outcome as well as a small area of mismatch. ASL is a rapid noninvasive imaging technique in acute stroke that has got the potential to detect ischemic penumbra.
Blood blister aneurysms are extremely rare, and its treatment continues to be controversial. Although surgery was the only available treatment a decade ago, today newer endovascular devices such as flow diverters (FDs) appears to have very low complication rates with good long-term results. We analyzed our data of seven patients who angiographically had features of a blister aneurysm. All these patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Six of these were in anterior circulation, all of which were in internal carotid artery (ICA) and one was in a P1 segment of posterior cerebral artery (PCA). All of the patients except one in PCA were treated with FDs. One of the patients died (14.3%) following the procedure secondary to thrombosis of FD. Rest of the patients did well postprocedure with the good clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] of less than or equal to 2 at 1-month follow-up) in 85.7% patients. Five of the patients showed complete obliteration of an aneurysm (83.3%) on 6-month follow-up angiography. The only patient with an aneurysm in PCA showed persistence of an aneurysm and this particular lesion was instead treated by a single stent. Blister aneurysms pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and demand prompt treatment. Considering that all patients who were treated with FD had complete obliteration, it can be inferred that FD can be the treatment of choice in patients with blister aneurysms presenting with SAH. Further, with the introduction of small vessel FD, thrombotic complications may reduce, lowering the morbidity and mortality. Isolated stenting may not be an optimal treatment of a blister aneurysm.
Purpose Acute ischemic stroke was not long ago the territory of the neurologist, where the endovascular surgeon had only started baby steps. The scenario has completely changed post-2015 and now mechanical thrombectomy holds centerstage of the treatment guidelines. The two basic techniques for clot retrieval are the stent retriever thrombectomy and a direct aspiration first-pass technique. Use of one device as an adjunct to the other also has a passing mention in the trials. Tandem occlusions pose issues in accessing the target vessel for clot retrieval, and emergency stenting of the carotid pathway opens further avenues in stroke care. Cases The authors present four cases of acute ischemic stroke, three of them involving the anterior circulation and one involving the basilar artery. All the cases underwent endovascular therapy, albeit with different techniques. Through the cases, they present the current technology, and its implementation and challenges faced by the interventional radiologist. Conclusion The availability of a diverse technical repertoire helps in tackling specific scenarios facing the stroke interventionist. The levels of evidence vary for the different weapons at hand, but it is not long before endovascular intervention becomes the panacea for stroke.
Flow diversion is a novel method of therapy wherein an endoluminal sleeve, the flow diverter stent is placed across the neck of complex aneurysms to curatively reconstruct abnormal vasculature. We present the first Indian single center experience with the pipeline embolization device (PED) and 6 months follow-up results of 5 patients. Five complex or recurrent intracranial aneurysms in five patients were treated with PED. The patients were followed-up with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) after 4 weeks and conventional angiography after 6 months. Feasibility, complications, clinical outcome, early 1-month MRA and 6 months conventional angiographic follow-up results were analyzed. Of the five aneurysms treated, four were in the anterior circulation and one in the posterior circulation. All five patients were treated with a single PED in each, and additionally coils were used in one patient. At 1-month MRA follow-up, complete occlusion was seen in 2 (40%) of the five cases. Post 6 months conventional angiography showed complete occlusion of the aneurysm sac in all five cases (100%). Side branch ostia were covered in three patients, all of which were patent (100%). There was no incidence of major neurological morbidity or mortality. One patient (20%) who had basilar top aneurysm experienced minor neurological disability after 5 days which partially improved. Pipeline embolization device for complex and recurrent aneurysms is technically feasible, safe, offers low complication rate, and definitive vascular reconstruction. PED can be used without fear of occlusion of covered eloquent side branches and perforators.
The incidence of varicose veins in lower limbs is increasing in the Indian subcontinent. With the advent of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), an effective minimally invasive technique is now available to treat varicose veins. RFA can be performed with either unipolar or bipolar probes. We present a simple technique for bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy of the great saphenous vein. This can be a safe and effective alternative to surgical procedures.
Treatment of Type 1 carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is complex and endovascular stent grafting is proving to be an excellent technique not only in successful treatment of fistula but also preserving patency of parent artery. We describe our initial experience in the use of covered coronary stent grafts in the treatment of three patients with Type 1 post-traumatic CCF. All patients were successfully treated with placement of stent grafts. Immediate closure of fistula was achieved in all the three patients. One patient developed partial in-stent thrombosis. In this patient antiplatelet therapy had to be stopped as he developed a small intracerebral hematoma post procedure. Subsequently, he was restarted on antiplatelets and recovered completely. Except for this no other complication was observed. Covered stent grafts may be the procedure of choice for treatment of post-traumatic Type 1 CCF especially in young patients with favorable anatomy.
Although the treatment of intracranial aneurysms has made significant advances, prediction of outcomes in poor grades has always been difficult. We present our findings of patients in poor clinical and SAH grade treated with endovascular coiling. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients presenting with poorer neurological and SAH grades treated by endovascular techniques. Of 190 patients who presented with SAH over a period of nine years, 34 were of poorer clinical grade (Hunt & Hess Grades 4 and 5), of whom 30 presented with H&H grade 4 and four with grade 5. 44.1% of the 34 patients belonged to Fischer grade 4. We assessed the technical success and final outcomes based on the Glasgow outcome scale. Of the 30 patients with grade 4, 81.4% had a good outcome. Two out of four patients with grade 5 had a poor outcome. 82.5% of the patients with Fischer grade 4 had a good outcome. None of the poor outcomes were procedure-related. Endovascular treatment with its higher rates of technical success, lower complication rates and better outcomes should be recommended as the treatment of choice in patients with intracranial aneurysms even in patients with poorer clinical and SAH grades.
There have been significant advances in the technical aspects of endovascular therapy of cerebral aneurysms. Anterior communicating artery (Acom A) aneurysms were traditionally treated by surgical clipping. Endovascular coiling has the distinct advantage of being minimally invasive and can be performed anytime during the course of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). To evaluate the results of endovascular coiling of Acom A aneurysms in the early post-rupture period. Between June 1999 and December 2009, 103 Acom A aneurysms were treated with endovascular coiling. All the patients underwent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and a diagnostic 3D rotational angiogram (3D-RA), followed by coiling using dedicated intracranial coils. Of the 103 patients coiled, 52% presented in Fischer grade 3/4 SAH and 13.5% in Hunt and Hess grade 4/5. Technical success was 98%. Complete obliteration of the aneurysm was achieved in 97 (94%) patients. Only one patient died of direct procedure-related complication due to coil prolapse. None of the patients had rebleeds. Six-month check angiogram performed in 34 patients showed significant recanalization in one patient. Ruptured Acom A aneurysms are implicated in majority of cases of SAH. Our results support the latest guideline "that endovascular coil occlusion of the aneurysm is appropriate for patients with a ruptured cerebral artery aneurysm that is deemed treatable either by endovascular coiling or by surgical clipping."
Bronchial artery embolization may be the only life-saving procedure available in a patient presenting with massive hemoptysis. Rarely, selective catheterization of these vessels may be rendered difficult due to a stenotic ostium. This may result in closure of the vessel or absence of forward flow after the stenotic segment is crossed with a diagnostic catheter or a microcatheter. Further, it may also lead to recurrence of hemoptysis if the distal vessel and the prearteriolar bed are inadequately embolized. We describe a technique of selective cannulation of the stenotic vessel, dilatation of the stenosis and then successful embolization.
Migration of endovascular coils from aneurysms has been reported in the past. How- ever, we report a case where the entire coil mass migrated out of the aneurysm into the anterior cerebral artery with associated doubling of aneurysm diameter in the intervening two weeks period post-coiling.
The diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding are complicated. A multitude of pathologic processes results in GI bleeding, and often, the bleeding is intermittent in nature. Of the available diagnostic tools, angiography has been the gold standard. Management of patients requires a multidisciplinary approach involving gastroenterologists, interventional radiologists, and surgeons. Therapeutic arterial interventions include pharmacologic control with the use of intraarterial vasopressin, embolization with temporary and permanent embolizing materials, and catheter-induced vasospasm.
Objective: To study the effectiveness and safety of USG-guided ethanol sclerotherapy in cystic thyroid nodules. Materials and Methods: USG of the thyroid gland was performed in 54 patients suspected to have a thyroid nodule on clinical examination. All patients with a predominantly cystic nodule (i.e., when >2/3rd of the nodule was cystic) were included in the study. Ethanol was injected into the cyst under USG guidance. The amount of ethanol injected was about 50% of the amount of aspirated fluid. Follow-up USG was done every month for 3 months; ethanol was re-injected when there was no significant reduction in the cyst volume. The initial cyst volume was compared with the final volume; statistical significance was assessed using the paired t-test. Results: USG revealed predominant cystic nodules in 16 of the 54 patients. Fifteen patients were selected for the study. Following ethanol sclerotherapy, four out of the 15 patients (26.6%) showed complete disappearance of the cyst and nine (60%) showed significant reduction in the cyst volume (i.e., reduction of cyst volume by ≥50% of initial volume). Only two patients did not show significant reduction in cyst volume; both these patients had nodules with an initial volume of ≥20 cc. There were no complications attributable to ethanol injection during follow-up. Conclusion: Ethanol sclerotherapy is an effective and safe treatment for benign cystic thyroid nodules with volumes of <20 cc. Cystic nodules with volume >20 cc may need more number of alcohol injections and longer follow-up.
Several angiographic techniques have been developed to image the arterial system, the commonest using iodinated contrast media. Useful as they may be, they are not without disadvantages. One other modality is angiography using CO 2 . Although CO 2 can be used as an alternative contrast medium, delivery systems are expensive to procure. We describe an indigenous and effective delivery system developed at our institute.
Peripheral vascular diseases (PVD) are referred to as diseases affecting the blood vessels other than the heart and the brain. Interventional endovascular treatment whenever feasible has become the first line of management in the treatment of PVD. Interventions may be aimed at either revascularization or deliberate occlusion of a diseased vessel(s). This article reviews the various peripheral vascular diseases with their appropriate endovascular management.
Isolated cerebellar malformations are relatively rare CNS anomalies, when they do occur they are frequently symptomatic. Some cases of asymptomatic cerebellar malformations have been reported. Unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia is one such entity. We describe a case of unilateral cerebellar hypoplasia presenting with non-specific neurological complaints.